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市場調査レポート
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1401297

ボーキサイトの世界市場:2023年~2030年

Global Bauxite Market - 2023-2030

出版日: | 発行: DataM Intelligence | ページ情報: 英文 183 Pages | 納期: 約2営業日

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価格
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本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=154.09円
ボーキサイトの世界市場:2023年~2030年
出版日: 2023年12月29日
発行: DataM Intelligence
ページ情報: 英文 183 Pages
納期: 約2営業日
ご注意事項 :
本レポートは最新情報反映のため適宜更新し、内容構成変更を行う場合があります。ご検討の際はお問い合わせください。
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  • 概要
  • 目次
概要

概要

世界のボーキサイト市場は、2022年に148億米ドルに達し、2023年から2030年の予測期間中にCAGR 3.7%で成長し、2030年には197億米ドルに達すると予想されています。

世界のボーキサイト市場はアルミニウム産業の中核的な構成要素であり、この多目的金属に不可欠なサプライチェーンを指示しています。ボーキサイトの重要性は、さまざまな産業で使用されることと、アルミニウムの前駆体であるアルミナの主成分であることに由来します。市場の複雑な力学は、品質のばらつき、持続可能性への懸念、地理的な豊富さ、世界経済の変化などの要因が組み合わさった結果です。

様々なグレードのボーキサイトを大量に埋蔵するオーストラリアとギニアが市場を独占しています。ギニアの台頭は、その高品位の埋蔵量に起因するところが大きく、多額の投資を呼び込み、この地域を主要な参加国として確立しました。

例えば、米国地質調査所(USGS)によると、世界最大のボーキサイト埋蔵量はギニアにあります。ギニアには約70億トンの基本的なボーキサイト鉱床があり、これは世界の埋蔵量の24%に相当します。オーストラリアの埋蔵量は58億4,000万トンで、世界全体の20%に相当します。したがって、両市場は世界のボーキサイト埋蔵量の大部分を占めています。

市場力学

新興経済国での生産拡大

ギニアには、世界のアルミニウム市場の主要参入企業が関心を寄せ、多額の投資を行う大規模で高品質のボーキサイト資源があります。ボーキサイトの埋蔵量は、その純度の高さからアルミニウム製造のために非常に求められています。近年、ギニアは生産能力を着実に増やしています。同国は、採掘とインフラプロジェクトへの投資を継続することで、世界におけるアルミニウム需要の増大に対応するため、ボーキサイト生産量を大幅に増加させる意向です。

ボーキサイトの重要な生産国としてのギニアの台頭は、世界のサプライ・チェーンを拡大します。ボーキサイトの生産量を増やすことで、ボーキサイトを生産する既成国に代わるものを提供し、ボーキサイト供給のための特定地域への依存を軽減します。

世界のボーキサイト市場は、生産能力の増加とギニアなどの新興国におけるボーキサイト採掘の成長によって大きな影響を受けています。これらの要因は、供給を増加させ、高品質の鉱床を提供し、アルミニウム製造における世界の動向を形成することによって市場に貢献しています。ギニアが重要な地位を占めるようになったことは、絶えず変化する世界のボーキサイト市場力学に大きな影響を与えていることを強調しています。したがって、世界のボーキサイト生産量の21.7%、量にして8,500万トンのボーキサイトがギニアで生産されています。

大規模供給のためのパートナーシップの拡大

ボーキサイト生産者と購入者の間のパートナーシップ、特に長期供給契約によって、原料の一貫した信頼できる流れが確保されています。供給の継続性は、可用性の変化に伴う不確実性を低減することで、アルミニウムの生産に関わるプロセスを支援します。協力し合うことで、ボーキサイトの供給は質・量ともに確保しやすくなります。顧客は、効率的な生産手順を確保し、厳格な品質要件を遵守する信頼性の高い供給を信頼することができます。

