表紙:砂糖不使用クッキーの世界市場-2023年~2030年
市場調査レポート
商品コード
1372570

砂糖不使用クッキーの世界市場-2023年~2030年

Global Sugar-Free Cookies Market - 2023-2030

出版日: | 発行: DataM Intelligence | ページ情報: 英文 234 Pages | 納期: 約2営業日

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価格
価格表記: USDを日本円(税抜)に換算
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=151.55円
砂糖不使用クッキーの世界市場-2023年~2030年
出版日: 2023年10月18日
発行: DataM Intelligence
ページ情報: 英文 234 Pages
納期: 約2営業日
ご注意事項 :
本レポートは最新情報反映のため適宜更新し、内容構成変更を行う場合があります。ご検討の際はお問い合わせください。
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 目次
概要

概要

砂糖不使用クッキーの世界市場は2022年に58億米ドルに達し、2023~2030年の予測期間中にCAGR 6.5%で成長し、2030年には96億米ドルに達すると予測されます。

砂糖の大量消費に関連する健康問題の増加が、低糖または砂糖不使用製品のニーズを促進しています。ベーカリーや菓子類を含む食品カテゴリーの各分野で無糖製品に対する需要の高まりが、市場成長をプラスに高める。世界的に、消費者は糖尿病や肥満の有病率の増加によりカロリー摂取量を気にするようになり、砂糖代替品を手にするようになっています。

コミュニティ・ソーシャルメディア・プラットフォームが実施した調査によると、インドの都市人口の38%が毎月人工甘味料を消費しています。カロリーや糖分の厳格な摂取を維持するために人工甘味料が広く受け入れられていることは、メーカーが認証された人工甘味料を製品に使用する意欲を高めるため、市場にプラスの影響を与えます。

無糖クッキーの拡大への新興企業の積極的な参加は急速に増加しています。新興企業による様々な無糖クッキーの製品開拓は市場成長にプラスの影響を与えています。例えば、2023年3月、新興企業のNutri Food Companyは、食物繊維とタンパク質をより多く含むNutri Boost Cookiesを発表しました。この新製品は味と風味がよく、砂糖不使用です。

力学

低糖質製品に対する需要の増加

砂糖を多く含む製品の摂取は、その高カロリーにより肥満や糖尿病といった健康リスクの増大につながります。世界保健機関(WHO)の2022年の統計によると、世界で10億人以上が肥満に苦しんでおり、6億5,000万人が成人、3億4,000万人が青少年です。WHOの2022年の統計によると、肥満の深刻さは子供にも増加しており、最大3,900万人を占めています。

IDF糖尿病アトラス2021によると、世界で5億3,700万人の成人が糖尿病を患っています。同団体の報告によると、有病率は急速に増加しており、2030年には6億4,300万人に達すると推定されています。世界的に肥満と糖尿病の有病率が高まる中、カロリー摂取を減らすための低糖または無糖製品のニーズが高まっています。

新製品の発売

砂糖不使用製品に対する需要は、メーカー各社が新しく革新的な製品を市場に投入する動機となっています。メーカーは、糖尿病患者や一般の人々の間食に適した、おいしくてヘルシーなクッキーを製造するために研究開発に投資しています。メーカー各社は、市場での製品価値を向上させるために、これらの製品の強化にさえ取り組んでいます。

2021年10月、Jnck Bakery社は、糖質90%オフ、飽和脂肪50%オフ、タンパク質3倍、食物繊維5倍のフレッシュで噛み応えのあるクッキーの発売を発表しました。この製品は、満腹感をもたらすエンドウ豆のタンパク質、腸の健康のためのプレバイオティック繊維、特注の低糖質プロテイン・チョコレートでできています。

2022年7月、ボストンを拠点とする新興企業FYYY Healthは、ビタミンたっぷりで罪悪感のないクッキーを市場に投入しました。この製品には豊富な食物繊維と低炭水化物が詰まっています。この低糖質クッキーにはビタミンD、B12、亜鉛、マグネシウム、カルシウムが強化されており、消費者に健康的なクッキー体験を提供しています。

甘味料に関する健康上の懸念

砂糖不使用クッキーを製造する際、砂糖の代わりにメーカーはアスパルテーム、サッカリンなど様々な甘味料を使用します。これらの甘味料は、製品に大きな甘味の役割を与えるが、消費期間が長くなると健康への影響を引き起こす可能性もあります。アスパルテームのような人工甘味料は、偏頭痛や、がんや心臓の問題のような深刻な問題のような健康に悪影響を及ぼすと主張されています。

