表紙:バイオ燃料の世界市場(2023年~2033年)
市場調査レポート
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1311210

バイオ燃料の世界市場(2023年~2033年)

The Global Market for Biofuels 2023-2033

出版日: | 発行: Future Markets, Inc. | ページ情報: 英文 401 Pages, 90 Tables, 113 Figures | 納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは

価格
価格表記: GBPを日本円(税抜)に換算
本日の銀行送金レート: 1GBP=205.37円
バイオ燃料の世界市場(2023年~2033年)
出版日: 2023年07月28日
発行: Future Markets, Inc.
ページ情報: 英文 401 Pages, 90 Tables, 113 Figures
納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

当レポートでは、世界のバイオ燃料市場について調査分析し、市場の促進要因と動向、バイオ燃料消費の予測、企業プロファイルなどを提供しています。

目次

第1章 調査手法

第2章 エグゼクティブサマリー

  • 化石燃料との比較
  • 循環経済における役割
  • 市場促進要因
  • 市場の課題
  • 液体バイオ燃料市場:タイプ別、生産別(2020年~2033年)

第3章 産業の発展(2020年~)

第4章 バイオ燃料

  • 世界のバイオ燃料市場
    • ディーゼル代替品
    • ガソリン代替品
  • SWOT分析:バイオ燃料市場
  • バイオ燃料のコストの比較:タイプ別(2023年)
  • タイプ
    • 固体バイオ燃料
    • 液体バイオ燃料
    • 気体バイオ燃料
    • 従来のバイオ燃料
    • 先進のバイオ燃料
  • 原料
    • 第1世代(1-G)
    • 第2世代(2-G)
    • 第3世代(3-G)
    • 第4世代(4-G)
    • 利点と欠点:世代別
    • エネルギー作物
    • 農業残渣
    • ふん尿、下水汚泥、有機廃棄物
    • 林業、木材廃棄物
    • 原料コスト

第5章 炭化水素バイオ燃料

  • バイオディーゼル
    • バイオディーゼル:世代別
    • SWOT分析
    • バイオディーゼルとその他のバイオ燃料の生産
    • 価格
    • 世界の生産と消費
  • 再生可能ディーゼル
    • 生産
    • SWOT分析
    • 世界の消費
    • 価格
  • バイオ航空燃料(バイオジェット燃料、持続可能な航空燃料、再生可能ジェット燃料または航空バイオ燃料)
    • 概要
    • SWOT分析
    • 世界の生産と消費
    • 生産経路
    • 価格
    • バイオ航空燃料の生産能力
    • 課題
    • 世界の消費
  • バイオナフサ
    • 概要
    • SWOT分析
    • 市場と用途
    • 価格
    • 生産能力:メーカー別、現行と計画中
    • 生産能力、合計、実績、現行と計画中

第6章 アルコール燃料

  • バイオメタノール
    • SWOT分析
    • メタノールからガソリンへの技術
  • エタノール
    • 技術の説明
    • 1Gバイオエタノール
    • SWOT分析
    • エタノールからジェット燃料への技術
    • 紙・パルプ生産からのメタノール
    • 亜硫酸廃液発酵
    • ガス化
    • CO2回収とアルコール合成
    • バイオマスの加水分解と発酵
    • 世界のエタノール消費
  • バイオブタノール
    • 生産
    • 価格

第7章 バイオマスベースのガス

  • 原料
  • バイオガス
    • バイオメタン
    • 生産経路
    • SWOT分析
    • 世界の生産
    • 価格
    • バイオLNG
    • bio-CNG(バイオガス由来の圧縮天然ガス)
    • バイオガスからの炭素回収
  • バイオ合成ガス
    • 生産
    • 価格
  • バイオ水素
    • 概要
    • SWOT分析
    • バイオマスからのバイオ水素の生産
    • 用途
    • 価格
  • バイオガス生産におけるバイオ炭
  • バイオDME

第8章 バイオ燃料向けケミカルリサイクル

  • プラスチックの熱分解
  • 使用済みタイヤの熱分解
    • バイオ燃料への転換
  • バイオマスとプラスチック廃棄物の共熱分解
  • ガス化
    • 合成ガスのメタノールへの変換
    • バイオマスのガス化と合成ガス発酵
    • バイオマスのガス化と合成ガスの熱化学変換
  • 熱水加熱分解
  • SWOT分析

