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クロルアルカリの世界市場:タイプ別(苛性ソーダ、塩素、ソーダ灰、その他)、地域別-COVID-19の影響を考慮した市場規模と動向、2028年までの予測分析

Global Chlor Alkali Market: Analysis By Type (Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Soda Ash, and Others), By Region Size and Trends with Impact of COVID-19 and Forecast up to 2028

出版日: | 発行: Daedal Research | ページ情報: 英文 145 Pages | 納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは

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クロルアルカリの世界市場:タイプ別(苛性ソーダ、塩素、ソーダ灰、その他)、地域別-COVID-19の影響を考慮した市場規模と動向、2028年までの予測分析
出版日: 2023年06月27日
発行: Daedal Research
ページ情報: 英文 145 Pages
納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

世界のクロルアルカリの市場規模は、2022年の762億1,000万米ドルから、2028年には1,030億7,000万米ドルになると予測されており、2023年から2028年までの予測期間中のCAGRは約5%となっています。様々な産業からの需要の増加、清潔な水処理ソリューションの必要性、技術革新に伴う新興国経済の拡大は、市場の成長を促進しています。

当レポートでは、世界のクロルアルカリ市場について調査しており、市場概要、市場分析、企業プロファイルなど、包括的な情報を提供しています。

目次

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 イントロダクション

  • クロルアルカリ:概要
    • クロルアルカリのイントロダクション
    • クロルアルカリプロセスのタイプ
  • クロルアルカリのセグメンテーション:概要
    • クロルアルカリのセグメンテーション

第3章 世界市場分析

  • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場:分析
    • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場:概要
    • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場:金額別
    • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場:タイプ別(苛性ソーダ、塩素、ソーダ灰、その他)
    • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場:地域別(北米、欧州、アジア太平洋、世界のその他の地域)
  • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場:タイプ分析
    • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場:概要:タイプ別
    • 世界の苛性ソーダのクロルアルカリ市場:金額別
    • 世界の塩素のクロルアルカリ市場:金額別
    • 世界の塩素のクロルアルカリ市場:最終用途別(EDC/PVC、C1/C2および芳香族化合物、化学無機、水処理、塩素化中間体、酸化プロピレン、イソシアネート、パルプおよび紙、化学有機物、その他)
    • 世界の塩素のクロルアルカリ市場:技術別(膜、隔膜、水銀、その他)
    • 世界のソーダ灰のクロルアルカリ市場:金額別
    • 世界のその他のクロルアルカリ市場:金額別

第4章 地域市場分析

  • アジア太平洋のクロルアルカリ市場:分析
  • 北米のクロルアルカリ市場:分析
  • 欧州のクロルアルカリ市場:分析
  • その他の世界のクロルアルカリ市場:分析

第5章 新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)の影響

  • COVID-19が世界のクロルアルカリ市場に与える影響
  • COVID-19後の世界のクロルアルカリ市場への影響

第6章 市場力学

  • 促進要因
    • 塩素生成量の増加
    • アルミナの需要の高まり
    • 成長する製薬産業
    • 急速な都市化
    • 成長する水処理市場
    • 拡大する紙・パルプ市場
  • 課題
    • 厳しい環境規制
    • 従来のクロルアルカリプロセスから持続可能な手法への移行
  • 市場動向
    • 環境にやさしいクロルアルカリ製品の需要の拡大
    • 技術の進歩
    • 製品の多様化と付加価値ソリューションの拡大
    • ポリ塩化ビニル(PVC)の需要の増加

第7章 競合情勢

  • 世界のクロルアルカリ市場参入企業:製品の比較

第8章 企業プロファイル

  • Solvay SA
  • The Dow Chemical Company
  • Olin Corporation
  • Occidental Petroleum Corporation
  • Tata Chemicals Limited
  • Hanwha Chemical Group
  • Tosoh Corporation
  • Westlake Corporation
  • SABIC
  • The AGC Group
  • Ineos Group (Inovyn)
  • Formosa Plastics Corp
図表