NIHによれば、アスパルテームの大量摂取は、気分障害、精神的ストレス、うつ病を引き起こす可能性があります。NIHはまた、長期的なサッカリンの摂取は、空腹感や食事量の増加により、肥満や糖尿病のリスクを高めると報告しています。甘味料の大量摂取に伴う健康への影響に関する消費者の意識の高まりは、これらの製品の市場成長を妨げる可能性があります。

目次

第1章 調査手法と調査範囲

第2章 定義と概要

第3章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第4章 市場力学

  • 影響要因
    • 促進要因
      • 低糖質製品に対する需要の増加
      • 新製品の発売
    • 抑制要因
      • 甘味料に関連する健康上の懸念
    • 機会
    • 影響分析

第5章 産業分析

  • ポーターのファイブフォース分析
  • サプライチェーン分析
  • 価格分析
  • 規制分析

第6章 COVID-19分析

第7章 製品別

  • バー
  • 成形品
  • ロール
  • ドロップ
  • その他

第8章 フレーバー別

  • ピーナッツバター
  • バニラ
  • チョコレート
  • その他

第9章 性質別

  • オーガニック
  • 従来型

第10章 甘味料別

  • ステビア
  • スクラロース
  • アスパルテーム
  • サッカリン
  • その他

第11章 流通チャネル別

  • ハイパーマーケット・スーパーマーケット
  • コンビニエンスストア
  • 専門店
  • eコマース
  • その他

第12章 地域別

  • 北米
    • 米国
    • カナダ
    • メキシコ
  • 欧州
    • ドイツ
    • 英国
    • フランス
    • イタリア
    • スペイン
    • その他の欧州
  • 南米
    • ブラジル
    • アルゼンチン
    • その他の南米
  • アジア太平洋
    • 中国
    • インド
    • 日本
    • オーストラリア
    • その他のアジア太平洋
  • 中東・アフリカ

第13章 競合情勢

  • 競合シナリオ
  • 市況/シェア分析
  • M&A分析

第14章 企業プロファイル

  • UNIBIC Foods
  • Diabliss Consumer Products Pvt., Ltd.
  • The Ferrero Group
  • Voortman Cookies
  • Aunt Gussie's Cookies & Crackers
  • Burton's Biscuit Company
  • Fat Snax
  • Good Dee's
  • Wellversed Health Private Limited
  • Galletas Gulln S.A.

第15章 付録

目次
Product Code: FB7282

Overview

Global Sugar-Free Cookies Market reached US$ 5.8 billion in 2022 and is expected to reach US$ 9.6 billion by 2030, growing with a CAGR of 6.5% during the forecast period 2023-2030.

Increasing health issues related to high sugar consumption are driving the need for low-sugar or sugar-free products. Rising demand for sugar-free products in every field of food categories including bakery and confectionery products, which positively increases the market growth. Globally, consumers are concerned about their calorie intake due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity and taking up sugar substitutes.

According to a survey conducted by a community social media platform, 38 per cent of the urban Indian population consume artificial sweeteners every month. The high acceptance of artificial sweeteners to maintain strict calorie and sugar intake positively impacts the market as manufacturers are motivated to use certified artificial sweeteners in their products.

The active participation of start-up companies in the expansion of sugar-free cookies is increasing rapidly. Various sugar-free cookie product developments from start-ups are positively influencing market growth. For instance, in March 2023, Nutri Food Company, a start-up introduced Nutri Boost Cookies, with better quantities of fiber and protein. This new product with good taste and flavor is free from sugar.

Dynamics

Increasing Demand for Low-Sugar Products

Consuming sugar-rich products leads to increased health risks like obesity and diabetes due to their high-calorie content. According to the World Health Organization 2022 statistics, more than 1 billion people globally are suffering from obesity, where 650 million people are adults and 340 million are adolescents. The severity of obesity is increasing in children too, accounting for up to 39 million according to 2022, WHO statistics.

According to IDF Diabetes Atlas 2021, 537 million adults are living with diabetes in the world. The organisation reports that the prevalence is increasing rapidly and is estimated to reach 643 million by 2030. With the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes globally, there is a greater need for low-sugar or sugar-free products to decrease calorie intake.