第9章 合成燃料(e-fuel)

  • イントロダクション
    • 合成燃料(e-fuel)の利点
  • 原料
    • 水素電解
    • CO2回収
  • SWOT分析
  • 生産
    • 合成燃料(e-fuel)生産施設、現行と計画中
  • 電解槽
    • 商業用アルカリ電解セル(AEC)
    • PEM電解槽(PEMEC)
    • 高温固体酸化物電解セル(SOEC)
  • 価格
  • 市場の課題
  • 企業

第10章 藻類由来のバイオ燃料

  • 技術の説明
  • 変換経路
  • SWOT分析
  • 生産
  • 市場の課題
  • 価格
  • メーカー

第11章 グリーンアンモニア

  • 生産
    • アンモニア生成の脱炭素化
    • グリーンアンモニアプロジェクト
  • グリーンアンモニアの合成法
    • ハーバーボッシュ法
    • 生物学的窒素固定
    • 電気化学生産
    • ケミカルルーピング法
  • SWOT分析
  • ブルーアンモニア
    • ブルーアンモニアプロジェクト
  • 市場と用途
    • 化学エネルギー貯蔵
    • 船舶用燃料
  • 価格
  • 推定市場需要
  • 企業とプロジェクト

第12章 炭素回収由来のバイオ燃料

  • 概要
  • 点源からのCO2回収
  • 生産ルート
  • SWOT分析
  • 直接空気回収(DAC)
    • 概要
    • 展開
    • 点源炭素回収と直接空気回収
    • 技術
    • 商品化と工場
    • DACの金属有機構造体(MOF)
    • DACのプラントとプロジェクト - 現行と計画中
    • DACの市場
    • コスト
    • 課題
    • 企業と生産
  • メタノール
  • 藻類ベースの炭素利用
  • 太陽光からのCO2燃料
  • 企業
  • 課題

第13章 バイオオイル(熱分解油)

  • 概要
    • バイオオイルのメリット
  • 生産
    • 高速熱分解
    • 生産コスト
    • アップグレード
  • SWOT分析
  • 用途
  • バイオオイルメーカー
  • 価格

第14章 ごみ固形燃料(RDF)

  • 概要
  • 生産
    • 生産工程
    • 機械生物学処理
  • 市場

第15章 企業プロファイル(198社のプロファイル)