複数の消費者やエンドユーザーと提携することで、ボーキサイト生産者は市場範囲を拡大し、特定の市場や買い手への依存度を下げることができます。多様化アプローチは、収入を最大化し、販売チャネルを最適化するのに役立ちます。例えば、2023年10月、Odisha Mining CorporationとHindalco Industries Ltd.は、ボーキサイト鉱石の長期供給契約を発表しました。同社は、オディシャ州ラヤガダ県カンサリグダで計画している200万トンのアルミナ精錬所と150MWの自家発電所のために、ボーキサイト鉱石を調達する予定です。

ボーキサイト事業の増加

ボーキサイト操業の増加は、供給能力の増加を意味します。アルミニウム需要の増加は、この生産能力の増加によって対応されており、この適応性の高い金属に対する世界の需要の増加に対応するチャンスが十分にあります。

さらに、ボーキサイト供給の多様性により、リスク要因が大幅に軽減されています。さまざまな地域に広がる多数の操業拠点は、特定の鉱山や国への依存を減らし、物流の課題や政情不安によるサプライチェーンの途絶の影響を受けにくくします。安定的かつ継続的なアルミニウム生産に必要な供給安定性の向上は、この多様性の結果です。

例えば、2023年12月、リオ・ティントは、クイーンズランド州ウェイパ地域のアムラン・ボーキサイト工場に再生可能エネルギーを供給するため、新たに12.4MWの太陽光発電所と8.8MVa/2.1MWhの蓄電池を設置することを承認しました。リオ・ティントの世界の脱炭素戦略と、太平洋地域のボーキサイト、アルミナ、アルミニウム事業における継続的な排出削減努力には、12.4MWの太陽光発電所と蓄電池が含まれます。

原料価格の変動

ボーキサイトの採掘と加工に携わる事業は、エネルギー源、化学薬品、設備など多くの原材料に依存しており、これらはすべて価格が変動します。これらの投入資材のコストが急激に上昇した場合、生産コストが上昇し、ボーキサイト企業の利益率が低下する可能性があります。ボーキサイト事業のコスト構造は、原材料費の変動に影響されるため、企業が生産費を正確に予測・管理することは困難です。

不確実で不安定な原料価格は、事業拡張を検討している企業や投資家の手控えを招く可能性があります。このようなコストの不確実性により、新規プロジェクトへの投資や現在のボーキサイト事業の拡大が抑制される可能性があり、市場の成長が制限されることになります。

目次

第1章 調査手法と調査範囲

第2章 定義と概要

第3章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第4章 市場力学

  • 影響要因
    • 促進要因
      • 新興経済国での生産拡大
      • 大規模供給のためのパートナーシップの拡大
    • 抑制要因
      • 原料価格の変動
    • 機会
      • ボーキサイト事業の増加
    • 影響分析

第5章 産業分析

  • ポーターのファイブフォース分析
  • サプライチェーン分析
  • 価格分析
  • 規制分析
  • ロシア・ウクライナ戦争の影響分析
  • DMIの見解

第6章 COVID-19分析

第7章 製品別

  • 冶金グレード
  • 耐火グレード
  • その他

第8章 用途別

  • 冶金用アルミナ
  • セメント
  • 耐火物
  • 研磨材
  • その他

第9章 エンドユーザー別

  • 自動車
  • 建築・建設
  • 航空宇宙・防衛
  • 包装
  • 電気・電子
  • 機械・設備製造
  • その他

第10章 地域別

  • 北米
    • 米国
    • カナダ
    • メキシコ
  • 欧州
    • ドイツ
    • 英国
    • フランス
    • イタリア
    • ロシア
    • その他欧州
  • 南米
    • ブラジル
    • アルゼンチン
    • その他南米
  • アジア太平洋
    • 中国
    • インド
    • 日本
    • オーストラリア
    • その他アジア太平洋地域
  • 中東・アフリカ