List of Tables

Table 1 : Global Chlor Alkali Market Players; Product Comparison

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Types of Chlor Alkali Processes
  • Figure 2: Chlor Alkali Segmentation
  • Figure 3: Global Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 4: Global Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 5: Global Chlor Alkali Market by Type; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 6: Global Chlor Alkali Market by Region; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 7: Global Caustic Soda Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 8: Global Caustic Soda Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 9: Global Chlorine Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 10: Global Chlorine Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 11: Global Chlorine Chlor Alkali Market by End-Use; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 12: Global Chlorine Chlor Alkali Market by Technologies; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 13: Global Soda Ash Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 14: Global Soda Ash Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 15: Global Others Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 16: Global Others Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 17: Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 18: Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 19: Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Type; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 20: Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 21: Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 22: Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Region; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 23: China Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 24: China Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 25: Japan Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 26: Japan Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 27: India Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 28: India Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 29: Rest of Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 30: Rest of Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 31: North America Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 32: North America Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 33: North America Chlor Alkali Market by Type; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 34: North America Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 35: North America Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 36: North America Chlor Alkali Market by Region; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 37: The US Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 38: The US Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 39: Canada Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 40: Canada Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 41: Mexico Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Million)
  • Figure 42: Mexico Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 43: Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 44: Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 45: Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Type; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 46: Europe Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 47: Europe Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 48: Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Region; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 49: Germany Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 50: Germany Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 51: The UK Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 52: The UK Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 53: France Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 54: France Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 55: Italy Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 56: Italy Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 57: Spain Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 58: Spain Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 59: Rest of Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 60: Rest of Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 61: Rest of World Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2018-2022 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 62: Rest of World Chlor Alkali Market by Value; 2023-2028 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 63: Global Chlorine Market Volume; 2019-2029 (Million Metric Tons)
  • Figure 64: Global Alumina Production; 2018-2022 (Million Metric Tons)
  • Figure 65: Europe Pharmaceutical Sales Per Capita by Region; 2018-2021 (US$)
  • Figure 66: Share of Urban Population in Total Population by Group of Economies; 2016, 2021 & 2050 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 67: Global Water and Wastewater Treatment Market; 2021-2029 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 68: Global Paper and Pulp Market; 2021-2029 (US$ Billion)
  • Figure 69: Solvay SA Net Sales by Segment; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 70: The Dow Chemical Company Net Sales by Segments; 2022 (Percentage,%)
  • Figure 71: Olin Corporation Sales by Segments; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 72: Occidental Petroleum Corporation Net Sales by Segments; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 73: Tata Chemicals Limited Revenue by Segments; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 74: Hanwha Chemical Group Sales by Business; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 75: Tosoh Corporation Net Sales by Segments; 2023 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 76: Westlake Corporation Net Sales by Segments; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 77: SABIC Sales by Segments; 2022 (Percentage,%)
  • Figure 78: The AGC Group Net Sales by Segment; 2022 (Percentage, %)
  • Figure 79: Ineos Group Revenue by Segment; 2022 (Percentage, %)
目次

The global chlor alkali market was valued at US$76.21 billion in 2022. The market value is expected to reach US$103.07 billion by 2028. The chlor-alkali process is an industrial process that splits salt (NaCl, also called sodium chloride) and water (H2O) into chlorine (Cl2), caustic soda (NaOH, also called sodium hydroxide), and hydrogen (H2). Chlorine and caustic soda are commodity chemicals used in many applications.

The chlor-alkali industry is constantly developing new applications for its products. For instance, chlor-alkali products are used in the production of solar panels, which are becoming increasingly popular as a source of renewable energy. The combination of increasing demand from various industries, the need for clean water treatment solutions, sustainable practices, and the expansion of emerging economies along with technological innovations is expected to contribute to the growth of the chlor alkali market. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of approx. 5% during the forecasted period of 2023-2028.

Market Segmentation Analysis:

By Type: The report provides the bifurcation of the market into four types: Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Soda Ash, and Others. Caustic soda held the highest share of the market. Also, it is expected to be the fastest-growing segment in the forecasted period. Caustic soda is a versatile chemical used in the production of various other chemicals, such as dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and solvents. The growth of chemical manufacturing industries across the globe has a positive impacton the caustic soda market, driving the demand for chlor alkali products. Chlorine is widely used for water treatment and disinfection purposes. It effectively kills bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms, making it essential for ensuring safe drinking water and maintaining sanitary conditions in swimming pools, wastewater treatment plants, and industrial water systems. As the demand for clean and safe water increases globally, the demand for chlorine grows.

By Region: The report provides insight into the chlor alkali market based on the regions namely, Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, and the Rest of the World. Asia Pacific held the major share of the market in 2022. Like so many other chemical products, caustic soda is also dominated by China - in both supply and demand. The northeast Asian region (China) is a net exporter of caustic soda to Australia, Southeast Asia, and the US West Coast. China has the largest caustic soda production capacity in the world, accounting for almost half of global capacity. Thus, the increasing production capacity of caustic soda contributes to the growth of the overall chlor alkali market in China.

The US has experienced a significant increase in shale gas production in recent years. Chlor alkali production heavily relies on chlorine, which is derived from the electrolysis of salt (sodium chloride). The availability of low-cost and abundant chlorine feedstock derived from shale gas has positively impacted the chlor alkali market, making it more cost-competitive and supporting its growth.