第16章 参考材料

図表

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Market drivers for biofuels
  • Table 2. Market challenges for biofuels
  • Table 3. Liquid biofuels market 2020-2033, by type and production
  • Table 4. Industry developments in biofuels 2020-2023
  • Table 5. Comparison of biofuels
  • Table 6. Comparison of biofuel costs (USD/liter) 2023, by type
  • Table 7. Categories and examples of solid biofuel
  • Table 8. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity
  • Table 9. Classification of biomass feedstock
  • Table 10. Biorefinery feedstocks
  • Table 11. Feedstock conversion pathways
  • Table 12. First-Generation Feedstocks
  • Table 13. Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities
  • Table 14. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins
  • Table 15. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
  • Table 16. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol
  • Table 17. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae
  • Table 18. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops
  • Table 19. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation
  • Table 20. Biodiesel by generation
  • Table 21. Biodiesel production techniques
  • Table 22. Summary of pyrolysis technique under different operating conditions
  • Table 23. Biomass materials and their bio-oil yield
  • Table 24. Biofuel production cost from the biomass pyrolysis process
  • Table 25. Properties of vegetable oils in comparison to diesel
  • Table 26. Main producers of HVO and capacities
  • Table 27. Example commercial Development of BtL processes
  • Table 28. Pilot or demo projects for biomass to liquid (BtL) processes
  • Table 29. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year)
  • Table 30. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year)
  • Table 31. Renewable diesel price ranges
  • Table 32. Advantages and disadvantages of Bio-aviation fuel
  • Table 33. Production pathways for Bio-aviation fuel
  • Table 34. Current and announced Bio-aviation fuel facilities and capacities
  • Table 35. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year)
  • Table 36. Bio-based naphtha markets and applications
  • Table 37. Bio-naphtha market value chain
  • Table 38. Bio-naphtha pricing against petroleum-derived naphtha and related fuel products
  • Table 39. Bio-based Naphtha production capacities, by producer
  • Table 40. Comparison of biogas, biomethane and natural gas
  • Table 41. Processes in bioethanol production
  • Table 42. Microorganisms used in CBP for ethanol production from biomass lignocellulosic
  • Table 43. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres)
  • Table 44. Biogas feedstocks
  • Table 45. Existing and planned bio-LNG production plants
  • Table 46. Methods for capturing carbon dioxide from biogas
  • Table 47. Comparison of different Bio-H2 production pathways
  • Table 48. Markets and applications for biohydrogen
  • Table 49. Summary of gasification technologies
  • Table 50. Overview of hydrothermal cracking for advanced chemical recycling
  • Table 51. Applications of e-fuels, by type
  • Table 52. Overview of e-fuels
  • Table 53. Benefits of e-fuels
  • Table 54. eFuel production facilities, current and planned
  • Table 55. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies
  • Table 56. Market challenges for e-fuels
  • Table 57. E-fuels companies
  • Table 58. Algae-derived biofuel producers
  • Table 59. Green ammonia projects (current and planned)
  • Table 60. Blue ammonia projects
  • Table 61. Ammonia fuel cell technologies
  • Table 62. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel
  • Table 63. Summary of marine alternative fuels
  • Table 64. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia
  • Table 65. Main players in green ammonia
  • Table 66. Market overview for CO2 derived fuels
  • Table 67. Point source examples
  • Table 68. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC
  • Table 69. Companies developing airflow equipment integration with DAC
  • Table 70. Companies developing Passive Direct Air Capture (PDAC) technologies
  • Table 71. Companies developing regeneration methods for DAC technologies
  • Table 72. DAC companies and technologies
  • Table 73. DAC technology developers and production
  • Table 74. DAC projects in development
  • Table 75. Markets for DAC
  • Table 76. Costs summary for DAC
  • Table 77. Cost estimates of DAC
  • Table 78. Challenges for DAC technology
  • Table 79. DAC companies and technologies
  • Table 80. Microalgae products and prices
  • Table 81. Main Solar-Driven CO2 Conversion Approaches
  • Table 82. Companies in CO2-derived fuel products
  • Table 83. Typical composition and physicochemical properties reported for bio-oils and heavy petroleum-derived oils
  • Table 84. Properties and characteristics of pyrolysis liquids derived from biomass versus a fuel oil
  • Table 85. Main techniques used to upgrade bio-oil into higher-quality fuels
  • Table 86. Markets and applications for bio-oil
  • Table 87. Bio-oil producers
  • Table 88. Key resource recovery technologies
  • Table 89. Markets and end uses for refuse-derived fuels (RDF)
  • Table 90. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Liquid biofuel production and consumption (in thousands of m3), 2000-2021
  • Figure 2. Distribution of global liquid biofuel production in 2022
  • Figure 3. Diesel and gasoline alternatives and blends
  • Figure 4. SWOT analysis for biofuels
  • Figure 5. Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals
  • Figure 6. Hydrolytic lignin powder
  • Figure 7. SWOT analysis for energy crops in biofuels
  • Figure 8. SWOT analysis for agricultural residues in biofuels
  • Figure 10. SWOT analysis for Manure, sewage sludge and organic waste in biofuels
  • Figure 11. SWOT analysis for forestry and wood waste in biofuels
  • Figure 12. Range of biomass cost by feedstock type
  • Figure 13. Regional production of biodiesel (billion litres)
