市場調査レポート
商品コード
1342761

スチームトラップの世界市場:製品別、用途別、本体材質別、エンドユーザー業界別、地域別-2028年までの予測

Steam Trap Market by Mechanical (Ball Float, Inverted Bucket), Thermodynamic, Thermostatic (Balanced Pressure, Bimetallic), Application (Drip, Process, Tracing), Body Material (Steel, Iron), End-User Industry and Region - Global Forecast to 2028

出版日: | 発行: MarketsandMarkets | ページ情報: 英文 177 Pages | 納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは

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価格
価格表記: USDを日本円(税抜)に換算
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=158.31円
スチームトラップの世界市場:製品別、用途別、本体材質別、エンドユーザー業界別、地域別-2028年までの予測
出版日: 2023年08月30日
発行: MarketsandMarkets
ページ情報: 英文 177 Pages
納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 目次
概要

スチームトラップの市場規模は、2023年の38億米ドルから2028年には46億米ドルに成長すると予測され、予測期間中のCAGRは3.8%と見込まれています。

エネルギー効率の高いスチームシステムに対する需要の増加とスチームシステムにおける自動化の採用がスチームトラップ市場を牽引しています。

恒温式スチームトラップ市場は、予測期間中に最高のCAGRで成長する見込みです。恒温式スチームトラップは、温度変化に基づいてスチーム流量を効率的に調節することにより、スチーム管理を最適化するための洗練されたソリューションを提供します。このダイナミックな機能により、省エネルギーが保証され、不必要な蒸気の浪費が防止されるため、産業界が業務効率と資源活用に重点を置いていることとシームレスに一致します。さらに、信頼性の高い性能と比較的低いメンテナンス要件は、効率的で費用対効果の高い蒸気管理ソリューションを求める産業にとって魅力的です。

スチールの本体材質セグメントは、予測期間を通じてスチームトラップ市場の最大規模を占めると予想されます。スチールの卓越した耐久性と耐食性は、特に過酷な運転条件を伴う産業において、スチームトラップ構造に理想的な選択となります。この長寿命により、性能が長持ちし、頻繁な交換の必要性が減少するため、コスト削減と運転信頼性の向上が実現します。さらに、スチール固有の強度は、高い圧力と温度の変化に耐えることができる堅牢なスチームトラップの設計を可能にし、要求の厳しい産業用途への適性をさらに強化します。さらに、スチールの優れた熱伝導特性は、効率的なドレン除去を促進し、スチームトラップの性能と全体的な運転効率の向上に貢献します。

アジア太平洋のスチームトラップ市場は、予測期間中に最高のCAGRで成長すると予想されます。同地域の堅調な工業化と様々な分野にわたるインフラ拡張が、効率的な蒸気管理ソリューションへの需要を増幅しています。産業が規模を拡大し近代化するにつれて、エネルギー利用と復水制御の最適化が不可欠となり、スチームトラップの重要性が高まっています。さらに、アジア太平洋の政府と産業は、持続可能性とエネルギー効率を非常に重視しています。スチームトラップは、蒸気の浪費を防ぎ、エネルギー消費を最適化することで、これらの目的を達成する実用的な方法を提供します。持続可能性が中心的な焦点となる中、スチームトラップの採用は、この地域の目標と規制に合致しています。

当レポートでは、世界のスチームトラップ市場について調査し、製品別、用途別、本体材質別、エンドユーザー業界別、地域別動向、および市場に参入する企業のプロファイルなどをまとめています。

目次

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 調査手法

第3章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第4章 重要考察

第5章 市場概要

  • イントロダクション
  • 市場力学
  • バリューチェーン分析
  • 生態系マッピング
  • 顧客のビジネスに影響を与える動向/混乱
  • 技術分析