Germany has some of the strictest environmental regulations in the world. This has led to an increased demand for green technologies in the chlor alkali industry, as companies look to reduce their environmental impact. Also, the German government offers a number of economic incentives for companies that adopt green technologies. This includes tax breaks, grants, and loans.

Market Dynamics:

Growth Drivers: The global chlor alkali market growth is predicted to be supported by numerous growth drivers such as increasing chlorine production, rising demand for alumina, growing pharmaceutical industry, rapid urbanization, growing water treatment market, escalating paper and pulp market, and many other factors. Alumina refining requires the use of caustic soda as a key chemical reagent. Caustic soda is used to dissolve impurities and separate the desired alumina content from bauxite ore. As alumina production increases, the demand for caustic soda in the refining process also rises. This increased demand for caustic soda supports the growth of the chlor-alkali market.

Challenges: However, the market growth would be negatively impacted by various challenges such as stringent environmental regulations, shift towards sustainable practices from traditional chlor alkali processes, etc.

Trends: The market is projected to grow at a fast pace during the forecast period, due to various latest trends such as growing demand for green chlor alkali products, technological advancements, expanding product diversification and value-added solutions, increasing demand for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), etc. The demand for green chlor alkali products drives market expansion as industries and consumers increasingly prioritize sustainable sourcing and production methods. This demand creates new market opportunities for chlor alkali manufacturers who can provide environmentally friendly and responsibly produced products. It opens up avenues for growth, especially in sectors where sustainability considerations play a significant role, such as water treatment, food processing, and renewable energy industries.

Impact Analysis of COVID-19 and Way Forward:

COVID-19 had negatively affected the growth of the global chlor alkali market in the initial period of 2020, but as the restrictions eased, the market growth rates came back to the trajectory. The pandemic has led to a decline in demand for many of the products that use chlor-alkali, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), paper, and textiles. This has led to a decrease in the production and sales of chlor-alkali. In addition, the pandemic has disrupted supply chains, making it more difficult and expensive to obtain the raw materials needed to produce chlor-alkali. This has also contributed to the decline in the market. The market is expected to recover as the global economy recovers from the pandemic, and chlor-alkali producers are investing in new technologies and sustainability initiatives.

Competitive Landscape:

The global chlor alkali market is highly competitive and fragmented, with several key players operating on a global scale. The key players in the global chlor alkali market are:

Solvay SA

The Dow Chemical Company

Olin Corporation

Occidental Petroleum Corporation

Tata Chemicals Limited

Hanwha Chemical Group

Tosoh Corporation

Westlake Corporation

SABIC

The AGC Group

Ineos Group (Inovyn)

Formosa Plastics Corp.

Occidental Petroleum, through the company's subsidiary OxyChem, is a significant player in the chlor alkali market. The company produces chlorine, caustic soda, and other related chemicals for various industries, including water treatment, pulp and paper, and chemical manufacturing. On the other hand, Olin Corporation is another major player in the global chlor alkali market. The company produces chlorine, caustic soda, bleach, and other chlor alkali products. Olin serves various industries, including chemicals, textiles, and water treatment. Some of the strategies among key players in the market are mergers, acquisitions, and collaborations.

Table of Contents

    1. Executive Summary

    2. Introduction

    • 2.1 Chlor Alkali: An Overview
      • 2.1.1 Introduction to Chlor Alkali
      • 2.1.2 Types of Chlor Alkali Processes
    • 2.2 Chlor Alkali Segmentation: An Overview
      • 2.2.1 Chlor Alkali Segmentation

    3. Global Market Analysis

    • 3.1 Global Chlor Alkali Market: An Analysis
      • 3.1.1 Global Chlor Alkali Market: An Overview
      • 3.1.2 Global Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 3.1.3 Global Chlor Alkali Market by Type (Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Soda Ash, and Others)
      • 3.1.4 Global Chlor Alkali Market by Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World)
    • 3.2 Global Chlor Alkali Market: Type Analysis
      • 3.2.1 Global Chlor Alkali Market by Type: An Overview
      • 3.2.2 Global Caustic Soda Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 3.2.3 Global Chlorine Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 3.2.4 Global Chlorine Chlor Alkali Market by End-Use (EDC/PVC, C1/C2 & Aromatics, Chemical Inorganics, Water Treatment, Chlorinated Intermediates, Propylene Oxide, Isocyanate, Pulp and Paper, Chemical Organics, and Others)
      • 3.2.5 Global Chlorine Chlor Alkali Market by Technologies (Membrane, Diaphragm, Mercury, and Others)
      • 3.2.6 Global Soda Ash Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 3.2.7 Global Others Chlor Alkali Market by Value