第11章 競合情勢

  • 競合シナリオ
  • 市況/シェア分析
  • M&A分析

第12章 企業プロファイル

  • Rio Tinto
    • 会社概要
    • 製品ポートフォリオと説明
    • 財務概要
    • 主な発展
  • Alcoa Corporation
  • Guinea Alumina Corporation(GAC)
  • Norsk Hydro
  • Australian Bauxite Limited
  • Rusal
  • Hindalco Industries Limited
  • BHP
  • Glencore International
  • Emirates Global Aluminium PJSC

第13章 付録

目次
Product Code: MM7621

Overview

Global Bauxite Market reached US$ 14.8 billion in 2022 and is expected to reach US$ 19.7 billion by 2030, growing with a CAGR of 3.7% during the forecast period 2023-2030.

The global bauxite market is a core component of the aluminum industry, directing the essential supply chain for this multipurpose metal. The significance of it comes from its use in many different industries and from being the main component of alumina, which is the precursor to aluminum. The complex dynamics of the market are a result of a combination of factors such as quality variations, sustainability concerns, geographic abundance and shifts in the world economy.

With their large reserves of bauxite in various grades, Australia and Guinea dominate the market. Guinea's rise is largely attributable to its high-grade reserves, which have drawn significant investments and established the area as a key participant.

For instance, as per U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the world's biggest reserves of bauxite are found in Guinea. Guinea has around 7 billion Tons of basic bauxite deposits or 24% of global reserves. Australia ranks second with 5.84 billion Tons of reserves or 20% of the world's total. Therefore, the both market place accounts for the majority of the global bauxite reserves.

Dynamics

Growing production in the Emerging Economies

Guinea has large, high-quality bauxite resources that generate interest and significant investments from major participants in the global aluminum market. The reserves are highly sought after for the manufacturing of aluminum because to their purity. In recent years, Guinea has increased its production capacity steadily. The country intends to greatly increase its bauxite output in order to fulfil the growing demand for aluminum in the world by continuing investments in mining and infrastructural projects.

The rise of Guinea as a significant producer of bauxite expands the global supply chain. By increasing its output, it offers a substitute for established nations that produce bauxite, lessening reliance on certain areas for bauxite supplies.

The global bauxite market is significantly influenced by the increasing production capacity and the growth of bauxite mining in developing nations such as Guinea. The factors contribute to the market by increasing supply, offering high-quality deposits and shaping global trends in aluminum manufacturing. Guinea's rise to significance emphasizes its significant impact on the constantly changing dynamics of the world bauxite market. Thus, 21.7% of the global bauxite production or 85 million Tons of bauxite in volume, is produced in Guinea.

Growing Partnerships for Large Scale Supplies

A consistent and dependable flow of raw materials is ensured via partnerships between bauxite producers and purchasers, particularly long-term supply agreements. The supply continuity helps the processes involved in producing aluminum by lowering uncertainty associated with availability changes. Working collaboratively makes it easier to ensure the supply of bauxite in terms of both quality and quantity. Customers can rely on reliable deliveries that adhere to strict quality requirements, ensuring efficient production procedures.

By partnering with several consumers or end-users, bauxite producers can expand their market reach and lessen their reliance on any particular market or buyer. The diversification approach helps to maximize income and optimize sales channels. For instance, in October 2023, the Odisha Mining Corporation and Hindalco Industries Ltd. have announced a long-term supply agreement for bauxite ore. For its projected 2-million-ton alumina refinery and 150-MW captive power plant in Kansariguda, Rayagada district, Odisha, the company intends to source bauxite ore.

Increasing Number of Bauxite Operations

An increase in the number of bauxite operations indicates an increase in supply capacity. The increasing demand for aluminum is being addressed by this increase in production capacity, which offers plenty of chances to meet the growing demand for this adaptable metal globally.

Moreover, risk factors are greatly reduced by the variety of bauxite supplies. Numerous operational sites spread throughout various geographies reduce reliance on particular mines or nations, reducing susceptibility to supply chain disruptions caused by logistical challenges or political instability. Increased supply stability, which is necessary for steady and continuous aluminum production, is a result of this diversity.