第6章 スチームトラップ市場、製品別

  • イントロダクション
  • 機械式
  • 熱力式
  • 恒温式

第7章 スチームトラップ市場、用途別

  • イントロダクション
  • トレーシング
  • ドリップ
  • プロセス

第8章 スチームトラップ市場、本体材質別

  • イントロダクション
  • 鋼鉄
  • その他

第9章 スチームトラップ市場、エンドユーザー業界別

  • イントロダクション
  • 化学薬品
  • エネルギー・電力
  • 食品・飲料
  • 石油ガス
  • 医薬品
  • その他

第10章 スチームトラップ市場、地域別

  • イントロダクション
  • 北米
  • 欧州
  • アジア太平洋
  • その他の地域

第11章 競合情勢

  • 概要
  • 市場シェア分析、2022年
  • 主要企業の評価マトリックス、2022年
  • 競争シナリオと動向

第12章 企業プロファイル

  • 主要企業
    • SPIRAX-SARCO ENGINEERING PLC
    • EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
    • THERMAX LIMITED
    • SCHLUMBERGER LIMITED
    • VELAN INC.
    • WATTS WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    • ARMSTRONG INTERNATIONAL INC.
    • TLV CO., LTD.
    • FORBES MARSHALL
    • XYLEM
  • その他の企業
    • WATSON MCDANIEL
    • MIYAWAKI INC.
    • HAWA ENGINEERS LTD.
    • ARI-ARMATUREN
    • VENN CO., LTD.
    • AYVAZ
    • NETA METAL WORKS
    • THERMOMEGATECH, INC.
    • TUNSTALL
    • THERMAL ENERGY INTERNATIONAL INC.
    • BARNES & JONES, LLC
    • ESCO GROUP OF COMPANIES
    • UNITED BRASS WORKS
    • COLTON INDUSTRIES
    • RICHARDS INDUSTRIALS

第13章 隣接市場および関連市場

第14章 付録

目次
Product Code: SE 5172

The steam trap market is expected to grow from USD 3.8 billion in 2023 to USD 4.6 billion by 2028, at a CAGR of 3.8% during the forecast period. Increasing demand for energy-efficient steam systems and the growing adoption of automation in steam systems drive the market for steam trap.

"The thermostatic steam trap market is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period"

The thermostatic steam trap market is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. Thermostatic steam traps offer a sophisticated solution for optimizing steam management by efficiently modulating steam flow based on temperature changes. This dynamic capability ensures energy conservation and prevents unnecessary steam wastage, aligning seamlessly with industries' intensified focus on operational efficiency and resource utilization. Moreover, their reliable performance and relatively low maintenance requirements make them attractive for industries seeking efficient and cost-effective steam management solutions.

"Steel body material segment is expected to dominate the steam trap market throughout the forecast period"

The steel body material segment is expected to account for the largest size of the steam trap market throughout the forecast period. Steel's exceptional durability and corrosion resistance make it an ideal choice for steam trap construction, particularly in industries with harsh operating conditions. This longevity ensures prolonged performance and reduces the need for frequent replacements, resulting in cost savings and enhanced operational reliability. Furthermore, steel's inherent strength allows for the design of robust steam traps capable of withstanding high pressure and temperature variations, further bolstering their suitability for demanding industrial applications. Moreover, steel's excellent heat conduction properties facilitate efficient condensate removal, contributing to enhanced steam trap performance and overall operational efficiency.

"Steam trap market in Asia Pacific region to register highest CAGR between 2023 and 2028"

The Steam Trap market in Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. The region's robust industrialization and infrastructural expansion across various sectors amplify the demand for efficient steam management solutions. As industries scale up and modernize, the imperative of optimizing energy utilization and condensate control elevates the significance of steam traps. Furthermore, governments and industries in the Asia Pacific region significantly emphasize sustainability and energy efficiency. Steam traps offer a practical way to achieve these objectives by preventing steam wastage and optimizing energy consumption. As sustainability becomes a central focus, adopting steam traps aligns with the region's goals and regulations.