New Product Launches

The demand for sugar-free products is motivating manufacturers to introduce new and innovative products into the market. Manufacturers are investing in R&D to produce tasty and healthy cookies that can be used as a good snacking choice among diabetics and general people. Manufacturers are even going for the fortification of these products to improve the product value in the market.

In October 2021, Jnck Bakery announced the launch of a range of fresh, chewy cookies, which have 90% less sugar, 50% less saturated fat, three times more protein and five times more fibre than some existing products. The product is made of pea protein for satiation, prebiotic fibre for gut health and a bespoke, low-sugar, protein chocolate.

In July 2022, FYYY Health, a Boston-based startup, launched a vitamin-packed, guilt-free cookie into the market. The product is packed with rich fiber and low carbs. This low-sugar cookie is fortified with vitamins D, B12, zinc, magnesium and calcium providing a healthy cookie experience for the consumers.

Health Concerns Associated with Sweetening Agents

To replace sugar in the production of sugar-free cookies manufacturers use various sweetening agents such as aspartame, saccharin and others. These sweetening agents provide a greater sweetening role to the products, but may also induce some health effects on the longer consumption rates. Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame are claimed to have adverse effects on health such as migraines and some of the serious problems such as cancer and heart issues.

According to NIH, high consumption of aspartame can cause mood disorders, mental stress, and depression. NIH also reports that long-term saccharin consumption increases the risk of obesity and diabetes, due to increased hunger and food intake. The increasing consumer awareness regarding the health effects associated with the high intake of sweetening agents can hinder the market growth for these products.

Segment Analysis

The global sugar-free cookies market is segmented based on product, flavor, nature, sweetening agent, distribution channel and region.

High Taste Preference for Chocolate Cookies

The global sugar-free cookies market is segmented based on flavour into chocolate, vanilla, peanut butter and others. Chocolate-flavoured sugar-free cookies accounted for the largest share of the global market due to increased demand due to its taste and high preference among the majority of customers of all age groups.

The new product launches drive the market growth. For instance, in October 2021, Enlightened, the feel-good dessert brand, announced the introduction of its new collection of sugar-free ready-to-bake cookies. The product can help the customer enjoy freshly prepared oven-fresh cookies that are made with zero grams of added sugar.

Similarly, in March 2022, Voortman Cookies, a Canadian company specializing in the production and sale of cookies, increased its product offerings with the launch of zero-sugar mini treats. The new product lines include Zero Sugar Mini Cookies with different flavours including chocolate and vanilla offering customers with tasty and healthy cookie experience.

Geographical Penetration

Increased Health Consciousness Among Consumers in North America

North America dominated the global sugar-free cookies market. With increasing health concerns, health consciousness among consumers of this region is also increasing rapidly. Areas such as U.S., Canada and others are facing high lifestyle disorders. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2023, obesity affects over 41.9 % of adults and 19.7 % of children in the United States.

Similarly, according to the CDC, about 37.3 million Americans are suffering from diabetes, covering about 11.3 % of the United States population. With the increasing concerns about these lifestyle disorders, the demand for sugar-less products is increasing rapidly in this region, driving market growth and positively increasing the market growth.

The high recommendation from organizations to decrease sugar intake is promoting sugar-less products. The American Heart Association suggests a stricter added-sugar limit for all people. The organization recommends the strict restriction of less than 100 sugar calories per day for most adult women and less than 150 sugar calories per day for most men, motivating consumers to take sugar-less products.

Competitive Landscape

The major global players in the market include: UNIBIC Foods, Diabliss Consumer Products Pvt., Ltd., The Ferrero Group, Voortman Cookies, Aunt Gussie's Cookies & Crackers, Burton's Biscuit Company, Fat Snax, Good Dee's, Wellversed Health Private Limited and Galletas Gulln S.A.

COVID-19 Impact Analysis:

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the global sugar-free cookies market. Improper facilities such as reduced raw material sourcing and workforce facilities negatively affected the market growth temporarily. The strict lockdown regulations from the government interrupted the distribution of products into the market. The shutdown of offline stores greatly reduced the extruded product sales. The increased consumer health consciousness increased demand for diet products.

According to NIH 2020, obesity and diabetes are two major risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization. The organization stated that people with diabetes mellitus and severe obesity are more likely to get infected and are at a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. Among elderly patients who are at higher risk of death from COVID-19, 26.8% have diabetes mellitus.