For instance, in December 2023, a new 12.4MW solar farm and 8.8MVa/2.1MWh of battery storage have been approved by Rio Tinto to supply renewable energy to the Amrun bauxite plant in the Queensland region of Weipa. Rio Tinto's global decarbonization strategy and continuous efforts to lower emissions at its Pacific bauxite, alumina and aluminum operations include the 12.4 MW solar farm and battery storage.

Fluctuating Raw Material Prices

Operations involved in the mining and processing of bauxite depend on a number of raw resources, including energy sources, chemicals and equipment, all of which have fluctuating prices. A sudden increase in the cost of these inputs might drive up production costs and lower bauxite companies' profit margins. The cost structure of bauxite operations is impacted by volatility in raw material costs, which makes it difficult for businesses to accurately predict and control production expenses.

Uncertain and volatile raw material prices may cause companies or investors considering expansions to hold back. Due to this cost uncertainty, investments in new projects or the expansion of current bauxite operations may be discouraged, which would restrict market growth.

Segment Analysis

The global bauxite market is segmented based on product, application, end-user and region.

Essential Characteristics and Rising Demand Fueling Aluminium Production

The primary source of aluminum is metallurgical-grade bauxite because of its high aluminum oxide content. By refining it into alumina, which is then processed into aluminum metal, the Bayer process extracts aluminum from bauxite. Because of this feature, alumina is effectively extracted during the refining process, increasing aluminum output rates while lowering production costs.

The global bauxite market may be impacted by changes in the supply of metallurgical-grade bauxite caused by variables such as mining regulations, geopolitical instability, environmental concerns or natural disasters. The market's sensitivity to supply disruptions is emphasized by the potential of price increases. Therefore, the metallurgical grade product segment captures the majority of the total segmental shares.

Geographical Penetration

Large Scale Reserves and Higher Production Leads to the Regional Growth

Large bauxite reserves are present in Africa, especially in nations like Guinea, Ghana and Sierra Leone. Particularly Guinea has some of the biggest and best-quality bauxite reserves across the world. Africa is a major hub for the mining and production of bauxite due to these enormous reserves.

In response to the rising demand for aluminum globally, a number of African nations have been increasing their bauxite production. Because of its abundant deposits, Guinea has experienced a significant increase in bauxite production, attracting investments and increasing output. Therefore, the Middle East and Africa is growing at a highest CAGR during the forecasted period.

COVID-19 Impact Analysis

The epidemic caused supply chain disruptions that had an impact on bauxite mining and transportation globally. Lockdowns, limitations on mobility and a lack of workers hampered mining operations, delaying output and affecting supply levels throughout the world, particularly in Asia and Africa.

The pandemic's effects on the economy led to a decline in demand for aluminum and its derivatives. Production of aluminum fell as a result of downturns in key aluminum-consuming industries like building, aerospace and automotive. The reduced the need for bauxite as a raw material as a result.

Price fluctuations for bauxite were caused by changes in supply chains and a decline in the demand for aluminum. Price volatility was brought on by uncertain economic conditions and supply chain interruptions, which had an effect on the profitability of bauxite importers and producers in Asia and Africa.

Bauxite mining companies had additional operating challenges during the epidemic as a result of adhering to health and safety requirements. It became imperative to protect worker safety while preserving operational effectiveness, which resulted in extra expenses and possible production delays.

Russia-Ukraine War Impact Analysis

Trade routes may be disrupted by geopolitical conflicts, especially if export or import restrictions, embargoes or sanctions are put in place. The supply and distribution of bauxite on the global market could be impacted by any disruptions in trade agreements or shipping channels involving major bauxite-supplying nations.

Increased geopolitical tensions are frequently accompanied by market uncertainty. Price changes in commodities, such as those of bauxite, caused by this uncertainty. Changes in demand patterns, disruptions in the supply chain or speculative activity can all cause prices to become volatile.