Breakdown of primaries

In determining and verifying the market size for several segments and subsegments gathered through secondary research, extensive primary interviews have been conducted with key industry experts in the steam trap market space. The break-up of primary participants for the report has been shown below:

  • By Company Type: Tier 1 - 45%, Tier 2 - 25%, and Tier 3 - 30%
  • By Designation: C-level Executives - 40%, Directors - 30%, and Others - 30%
  • By Region: North America -30%, Europe- 25%, Asia Pacific - 35%, and Rest of the World - 10%

Key players in the steam trap market are Spirax-Sarco Engineering plc (UK), Emerson Electric Co. (US), Schlumberger Limited (US), Thermax Limited (India), Velan Inc. (Canada), Watts Water Technologies, Inc. (US), Armstrong International Inc. (US), TLV CO., LTD. (Japan), Forbes Marshall (India), and Xylem Inc. (US) and others.

The steam trap market has been segmented into product, application, body material, end-user industry, and region. The steam trap market has been studied in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Rest of the World.

Reasons to buy the report:

The report will help the market leaders/new entrants with information on the closest approximate revenues for the steam trap and related segments. This report will help stakeholders understand the competitive landscape and gain more insights to strengthen their position in the market and plan suitable go-to-market strategies. The report also helps stakeholders understand the market pulse and provides information on key market drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges.

The report provides insights on the following pointers:

  • Analysis of key drivers (Increasing demand for energy-efficient steam systems, growing adoption of automation in steam systems, and strict regulations imposed by regulatory bodies to enhance manufacturing efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions), restraints (high investments required to implement steam trap systems and periodic maintenance and complexity associated with the operations of steam trap systems), opportunities (rapid economic growth in emerging economies and development of IoT sensors boost steam trap demand and reliability), and challenges (lack of awareness and benefits of steam trap systems).
  • Product Development/Innovation: Detailed insights on upcoming technologies, research & development activities, and new product launches in the steam trap market.
  • Market Development: Comprehensive information about lucrative markets - the report analyses the steam trap market across varied regions.
  • Market Diversification: Exhaustive information about new products, untapped geographies, recent developments, and investments in the steam trap market.
  • Competitive Assessment: In-depth assessment of market shares, growth strategies, and product offerings of leading players like Spirax-Sarco Engineering plc (UK), Emerson Electric Co. (US), Schlumberger Limited (US), Thermax Limited (India), Velan Inc. (Canada), Watts Water Technologies, Inc. (US), Armstrong International Inc., among others.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 STUDY OBJECTIVES
  • 1.2 MARKET DEFINITION
  • 1.3 STUDY SCOPE
    • 1.3.1 MARKETS COVERED
    • FIGURE 1 STEAM TRAP MARKET: SEGMENTATION
    • 1.3.2 INCLUSIONS AND EXCLUSIONS
    • 1.3.3 GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE
    • 1.3.4 YEARS CONSIDERED
  • 1.4 CURRENCY CONSIDERED
  • 1.5 LIMITATIONS
  • 1.6 STAKEHOLDERS
  • 1.7 SUMMARY OF CHANGES
  • 1.8 RECESSION IMPACT

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 2.1 RESEARCH DATA
    • FIGURE 2 STEAM TRAP MARKET: RESEARCH DESIGN
    • 2.1.1 SECONDARY AND PRIMARY RESEARCH
    • FIGURE 3 SECONDARY AND PRIMARY RESEARCH
    • 2.1.2 SECONDARY DATA
      • 2.1.2.1 List of secondary sources
      • 2.1.2.2 Key data from secondary sources
    • 2.1.3 PRIMARY DATA
      • 2.1.3.1 Primary interviews with experts
      • 2.1.3.2 Key data from primary sources
      • 2.1.3.3 Key industry insights
      • 2.1.3.4 Breakdown of primaries
  • 2.2 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION
    • 2.2.1 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH
      • 2.2.1.1 Approach to derive market share by bottom-up analysis (Demand side)
    • FIGURE 4 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH
    • 2.2.2 TOP-DOWN APPROACH
      • 2.2.2.1 Approach to derive market share by top-down analysis (Supply side)
    • FIGURE 5 TOP-DOWN APPROACH
    • FIGURE 6 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY: (DEMAND SIDE) REVENUE GENERATED BY COMPANIES IN STEAM TRAP MARKET
  • 2.3 MARKET BREAKDOWN AND DATA TRIANGULATION
    • FIGURE 7 DATA TRIANGULATION
  • 2.4 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS
  • 2.5 PARAMETERS CONSIDERED TO ANALYZE IMPACT OF RECESSION ON STEAM TRAP MARKET
  • 2.6 RISK ASSESSMENT
    • TABLE 1 STEAM TRAP MARKET: RISK ASSESSMENT