People with obesity and diabetes are at higher risk for severe illness, causing them to be highly conscious about their dietary intake during the pandemic situation. Consumers started taking up low-sugar or sugarless products to maintain their sugar intake. The high demand for sugar-free products in various products such as cookies and other snack products positively impacted the market growth.

Russia- Ukraine War Impact

The Russia-Ukraine war greatly impacted several industrial sectors, including food. The war created import and export trade disruptions, resulting in economic disturbances. The supply chain activities were badly impacted, causing the disruption of demand-supply chain activities. The scarcity of raw materials and other essential resources paused the global market for various products, including sugar-free cookies.

By Product

  • Bar
  • Molded
  • Rolled
  • Drop
  • Others

By Flavor

  • Peanut Butter
  • Vanilla
  • Chocolate
  • Others

By Nature

  • Organic
  • Conventional

By Sweetening Agent

  • Stevia
  • Sucralose
  • Aspartame
  • Saccharin
  • Others

By Distribution Channel

  • Hypermarket/Supermarket
  • Convenience Stores
  • Specialty Store
  • E-Commerce
  • Others

By Region

  • North America
    • U.S.
    • Canada
    • Mexico
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • UK
    • France
    • Italy
    • Russia
    • Rest of Europe
  • South America
    • Brazil
    • Argentina
    • Rest of South America
  • Asia-Pacific
    • China
    • India
    • Japan
    • Australia
    • Rest of Asia-Pacific
  • Middle East and Africa

Key Developments

  • In April 2023, HighKey, a low-sugar baked snacks brand, launched a sugar-free sandwich cookie. The product is sugar-free and is featured with two crispy chocolate wafers around the vanilla cream layer.
  • In December 2022, an entrepreneur Jody Polishchuk, launched Sundays, the first zero-sugar creme cookie of the brand. The brand debuted with its first flavor, Cookies & Creme, which tastes just like the classic but contains no sugar and 7 grams of protein as a healthy option for the customers.
  • In September 2021, Mondelez International, one of the world's largest snack companies announced the launch of sugar-free Oreos in China exploring sugar-free snacking in the biscuit category.

Why Purchase the Report?

  • To visualize the global sugar-free cookies market segmentation based on product, flavor, nature, sweetening agent, distribution channel and region, as well as understand key commercial assets and players.
  • Identify commercial opportunities by analyzing trends and co-development.
  • Excel data sheet with numerous data points of sugar-free cookies market-level with all segments.
  • PDF report consists of a comprehensive analysis after exhaustive qualitative interviews and an in-depth study.
  • Product mapping available as excel consisting of key products of all the major players.

The global sugar-free cookies market report would provide approximately 77 tables, 80 figures and 234 Pages.

Target Audience 2023

  • Manufacturers/ Buyers
  • Industry Investors/Investment Bankers
  • Research Professionals
  • Emerging Companies

Table of Contents

1. Methodology and Scope

  • 1.1. Research Methodology
  • 1.2. Research Objective and Scope of the Report

2. Definition and Overview

3. Executive Summary

  • 3.1. Snippet by Product
  • 3.2. Snippet by Flavor
  • 3.3. Snippet by Nature
  • 3.4. Snippet by Sweetening Agent
  • 3.5. Snippet by Distribution Channel
  • 3.6. Snippet by Region

4. Dynamics

  • 4.1. Impacting Factors
    • 4.1.1. Drivers
      • 4.1.1.1. Increasing Demand for Low-Sugar Products
      • 4.1.1.2. New Product Launches
    • 4.1.2. Restraints
      • 4.1.2.1. Health Concerns Associated with Sweetening Agents
    • 4.1.3. Opportunity
    • 4.1.4. Impact Analysis

5. Industry Analysis

  • 5.1. Porter's Five Force Analysis
  • 5.2. Supply Chain Analysis
  • 5.3. Pricing Analysis
  • 5.4. Regulatory Analysis

6. COVID-19 Analysis

  • 6.1. Analysis of COVID-19
    • 6.1.1. Scenario Before COVID
    • 6.1.2. Scenario During COVID
    • 6.1.3. Scenario Post COVID
  • 6.2. Pricing Dynamics Amid COVID-19
  • 6.3. Demand-Supply Spectrum
  • 6.4. Government Initiatives Related to the Market During Pandemic
  • 6.5. Manufacturers Strategic Initiatives
  • 6.6. Conclusion