  • Figure 14. SWOT analysis for biodiesel
  • Figure 15. Flow chart for biodiesel production
  • Figure 16. Biodiesel (B20) average prices, current and historical, USD/litre
  • Figure 17. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year)
  • Figure 18. SWOT analysis for renewable iesel
  • Figure 19. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year)
  • Figure 20. SWOT analysis for Bio-aviation fuel
  • Figure 21. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year)
  • Figure 22. SWOT analysis for bio-naphtha
  • Figure 23. Bio-based naphtha production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes)
  • Figure 24. SWOT analysis biomethanol
  • Figure 25. Renewable Methanol Production Processes from Different Feedstocks
  • Figure 26. Production of biomethane through anaerobic digestion and upgrading
  • Figure 27. Production of biomethane through biomass gasification and methanation
  • Figure 28. Production of biomethane through the Power to methane process
  • Figure 29. SWOT analysis for ethanol
  • Figure 30. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres)
  • Figure 31. Properties of petrol and biobutanol
  • Figure 32. Biobutanol production route
  • Figure 33. Overview of biogas utilization
  • Figure 34. Biogas and biomethane pathways
  • Figure 35. Overview of biogas utilization
  • Figure 36. Biogas and biomethane pathways
  • Figure 37. Schematic overview of anaerobic digestion process for biomethane production
  • Figure 38. Schematic overview of biomass gasification for biomethane production
  • Figure 39. SWOT analysis for biogas
  • Figure 40. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm3/h of Syngas, 2021
  • Figure 41. SWOT analysis for biohydrogen
  • Figure 42. Waste plastic production pathways to (A) diesel and (B) gasoline
  • Figure 43. Schematic for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires
  • Figure 44. Used tires conversion process
  • Figure 45. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm3/h of Syngas, 2021
  • Figure 46. Overview of biogas utilization
  • Figure 47. Biogas and biomethane pathways
  • Figure 48. SWOT analysis for chemical recycling of biofuels
  • Figure 49. Process steps in the production of electrofuels
  • Figure 50. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics
  • Figure 51. Production process for green hydrogen
  • Figure 52. SWOT analysis for E-fuels
  • Figure 53. E-liquids production routes
  • Figure 54. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products
  • Figure 55. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production
  • Figure 56. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels
  • Figure 57. Cost breakdown for e-fuels
  • Figure 58. Pathways for algal biomass conversion to biofuels
  • Figure 59. SWOT analysis for algae-derived biofuels
  • Figure 60. Algal biomass conversion process for biofuel production
  • Figure 61. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production
  • Figure 62. Green ammonia production and use
  • Figure 63. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction
  • Figure 64. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation
  • Figure 65. SWOT analysis for green ammonia
  • Figure 66. Estimated production cost of green ammonia
  • Figure 67. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons
  • Figure 68. CO2 capture and separation technology
  • Figure 69. Conversion route for CO2-derived fuels and chemical intermediates
  • Figure 70. Conversion pathways for CO2-derived methane, methanol and diesel
  • Figure 71. SWOT analysis for biofuels from carbon capture
  • Figure 72. CO2 captured from air using liquid and solid sorbent DAC plants, storage, and reuse
  • Figure 73. Global CO2 capture from biomass and DAC in the Net Zero Scenario
  • Figure 74. DAC technologies
  • Figure 75. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system
  • Figure 76. Climeworks' first commercial direct air capture (DAC) plant, based in Hinwil, Switzerland
  • Figure 77. Flow diagram for solid sorbent DAC
  • Figure 78. Direct air capture based on high temperature liquid sorbent by Carbon Engineering
  • Figure 79. Global capacity of direct air capture facilities
  • Figure 80. Global map of DAC and CCS plants
  • Figure 81. Schematic of costs of DAC technologies
  • Figure 82. DAC cost breakdown and comparison
  • Figure 83. Operating costs of generic liquid and solid-based DAC systems
  • Figure 84. CO2 feedstock for the production of e-methanol
  • Figure 85. Schematic illustration of (a) biophotosynthetic, (b) photothermal, (c) microbial-photoelectrochemical, (d) photosynthetic and photocatalytic (PS/PC), (e) photoelectrochemical (PEC), and (f) photovoltaic plus electrochemical (PV+EC) approaches for CO2 c
  • Figure 86. Audi synthetic fuels
  • Figure 87. Bio-oil upgrading/fractionation techniques
  • Figure 88. SWOT analysis for bio-oils
  • Figure 89. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process
  • Figure 90. ChemCyclingTM prototypes
  • Figure 91. ChemCycling circle by BASF
  • Figure 92. FBPO process
  • Figure 93. Direct Air Capture Process
  • Figure 94. CRI process
  • Figure 95. Cassandra Oil process
  • Figure 96. Colyser process
  • Figure 97. Domsjö process
  • Figure 98. ECFORM electrolysis reactor schematic
  • Figure 99. Dioxycle modular electrolyzer
  • Figure 100. Domsjö process
  • Figure 101. FuelPositive system
  • Figure 102. INERATEC unit
  • Figure 103. Infinitree swing method
  • Figure 104. Audi/Krajete unit
  • Figure 105. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process
  • Figure 106: Plantrose process
  • Figure 107. Sunfire process for Blue Crude production
  • Figure 108. O12 Reactor
  • Figure 109. Sunglasses with lenses made from CO2-derived materials
  • Figure 110. CO2 made car part
  • Figure 111. The Velocys process
  • Figure 112. Goldilocks process and applications
  • Figure 113. The Proesa® Process
目次