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    • FIGURE 8 MECHANICAL SEGMENT TO HOLD LARGEST SIZE OF STEAM TRAP MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
    • FIGURE 9 TRACING APPLICATION SEGMENT TO REGISTER HIGHEST CAGR IN MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
    • FIGURE 10 STEEL SEGMENT TO DOMINATE STEAM TRAP MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
    • FIGURE 11 OIL & GAS INDUSTRY TO CAPTURE LARGEST SHARE OF STEAM TRAP MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
    • FIGURE 12 ASIA PACIFIC ACCOUNTED FOR LARGEST MARKET SHARE IN 2022

4 PREMIUM INSIGHTS

  • 4.1 ATTRACTIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PLAYERS IN STEAM TRAP MARKET
    • FIGURE 13 GROWING ADOPTION OF STEAM TRAPS IN FOOD & BEVERAGES AND PHARMACEUTICALS INDUSTRIES TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PLAYERS IN STEAM TRAP MARKET
  • 4.2 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT
    • FIGURE 14 MECHANICAL SEGMENT TO HOLD LARGEST MARKET SHARE OF STEAM TRAP MARKET IN 2023
  • 4.3 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION
    • FIGURE 15 TRACING APPLICATION SEGMENT TO HOLD LARGEST MARKET SHARE DURING FORECAST PERIOD
  • 4.4 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL
    • FIGURE 16 STEEL SEGMENT TO REGISTER HIGHEST CAGR DURING 2023-2028
  • 4.5 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY
    • FIGURE 17 OIL & GAS SEGMENT TO HOLD LARGEST SHARE OF STEAM TRAP MARKET IN 2023
  • 4.6 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY COUNTRY
    • FIGURE 18 INDIA TO BE FASTEST-GROWING STEAM TRAP MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD

5 MARKET OVERVIEW

  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2 MARKET DYNAMICS
    • FIGURE 19 STEAM TRAP MARKET: DRIVERS, RESTRAINTS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES
    • 5.2.1 DRIVERS
      • 5.2.1.1 Increasing demand for energy-efficient steam systems
      • 5.2.1.2 Growing adoption of automation in steam systems
      • 5.2.1.3 Need to enhance manufacturing efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
    • FIGURE 20 STEAM TRAP MARKET: IMPACT OF DRIVERS
    • 5.2.2 RESTRAINTS
      • 5.2.2.1 Need for substantial upfront investment
      • 5.2.2.2 Need for periodic maintenance and complexities associated with operations of steam trap systems
    • FIGURE 21 STEAM TRAP MARKET: IMPACT OF RESTRAINTS
    • 5.2.3 OPPORTUNITIES
      • 5.2.3.1 Rapid economic growth in emerging economies
      • 5.2.3.2 Integration of steam traps with IoT sensors
    • FIGURE 22 STEAM TRAP MARKET: IMPACT OF OPPORTUNITIES
    • 5.2.4 CHALLENGES
      • 5.2.4.1 Lack of awareness about benefits of steam trap systems
    • FIGURE 23 STEAM TRAP MARKET: IMPACT OF CHALLENGES
  • 5.3 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
    • FIGURE 24 STEAM TRAP MARKET: VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
  • 5.4 ECOSYSTEM MAPPING
    • FIGURE 25 STEAM TRAP MARKET: ECOSYSTEM
    • TABLE 2 STEAM TRAP MARKET: ROLE OF KEY PLAYERS IN ECOSYSTEM
  • 5.5 TRENDS/DISRUPTIONS IMPACTING CUSTOMER BUSINESS
    • FIGURE 26 REVENUE SHIFTS AND NEW REVENUE POCKETS FOR PLAYERS IN STEAM TRAP MARKET
  • 5.6 TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS
    • 5.6.1 PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
    • 5.6.2 DIGITALIZATION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