    4. Regional Market Analysis

    • 4.1 Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market: An Analysis
      • 4.1.1 Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market: An Overview
      • 4.1.2 Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.1.3 Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Type (Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Soda Ash, and Others)
      • 4.1.4 Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value
      • 4.1.5 Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Region (China, Japan, India, and Rest of the Asia Pacific)
      • 4.1.6 China Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.1.7 Japan Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.1.8 India Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.1.9 Rest of Asia Pacific Chlor Alkali Market by Value
    • 4.2 North America Chlor Alkali Market: An Analysis
      • 4.2.1 North America Chlor Alkali Market: An Overview
      • 4.2.2 North America Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.2.3 North America Chlor Alkali Market by Type (Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Soda Ash, and Others)
      • 4.2.4 North America Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value
      • 4.2.5 North America Chlor Alkali Market by Region (The US, Canada, and Mexico)
      • 4.2.6 The US Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.2.7 Canada Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.2.8 Mexico Chlor Alkali Market by Value
    • 4.3 Europe Chlor Alkali Market: An Analysis
      • 4.3.1 Europe Chlor Alkali Market: An Overview
      • 4.3.2 Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.3.3 Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Type (Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Soda Ash, and Others)
      • 4.3.4 Europe Chlor Alkali Market Type by Value
      • 4.3.5 Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Region (Germany, The UK, France, Italy, Spain, and Rest of the Europe)
      • 4.3.6 Germany Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.3.7 The UK Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.3.8 France Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.3.9 Italy Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.3.10 Spain Chlor Alkali Market by Value
      • 4.3.11 Rest of Europe Chlor Alkali Market by Value
    • 4.4 Rest of World Chlor Alkali Market: An Analysis
      • 4.4.1 Rest of World Chlor Alkali Market: An Overview
      • 4.4.2 Rest of World Chlor Alkali Market by Value

    5. Impact of COVID-19

    • 5.1 Impact of COVID-19 on Global Chlor Alkali Market
    • 5.2 Post COVID-19 Impact on Global Chlor Alkali Market

    6. Market Dynamics

    • 6.1 Growth Drivers
      • 6.1.1 Increasing Chlorine Production
      • 6.1.2 Rising Demand For Alumina
      • 6.1.3 Growing Pharmaceutical Industry
      • 6.1.4 Rapid Urbanization
      • 6.1.5 Growing Water Treatment Market
      • 6.1.6 Escalating Paper and Pulp Market
    • 6.2 Challenges
      • 6.2.1 Stringent Environmental Regulations
      • 6.2.2 Shift Towards Sustainable Practices from Traditional Chlor Alkali Processes
    • 6.3 Market Trends
      • 6.3.1 Growing Demand for Green Chlor Alkali Products
      • 6.3.2 Technological Advancements
      • 6.3.3 Expanding Product Diversification and Value-added Solutions
      • 6.3.4 Increasing Demand for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

    7. Competitive Landscape

    • 7.1 Global Chlor Alkali Market Players: Product Comparison

    8. Company Profiles

    • 8.1 Solvay SA
      • 8.1.1 Business Overview
      • 8.1.2 Operating Segment
      • 8.1.3 Business Strategies
    • 8.2 The Dow Chemical Company
      • 8.2.1 Business Overview
      • 8.2.2 Operating Segments
      • 8.2.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.3 Olin Corporation
      • 8.3.1 Business Overview
      • 8.3.2 Operating Segments
      • 8.3.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.4 Occidental Petroleum Corporation
      • 8.4.1 Business Overview
      • 8.4.2 Operating Segments
      • 8.4.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.5 Tata Chemicals Limited
      • 8.5.1 Business Overview
      • 8.5.2 Operating Segments
      • 8.5.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.6 Hanwha Chemical Group
      • 8.6.1 Business Overview
      • 8.6.2 Operating Business
      • 8.6.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.7 Tosoh Corporation
      • 8.7.1 Business Overview
      • 8.7.2 Operating Segments
      • 8.7.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.8 Westlake Corporation
      • 8.8.1 Business Overview
      • 8.8.2 Operating Segments
      • 8.8.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.9 SABIC
      • 8.9.1 Business Overview
      • 8.9.2 Operating Segments
      • 8.9.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.10 The AGC Group
      • 8.10.1 Business Overview
      • 8.10.2 Operating Segment
      • 8.10.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.11 Ineos Group (Inovyn)
      • 8.11.1 Business Overview
      • 8.11.2 Operating Segment
      • 8.11.3 Business Strategy
    • 8.12 Formosa Plastics Corp
      • 8.12.1 Business Overview
      • 8.12.2 Business Strategy