Biofuels are renewable transportation fuels derived from organic material including crops, agricultural residues, and waste. There has been a huge growth in the production and usage of biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels. Due to the declining reserve of fossil resources as well as environmental concerns, and essential energy security, it is important to develop renewable and sustainable energy and chemicals.

The use of biofuels manufactured from plant-based biomass as feedstock would reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently the negative impact on the environment. Renewable energy sources cover a broad raw material base, including cellulosic biomass (fibrous and inedible parts of plants), waste materials, algae, and biogas.

“The Global Market for Biofuels 2023-2023”, now in its Third Edition (first published June 2022), covers bio-based fuels based on utilization of:

  • First-Generation Feedstocks (food-based) e.g. Waste oils including used cooking oil, animal fats, and other fatty acids.
  • Second-Generation Feedstocks (non-food based) e.g. Lignocellulosic wastes and residues, Energy crops, Agricultural residues, Forestry residues, Biogenic fraction of municipal and industrial waste.
  • Third-Generation Feedstocks e.g. algal biomass
  • Fourth-Generation Feedstocks e.g. genetically modified (GM) algae and cyanobacteria.

Report contents include:

  • Market trends and drivers.
  • Market challenges.
  • Biofuels pricing analysis.
  • Biofuel consumption to 2033.
  • SWOT analysis, by feedstock and biofuel type.
  • Recent industry developments, innovations and investments.
  • Market analysis including key players, end use markets, production processes, costs, production capacities, market demand for biofuels including:
    • biodiesel
    • renewable diesel
    • bio-jet fuels
    • bio-naphtha
    • biomethanol
    • ethanol
    • biobutanol
    • biogas
    • biosyngas
    • biohydrogen
    • biofuel from plastic waste & used tires
    • biofuels from carbon capture
    • chemical recycling based biofuels
    • electrofuels,
    • bio-oils
    • algae-derived biofuels
    • green ammonia
    • refuse-derived biofuels.
  • Production and synthesis methods.
  • 198 company profiles. Companies profiled include BTG Bioliquids, Byogy Renewables, Caphenia, Enerkem, Infinium. Eni S.p.A., Ensyn, FORGE Hydrocarbons Corporation, Fulcrum Bioenergy, Genecis Bioindustries, Gevo, Haldor Topsoe, Infinium Electrofuels, Opera Bioscience, Reverion GmbH, Steeper Energy, SunFire GmbH, Vertus Energy and Viridos, Inc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 2.1 Comparison to fossil fuels
  • 2.2 Role in the circular economy
  • 2.3 Market drivers
  • 2.4 Market challenges
  • 2.5 Liquid biofuels market 2020-2033, by type and production

3 INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2020-

4 BIOFUELS

  • 4.1 The global biofuels market
    • 4.1.1 Diesel substitutes and alternatives
    • 4.1.2 Gasoline substitutes and alternatives
  • 4.2 SWOT analysis: Biofuels market
  • 4.3 Comparison of biofuel costs 2023, by type
  • 4.4 Types
    • 4.4.1 Solid Biofuels
    • 4.4.2 Liquid Biofuels
    • 4.4.3 Gaseous Biofuels
    • 4.4.4 Conventional Biofuels
    • 4.4.5 Advanced Biofuels
  • 4.5 Feedstocks
    • 4.5.1 First-generation (1-G)
    • 4.5.2 Second-generation (2-G)
      • 4.5.2.1 Lignocellulosic wastes and residues
      • 4.5.2.2 Biorefinery lignin
    • 4.5.3 Third-generation (3-G)
      • 4.5.3.1 Algal biofuels
    • 4.5.4 Fourth-generation (4-G)
    • 4.5.5 Advantages and disadvantages, by generation
    • 4.5.6 Energy crops
      • 4.5.6.1 Feedstocks
      • 4.5.6.2 SWOT analysis
    • 4.5.7 Agricultural residues
      • 4.5.7.1 Feedstocks
      • 4.5.7.2 SWOT analysis
    • 4.5.8 Manure, sewage sludge and organic waste
      • 4.5.8.1 Processing pathways
      • 4.5.8.2 SWOT analysis
    • 4.5.9 Forestry and wood waste
      • 4.5.9.1 Feedstocks
      • 4.5.9.2 SWOT analysis
    • 4.5.10 Feedstock costs