6 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT

  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • TABLE 3 STEAM TRAP MARKET, IN TERMS OF VALUE AND VOLUME, 2019-2022
    • TABLE 4 STEAM TRAP MARKET, IN TERMS OF VALUE AND VOLUME, 2023-2028
    • TABLE 5 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 6 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • FIGURE 27 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT
    • FIGURE 28 MECHANICAL SEGMENT TO COMMAND LARGEST SHARE OF STEAM TRAP MARKET BETWEEN 2023 AND 2028
  • 6.2 MECHANICAL
    • 6.2.1 LOW MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS TO DRIVE DEMAND FOR MECHANICAL STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 7 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 8 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 9 MECHANICAL: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 10 MECHANICAL: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 11 BALL FLOAT: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 12 BALL FLOAT: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 13 INVERTED BUCKET: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 14 INVERTED BUCKET: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 6.3 THERMODYNAMIC
    • 6.3.1 ABILITY TO OPERATE IN HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE TO BOOST DEMAND FOR THERMODYNAMIC STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 15 THERMODYNAMIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 16 THERMODYNAMIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 6.4 THERMOSTATIC
    • 6.4.1 SUITABILITY FOR WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS TO BOOST DEMAND FOR THERMOSTATIC STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 17 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 18 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 19 THERMOSTATIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 20 THERMOSTATIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 21 BALANCED PRESSURE: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 22 BALANCED PRESSURE: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 23 BIMETALLIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 24 BIMETALLIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)

7 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION

  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • TABLE 25 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 26 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • FIGURE 29 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION
    • FIGURE 30 TRACING APPLICATION TO LEAD STEAM TRAP MARKET FROM 2023 TO 2028
  • 7.2 TRACING APPLICATION
    • 7.2.1 DURABILITY AND CORROSION RESISTANCE FEATURES MAKE THERMOSTATIC STEAM TRAPS SUITABLE FOR TRACING APPLICATIONS
    • TABLE 27 TRACING APPLICATION: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 28 TRACING APPLICATION: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 7.3 DRIP APPLICATION
    • 7.3.1 THERMODYNAMIC STEAM TRAPS IDEAL FOR DRIP APPLICATIONS
    • TABLE 29 DRIP APPLICATION: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 30 DRIP APPLICATION: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 7.4 PROCESS APPLICATION
    • 7.4.1 REQUIRES STEAM TRAPS WITH LARGER CONDENSATE HANDLING CAPACITY
    • TABLE 31 PROCESS APPLICATION: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 32 PROCESS APPLICATION: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)

8 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL

  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    • TABLE 33 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 34 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • FIGURE 31 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY BODY MATERIAL
    • FIGURE 32 STEEL SEGMENT TO REGISTER HIGHEST CAGR BETWEEN 2023 AND 2028
  • 8.2 STEEL
    • 8.2.1 DURABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY OF STEEL STEAM TRAPS MAKE THEM SUITABLE FOR APPLICATIONS IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES
  • 8.3 IRON
    • 8.3.1 IRON STEAM TRAPS COMMONLY USED IN LOW- AND MEDIUM-PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEMS
  • 8.4 OTHERS