By Product

  • Metallurgical Grade
  • Refractory Grade
  • Others

By Application

  • Alumina for Metallurgical Purposes
  • Cement
  • Refractories
  • Abrasives
  • Others

By End-User

  • Automotive
  • Building and Construction
  • Aerospace and Defense
  • Packaging
  • Electrical and Electronics
  • Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing
  • Others

By Region

  • North America
    • U.S.
    • Canada
    • Mexico
  • Europe
    • Germany
    • UK
    • France
    • Italy
    • Russia
    • Rest of Europe
  • South America
    • Brazil
    • Argentina
    • Rest of South America
  • Asia-Pacific
    • China
    • India
    • Japan
    • Australia
    • Rest of Asia-Pacific
  • Middle East and Africa

Key Developments

  • In October 2023, The Odisha Mining Corporation and Hindalco Industries Ltd. have announced a long-term supply agreement for bauxite ore. For its projected 2-million-ton alumina refinery and 150-MW captive power plant in Kansariguda, Rayagada district, Odisha, the business intends to source bauxite ore.
  • In September 2023, Adbri has awarded ABx Group a contract to provide 90,000-120,000t of bauxite to its cement factory in Birkenhead, South Australia, starting in early 2024 and continuing five years. A "conservative" estimates of US$ 5.4 million has been published by Business News regarding the contract's value. Bauxite from ABx Group's DL130 mining operation will be supplied. Three resources totaling 13.7 million Tons of bauxite reserves are under the project's control.
  • In March 2023, India's top producer and exporter of aluminum and alumina, National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), which is governed by the Ministry of Mines, successfully developed a Bauxite Certified Reference Material (CRM) known as BARC B1201 in association with the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).

Competitive Landscape

The major global players in the market include Rio Tinto, Alcoa Corporation, Guinea Alumina Corporation (GAC), Norsk Hydro, Australian Bauxite Limited, Rusal, Hindalco Industries Limited, BHP, Glencore International and Emirates Global Aluminium PJSC.

Why Purchase the Report?

  • To visualize the global bauxite market segmentation based on product, application, end-user and region, as well as understand key commercial assets and players.
  • Identify commercial opportunities by analyzing trends and co-development.
  • Excel data sheet with numerous data points of bauxite market-level with all segments.
  • PDF report consists of a comprehensive analysis after exhaustive qualitative interviews and an in-depth study.
  • Product mapping available as excel consisting of key products of all the major players.

The global bauxite market report would provide approximately 61 tables, 62 figures and 183 Pages.

Target Audience 2023

  • Manufacturers/ Buyers
  • Industry Investors/Investment Bankers
  • Research Professionals
  • Emerging Companies

Table of Contents

1. Methodology and Scope

  • 1.1. Research Methodology
  • 1.2. Research Objective and Scope of the Report

2. Definition and Overview

3. Executive Summary

  • 3.1. Snippet by Product
  • 3.2. Snippet by Application
  • 3.3. Snippet by End-User
  • 3.4. Snippet by Region

4. Dynamics

  • 4.1. Impacting Factors
    • 4.1.1. Drivers
      • 4.1.1.1. Growing production in the Emerging Economies
      • 4.1.1.2. Growing Partnerships for Large Scale Supplies
    • 4.1.2. Restraints
      • 4.1.2.1. Fluctuating Raw Material Prices
    • 4.1.3. Opportunity
      • 4.1.3.1. Increasing Number of Bauxite Operations
    • 4.1.4. Impact Analysis

5. Industry Analysis

  • 5.1. Porter's Five Force Analysis
  • 5.2. Supply Chain Analysis
  • 5.3. Pricing Analysis
  • 5.4. Regulatory Analysis
  • 5.5. Russia-Ukraine War Impact Analysis
  • 5.6. DMI Opinion