5 HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS

  • 5.1 Biodiesel
    • 5.1.1 Biodiesel by generation
    • 5.1.2 SWOT analysis
    • 5.1.3 Production of biodiesel and other biofuels
      • 5.1.3.1 Pyrolysis of biomass
      • 5.1.3.2 Vegetable oil transesterification
      • 5.1.3.3 Vegetable oil hydrogenation (HVO)
      • 5.1.3.4 Biodiesel from tall oil
      • 5.1.3.5 Fischer-Tropsch BioDiesel
      • 5.1.3.6 Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass
      • 5.1.3.7 CO2 capture and Fischer-Tropsch (FT)
      • 5.1.3.8 Dymethyl ether (DME)
    • 5.1.4 Prices
    • 5.1.5 Global production and consumption
  • 5.2 Renewable diesel
    • 5.2.1 Production
    • 5.2.2 SWOT analysis
    • 5.2.3 Global consumption
    • 5.2.4 Prices
  • 5.3 Bio-aviation fuel (bio-jet fuel, sustainable aviation fuel, renewable jet fuel or aviation biofuel)
    • 5.3.1 Description
    • 5.3.2 SWOT analysis
    • 5.3.3 Global production and consumption
    • 5.3.4 Production pathways
    • 5.3.5 Prices
    • 5.3.6 Bio-aviation fuel production capacities
    • 5.3.7 Challenges
    • 5.3.8 Global consumption
  • 5.4 Bio-naphtha
    • 5.4.1 Overview
    • 5.4.2 SWOT analysis
    • 5.4.3 Markets and applications
    • 5.4.4 Prices
    • 5.4.5 Production capacities, by producer, current and planned
    • 5.4.6 Production capacities, total (tonnes), historical, current and planned

6 ALCOHOL FUELS

  • 6.1 Biomethanol
    • 6.1.1 SWOT analysis
    • 6.1.2 Methanol-to gasoline technology
      • 6.1.2.1 Production processes
  • 6.2 Ethanol
    • 6.2.1 Technology description
    • 6.2.2 1G Bio-Ethanol
    • 6.2.3 SWOT analysis
    • 6.2.4 Ethanol to jet fuel technology
    • 6.2.5 Methanol from pulp & paper production
    • 6.2.6 Sulfite spent liquor fermentation
    • 6.2.7 Gasification
      • 6.2.7.1 Biomass gasification and syngas fermentation
      • 6.2.7.2 Biomass gasification and syngas thermochemical conversion
    • 6.2.8 CO2 capture and alcohol synthesis
    • 6.2.9 Biomass hydrolysis and fermentation
      • 6.2.9.1 Separate hydrolysis and fermentation
      • 6.2.9.2 Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)
      • 6.2.9.3 Pre-hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF)
      • 6.2.9.4 Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF)
      • 6.2.9.5 Direct conversion (consolidated bioprocessing) (CBP)
    • 6.2.10 Global ethanol consumption
  • 6.3 Biobutanol
    • 6.3.1 Production
    • 6.3.2 Prices

7 BIOMASS-BASED GAS

  • 7.1 Feedstocks
  • 7.2 Biogas
    • 7.2.1 Biomethane
    • 7.2.2 Production pathways
      • 7.2.2.1 Landfill gas recovery
      • 7.2.2.2 Anaerobic digestion
      • 7.2.2.3 Thermal gasification
    • 7.2.3 SWOT analysis
    • 7.2.4 Global production
    • 7.2.5 Prices
      • 7.2.5.1 Raw Biogas
      • 7.2.5.2 Upgraded Biomethane
    • 7.2.6 Bio-LNG
      • 7.2.6.1 Markets
      • 7.2.6.2 Production
      • 7.2.6.3 Plants
    • 7.2.7 bio-CNG (compressed natural gas derived from biogas)
    • 7.2.8 Carbon capture from biogas
  • 7.3 Biosyngas
    • 7.3.1 Production
    • 7.3.2 Prices
  • 7.4 Biohydrogen
    • 7.4.1 Description
    • 7.4.2 SWOT analysis
    • 7.4.3 Production of biohydrogen from biomass
      • 7.4.3.1 Biological Conversion Routes
      • 7.4.3.2 Thermochemical conversion routes
    • 7.4.4 Applications
    • 7.4.5 Prices
  • 7.5 Biochar in biogas production
  • 7.6 Bio-DME