9 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY

  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    • TABLE 35 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 36 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • FIGURE 33 OIL & GAS SEGMENT TO LEAD STEAM TRAP MARKET BETWEEN 2023 AND 2028
  • 9.2 CHEMICALS
    • 9.2.1 HIGH DEPENDENCY ON STEAM FOR PROCESS APPLICATIONS TO CREATE DEMAND FOR STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 37 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 38 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 39 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 40 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 41 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 42 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 43 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 44 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 45 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 46 CHEMICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 9.3 ENERGY & POWER
    • 9.3.1 INCREASING FOCUS ON ENERGY MANAGEMENT TO BOOST DEMAND FOR STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 47 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 48 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 49 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 50 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 51 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 52 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 53 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 54 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 55 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 56 ENERGY & POWER: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 9.4 FOOD & BEVERAGES
    • 9.4.1 NEED TO IMPROVE PROCESS EFFICIENCY TO DRIVE ADOPTION OF STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 57 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 58 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 59 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 60 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 61 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 62 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 63 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 64 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 65 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 66 FOOD & BEVERAGES: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 9.5 OIL & GAS
    • 9.5.1 STEADY RECOVERY OF OIL & GAS INDUSTRY TO GENERATE DEMAND FOR STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 67 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 68 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 69 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 70 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 71 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 72 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 73 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 74 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 75 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 76 OIL & GAS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 9.6 PHARMACEUTICALS
    • 9.6.1 NEED TO ENSURE COMPLIANCE WITH STRINGENT REGULATIONS TO INCREASE DEMAND FOR STEAM TRAPS
    • TABLE 77 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 78 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 79 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 80 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 81 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 82 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 83 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 84 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 85 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 86 PHARMACEUTICALS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 9.7 OTHERS
    • TABLE 87 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 88 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 89 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 90 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY PRODUCT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 91 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 92 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY MECHANICAL PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 93 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 94 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY THERMOSTATIC PRODUCT TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 95 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 96 OTHERS: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)

10 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION

  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
    • FIGURE 34 INDIA TO REGISTER HIGHEST CAGR IN OVERALL STEAM TRAP MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
    • FIGURE 35 ASIA PACIFIC TO ACCOUNT FOR LARGEST SHARE OF GLOBAL STEAM TRAP MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
    • TABLE 97 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 98 STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 10.2 NORTH AMERICA
    • 10.2.1 NORTH AMERICA: RECESSION IMPACT
    • FIGURE 36 NORTH AMERICA: STEAM TRAP MARKET SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 99 NORTH AMERICA: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 100 NORTH AMERICA: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 101 NORTH AMERICA: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 102 NORTH AMERICA: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • 10.2.2 US
      • 10.2.2.1 Rising adoption of steam traps in oil & gas sector to contribute to market growth
    • 10.2.3 CANADA
      • 10.2.3.1 Growing emphasis on reducing energy usage to propel market growth
    • 10.2.4 MEXICO
      • 10.2.4.1 Pursuit of achieving high operational efficiency in various industries to boost market growth
  • 10.3 EUROPE
    • 10.3.1 EUROPE: RECESSION IMPACT
    • FIGURE 37 EUROPE: STEAM TRAP MARKET SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 103 EUROPE: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 104 EUROPE: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 105 EUROPE: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022, (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 106 EUROPE: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • 10.3.2 GERMANY
      • 10.3.2.1 Rising adoption of steam traps by process industries to stimulate market growth
    • 10.3.3 UK
      • 10.3.3.1 Rapid expansion of industrial sector and surging demand from oil & gas sector to support market growth
    • 10.3.4 FRANCE
      • 10.3.4.1 Chemicals and food & beverages industries to propel demand for steam traps
    • 10.3.5 REST OF EUROPE
  • 10.4 ASIA PACIFIC
    • 10.4.1 ASIA PACIFIC: RECESSION IMPACT
    • FIGURE 38 ASIA PACIFIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 107 ASIA PACIFIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 108 ASIA PACIFIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 109 ASIA PACIFIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 110 ASIA PACIFIC: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • 10.4.2 CHINA
      • 10.4.2.1 Government initiatives to promote energy efficiency to create demand for steam traps
    • 10.4.3 INDIA
      • 10.4.3.1 Rapid industrialization and commitment to energy efficiency to drive market
    • 10.4.4 JAPAN
      • 10.4.4.1 Increasing focus on enhancing production capabilities and overall operational efficiency to boost requirement for steam traps
    • 10.4.5 REST OF ASIA PACIFIC
  • 10.5 REST OF THE WORLD (ROW)
    • 10.5.1 REST OF THE WORLD: IMPACT OF RECESSION
    • TABLE 111 REST OF THE WORLD: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 112 REST OF THE WORLD: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, 2023-2028, (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 113 REST OF THE WORLD: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 114 REST OF THE WORLD: STEAM TRAP MARKET, BY REGION, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
    • 10.5.2 AFRICA
      • 10.5.2.1 High demand from oil & gas and mining industries to boost market growth
    • 10.5.3 MIDDLE EAST
      • 10.5.3.1 Booming oil & gas industry to increase demand for steam traps
    • 10.5.4 SOUTH AMERICA
      • 10.5.4.1 Thriving mining industry to contribute to market growth