6. COVID-19 Analysis

  • 6.1. Analysis of COVID-19
    • 6.1.1. Scenario Before COVID
    • 6.1.2. Scenario During COVID
    • 6.1.3. Scenario Post COVID
  • 6.2. Pricing Dynamics Amid COVID-19
  • 6.3. Demand-Supply Spectrum
  • 6.4. Government Initiatives Related to the Market During Pandemic
  • 6.5. Manufacturers Strategic Initiatives
  • 6.6. Conclusion

7. By Product

  • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 7.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Product
  • 7.2. Metallurgical Grade*
    • 7.2.1. Introduction
    • 7.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 7.3. Refractory Grade
  • 7.4. Others

8. By Application

  • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Application
    • 8.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Application
  • 8.2. Alumina for Metallurgical Purposes*
    • 8.2.1. Introduction
    • 8.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 8.3. Cement
  • 8.4. Refractories
  • 8.5. Abrasives
  • 8.6. Others

9. By End-User

  • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By End-User
    • 9.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By End-User
  • 9.2. Automotive*
    • 9.2.1. Introduction
    • 9.2.2. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%)
  • 9.3. Building and Construction
  • 9.4. Aerospace and Defense
  • 9.5. Packaging
  • 9.6. Electrical and Electronics
  • 9.7. Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing
  • 9.8. Others

10. By Region

  • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.1.1. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Region
    • 10.1.2. Market Attractiveness Index, By Region
  • 10.2. North America
    • 10.2.1. Introduction
    • 10.2.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 10.2.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 10.2.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Application
    • 10.2.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By End-User
    • 10.2.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 10.2.6.1. U.S.
      • 10.2.6.2. Canada
      • 10.2.6.3. Mexico
  • 10.3. Europe
    • 10.3.1. Introduction
    • 10.3.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 10.3.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 10.3.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Application
    • 10.3.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By End-User
    • 10.3.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 10.3.6.1. Germany
      • 10.3.6.2. UK
      • 10.3.6.3. France
      • 10.3.6.4. Italy
      • 10.3.6.5. Russia
      • 10.3.6.6. Rest of Europe
  • 10.4. South America
    • 10.4.1. Introduction
    • 10.4.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 10.4.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 10.4.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Application
    • 10.4.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By End-User
    • 10.4.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 10.4.6.1. Brazil
      • 10.4.6.2. Argentina
      • 10.4.6.3. Rest of South America
  • 10.5. Asia-Pacific
    • 10.5.1. Introduction
    • 10.5.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 10.5.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 10.5.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Application
    • 10.5.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By End-User
    • 10.5.6. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Country
      • 10.5.6.1. China
      • 10.5.6.2. India
      • 10.5.6.3. Japan
      • 10.5.6.4. Australia
      • 10.5.6.5. Rest of Asia-Pacific
  • 10.6. Middle East and Africa
    • 10.6.1. Introduction
    • 10.6.2. Key Region-Specific Dynamics
    • 10.6.3. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Product
    • 10.6.4. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By Application
    • 10.6.5. Market Size Analysis and Y-o-Y Growth Analysis (%), By End-User

11. Competitive Landscape

  • 11.1. Competitive Scenario
  • 11.2. Market Positioning/Share Analysis
  • 11.3. Mergers and Acquisitions Analysis

12. Company Profiles

  • 12.1. Rio Tinto*
    • 12.1.1. Company Overview
    • 12.1.2. Product Portfolio and Description
    • 12.1.3. Financial Overview
    • 12.1.4. Key Developments
  • 12.2. Alcoa Corporation
  • 12.3. Guinea Alumina Corporation (GAC)
  • 12.4. Norsk Hydro
  • 12.5. Australian Bauxite Limited
  • 12.6. Rusal
  • 12.7. Hindalco Industries Limited
  • 12.8. BHP
  • 12.9. Glencore International
  • 12.10. Emirates Global Aluminium PJSC

LIST NOT EXHAUSTIVE

13. Appendix

  • 13.1. About Us and Services
  • 13.2. Contact Us