8 CHEMICAL RECYCLING FOR BIOFUELS

  • 8.1 Plastic pyrolysis
  • 8.2 Used tires pyrolysis
    • 8.2.1 Conversion to biofuel
  • 8.3 Co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes
  • 8.4 Gasification
    • 8.4.1 Syngas conversion to methanol
    • 8.4.2 Biomass gasification and syngas fermentation
    • 8.4.3 Biomass gasification and syngas thermochemical conversion
  • 8.5 Hydrothermal cracking
  • 8.6 SWOT analysis

9 ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)

  • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.1.1 Benefits of e-fuels
  • 9.2 Feedstocks
    • 9.2.1 Hydrogen electrolysis
    • 9.2.2 CO2 capture
  • 9.3 SWOT analysis
  • 9.4 Production
    • 9.4.1 eFuel production facilities, current and planned
  • 9.5 Electrolysers
    • 9.5.1 Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)
    • 9.5.2 PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)
    • 9.5.3 High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)
  • 9.6 Prices
  • 9.7 Market challenges
  • 9.8 Companies

10 ALGAE-DERIVED BIOFUELS

  • 10.1 Technology description
  • 10.2 Conversion pathways
  • 10.3 SWOT analysis
  • 10.4 Production
  • 10.5 Market challenges
  • 10.6 Prices
  • 10.7 Producers

11 GREEN AMMONIA

  • 11.1 Production
    • 11.1.1 Decarbonisation of ammonia production
    • 11.1.2 Green ammonia projects
  • 11.2 Green ammonia synthesis methods
    • 11.2.1 Haber-Bosch process
    • 11.2.2 Biological nitrogen fixation
    • 11.2.3 Electrochemical production
    • 11.2.4 Chemical looping processes
  • 11.3 SWOT analysis
  • 11.4 Blue ammonia
    • 11.4.1 Blue ammonia projects
  • 11.5 Markets and applications
    • 11.5.1 Chemical energy storage
      • 11.5.1.1 Ammonia fuel cells
    • 11.5.2 Marine fuel
  • 11.6 Prices
  • 11.7 Estimated market demand
  • 11.8 Companies and projects

12 BIOFUELS FROM CARBON CAPTURE

  • 12.1 Overview
  • 12.2 CO2 capture from point sources
  • 12.3 Production routes
  • 12.4 SWOT analysis
  • 12.5 Direct air capture (DAC)
    • 12.5.1 Description
    • 12.5.2 Deployment
    • 12.5.3 Point source carbon capture versus Direct Air Capture
    • 12.5.4 Technologies
      • 12.5.4.1 Solid sorbents
      • 12.5.4.2 Liquid sorbents
      • 12.5.4.3 Liquid solvents
      • 12.5.4.4 Airflow equipment integration
      • 12.5.4.5 Passive Direct Air Capture (PDAC)
      • 12.5.4.6 Direct conversion
      • 12.5.4.7 Co-product generation
      • 12.5.4.8 Low Temperature DAC
      • 12.5.4.9 Regeneration methods
    • 12.5.5 Commercialization and plants
    • 12.5.6 Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in DAC
    • 12.5.7 DAC plants and projects-current and planned
    • 12.5.8 Markets for DAC
    • 12.5.9 Costs
    • 12.5.10 Challenges
    • 12.5.11 Players and production
  • 12.6 Methanol
  • 12.7 Algae-based carbon utilization
  • 12.8 CO2-fuels from solar
  • 12.9 Companies
  • 12.10 Challenges

13 BIO-OILS (PYROLYSIS OIL)

  • 13.1 Description
    • 13.1.1 Advantages of bio-oils
  • 13.2 Production
    • 13.2.1 Fast Pyrolysis
    • 13.2.2 Costs of production
    • 13.2.3 Upgrading
  • 13.3 SWOT analysis
  • 13.4 Applications
  • 13.5 Bio-oil producers
  • 13.6 Prices

14 REFUSE-DERIVED FUELS (RDF)

  • 14.1 Overview
  • 14.2 Production
    • 14.2.1 Production process
    • 14.2.2 Mechanical biological treatment
  • 14.3 Markets

15 COMPANY PROFILES (198 company profiles)

16 REFERENCES