11 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

  • 11.1 OVERVIEW
  • 11.2 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS, 2022
    • TABLE 115 STEAM TRAP MARKET: DEGREE OF COMPETITION
    • FIGURE 39 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS, 2022
  • 11.3 EVALUATION MATRIX OF KEY COMPANIES, 2022
    • 11.3.1 STARS
    • 11.3.2 EMERGING LEADERS
    • 11.3.3 PERVASIVE PLAYERS
    • 11.3.4 PARTICIPANTS
    • FIGURE 40 STEAM TRAP MARKET: EVALUATION MATRIX OF KEY COMPANIES, 2022
  • 11.4 COMPETITIVE SCENARIOS AND TRENDS
    • 11.4.1 PRODUCT LAUNCHES AND DEVELOPMENTS
    • TABLE 116 STEAM TRAP MARKET: PRODUCT LAUNCHES AND DEVELOPMENTS, 2018-2022
    • 11.4.2 DEALS
    • TABLE 117 STEAM TRAP MARKET: DEALS, 2019-2023

12 COMPANY PROFILES

  • (Business overview, Products/Solutions/Services offered, Recent Developments, MNM view)**
  • 12.1 KEY PLAYERS
    • 12.1.1 SPIRAX-SARCO ENGINEERING PLC
    • TABLE 118 SPIRAX-SARCO ENGINEERING PLC: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • FIGURE 41 SPIRAX-SARCO ENGINEERING PLC: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 119 SPIRAX-SARCO ENGINEERING PLC: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • TABLE 120 SPIRAX-SARCO ENGINEERING PLC: PRODUCT LAUNCHES
    • TABLE 121 SPIRAX-SARCO ENGINEERING PLC: DEALS
    • 12.1.2 EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.
    • TABLE 122 EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • FIGURE 42 EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 123 EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • TABLE 124 EMERSON ELECTRIC CO.: DEALS
    • 12.1.3 THERMAX LIMITED
    • TABLE 125 THERMAX LIMITED: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • FIGURE 43 THERMAX LIMITED: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 126 THERMAX LIMITED: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • 12.1.4 SCHLUMBERGER LIMITED
    • TABLE 127 SCHLUMBERGER LIMITED: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • FIGURE 44 SCHLUMBERGER LIMITED: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 128 SCHLUMBERGER LIMITED: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • 12.1.5 VELAN INC.
    • TABLE 129 VELAN INC.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • FIGURE 45 VELAN INC.: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 130 VELAN INC.: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • TABLE 131 VELAN INC.: DEALS
    • 12.1.6 WATTS WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    • TABLE 132 WATTS WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • FIGURE 46 WATTS WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 133 WATTS WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • 12.1.7 ARMSTRONG INTERNATIONAL INC.
    • TABLE 134 ARMSTRONG INTERNATIONAL INC.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • TABLE 135 ARMSTRONG INTERNATIONAL INC.: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • TABLE 136 ARMSTRONG INTERNATIONAL INC.: DEALS
    • 12.1.8 TLV CO., LTD.
    • TABLE 137 TLV CO., LTD.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • TABLE 138 TLV CO., LTD.: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • TABLE 139 TLV CO., LTD.: PRODUCT LAUNCHES
    • 12.1.9 FORBES MARSHALL
    • TABLE 140 FORBES MARSHALL: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • TABLE 141 FORBES MARSHALL: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
    • 12.1.10 XYLEM
    • TABLE 142 XYLEM: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • FIGURE 47 XYLEM: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
    • TABLE 143 XYLEM: PRODUCTS/SOLUTIONS/SERVICES OFFERED
  • 12.2 OTHER PLAYERS
    • 12.2.1 WATSON MCDANIEL
    • TABLE 144 WATSON MCDANIEL: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.2 MIYAWAKI INC.
    • TABLE 145 MIYAWAKI INC.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.3 HAWA ENGINEERS LTD.
    • TABLE 146 HAWA ENGINEERS LTD.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.4 ARI-ARMATUREN
    • TABLE 147 ARI-ARMATUREN: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.5 VENN CO., LTD.
    • TABLE 148 VENN CO., LTD.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.6 AYVAZ
    • TABLE 149 AYVAZ: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.7 NETA METAL WORKS
    • TABLE 150 NETA METAL WORKS: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.8 THERMOMEGATECH, INC.
    • TABLE 151 THERMOMEGATECH, INC.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.9 TUNSTALL
    • TABLE 152 TUNSTALL: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.10 THERMAL ENERGY INTERNATIONAL INC.
    • TABLE 153 THERMAL ENERGY INTERNATIONAL INC.: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.11 BARNES & JONES, LLC
    • TABLE 154 BARNES & JONES, LLC: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.12 ESCO GROUP OF COMPANIES
    • TABLE 155 ESCO GROUP OF COMPANIES: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.13 UNITED BRASS WORKS
    • TABLE 156 UNITED BRASS WORKS: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.14 COLTON INDUSTRIES
    • TABLE 157 COLTON INDUSTRIES: COMPANY OVERVIEW
    • 12.2.15 RICHARDS INDUSTRIALS
    • TABLE 158 RICHARDS INDUSTRIALS: COMPANY OVERVIEW
  • *Details on Business overview, Products/Solutions/Services offered, Recent Developments, MNM view might not be captured in case of unlisted companies.