7. By Product

  • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 7.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Product
  • 7.2. Bar
    • 7.2.1. Introduction
    • 7.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 7.3. Molded
  • 7.4. Rolled
  • 7.5. Drop
  • 7.6. Others

8. By Flavor

  • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Flavor
    • 8.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Flavor
  • 8.2. Peanut Butter
    • 8.2.1. Introduction
    • 8.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 8.3. Vanilla
  • 8.4. Chocolate
  • 8.5. Others

9. By Nature

  • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Nature
    • 9.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Nature
  • 9.2. Organic
    • 9.2.1. Introduction
    • 9.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 9.3. Conventional

10. By Sweetening Agent

  • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Nature
    • 10.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Nature
  • 10.2. Stevia
    • 10.2.1. Introduction
    • 10.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 10.3. Sucralose
  • 10.4. Aspartame
  • 10.5. Saccharin
  • 10.6. Others

11. By Distribution Channel

  • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Distribution Channel
    • 11.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Distribution Channel
  • 11.2. Hypermarket/Supermarket
    • 11.2.1. Introduction
    • 11.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 11.3. Convenience Store
  • 11.4. Specialty Store
  • 11.5. E-Commerce
  • 11.6. Others

12. By Region

  • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Region
    • 12.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Region
  • 12.2. North America
    • 12.2.1. Introduction
    • 12.2.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 12.2.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 12.2.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Flavor
    • 12.2.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Nature
    • 12.2.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Sweetening Agent
    • 12.2.7. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Distribution Channel
    • 12.2.8. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 12.2.8.1. U.S.
      • 12.2.8.2. Canada
      • 12.2.8.3. Mexico
  • 12.3. Europe
    • 12.3.1. Introduction
    • 12.3.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 12.3.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 12.3.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Flavor
    • 12.3.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Nature
    • 12.3.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Sweetening Agent
    • 12.3.7. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Distribution Channel
    • 12.3.8. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 12.3.8.1. Germany
      • 12.3.8.2. U.K.
      • 12.3.8.3. France
      • 12.3.8.4. Italy
      • 12.3.8.5. Spain
      • 12.3.8.6. Rest of Europe
  • 12.4. South America
    • 12.4.1. Introduction
    • 12.4.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 12.4.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 12.4.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Flavor
    • 12.4.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Nature
    • 12.4.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Sweetening Agent
    • 12.4.7. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Distribution Channel
    • 12.4.8. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 12.4.8.1. Brazil
      • 12.4.8.2. Argentina
      • 12.4.8.3. Rest of South America
  • 12.5. Asia-Pacific
    • 12.5.1. Introduction
    • 12.5.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 12.5.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 12.5.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Flavor
    • 12.5.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Nature
    • 12.5.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Sweetening Agent
    • 12.5.7. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Distribution Channel
    • 12.5.8. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 12.5.8.1. China
      • 12.5.8.2. India
      • 12.5.8.3. Japan
      • 12.5.8.4. Australia
      • 12.5.8.5. Rest of Asia-Pacific
  • 12.6. Middle East and Africa
    • 12.6.1. Introduction
    • 12.6.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 12.6.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 12.6.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Flavor
    • 12.6.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Nature
    • 12.6.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Sweetening Agent
    • 12.6.7. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Distribution Channel

13. Competitive Landscape

  • 13.1. Competitive Scenario
  • 13.2. Market Positioning/Share Analysis
  • 13.3. Mergers and Acquisitions Analysis

14. Company Profiles

  • 14.1. UNIBIC Foods
    • 14.1.1. Company Overview
    • 14.1.2. Product Portfolio and Description
    • 14.1.3. Financial Overview
    • 14.1.4. Key Developments
  • 14.2. Diabliss Consumer Products Pvt., Ltd.
  • 14.3. The Ferrero Group
  • 14.4. Voortman Cookies
  • 14.5. Aunt Gussie's Cookies & Crackers
  • 14.6. Burton's Biscuit Company
  • 14.7. Fat Snax
  • 14.8. Good Dee's
  • 14.9. Wellversed Health Private Limited
  • 14.10. Galletas Gulln S.A.

LIST NOT EXHAUSTIVE

15. Appendix

  • 15.1. About Us and Services
  • 15.2. Contact Us