13 ADJACENT AND RELATED MARKETS

  • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 13.2 STUDY LIMITATIONS
  • 13.3 INDUSTRIAL VALVES MARKET, BY COMPONENT
    • 13.3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • FIGURE 48 INDUSTRIAL VALVES MARKET, BY COMPONENT
    • TABLE 159 INDUSTRIAL VALVES MARKET, BY COMPONENT, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 160 INDUSTRIAL VALVES MARKET, BY COMPONENT, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 13.4 ACTUATORS
    • 13.4.1 PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS
      • 13.4.1.1 Diaphragm actuators
        • 13.4.1.1.1 Suitable for control valves used in oil & gas industry
      • 13.4.1.2 Piston actuators
        • 13.4.1.2.1 Designed for butterfly valves used in food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries
    • 13.4.2 ELECTRIC ACTUATORS
      • 13.4.2.1 Wide use in water & wastewater treatment and chemical plants to boost segmental growth
    • 13.4.3 HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS
      • 13.4.3.1 Integration of hydraulic actuators in HVAC, fire protection, and irrigation systems to propel market growth
    • TABLE 161 ACTUATORS: INDUSTRIAL VALVES MARKET, BY TYPE, 2019-2022 (USD MILLION)
    • TABLE 162 ACTUATORS: INDUSTRIAL VALVES MARKET, BY TYPE, 2023-2028 (USD MILLION)
  • 13.5 VALVE BODY
    • 13.5.1 RISING DEMAND FOR VALVE BODIES FEATURING HIGH CORROSION RESISTANCE AND BETTER CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY TO SUPPORT SEGMENTAL GROWTH
  • 13.6 OTHER COMPONENTS

14 APPENDIX

  • 14.1 INSIGHTS FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS
  • 14.2 DISCUSSION GUIDE
  • 14.3 KNOWLEDGESTORE: MARKETSANDMARKETS' SUBSCRIPTION PORTAL
  • 14.4 CUSTOMIZATION OPTIONS
  • 14.5 RELATED REPORTS
  • 14.6 AUTHOR DETAILS