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市場調査レポート

風力発電施設の運用・保守 (2016年):オンショア風力発電資産のROI最大化に向けた高コスト効率O&M戦略のためのリアルデータ・独自分析

The Wind Energy Operations & Maintenance Report 2016: Real Data and Independent Analysis to Help You Choose the Most Cost-effective O&M Strategy to Maximize ROI on Your Onshore Wind Power Assets

発行 Wind Energy Update 商品コード 234202
出版日 ページ情報 英文 350 Pages; 215 Figures; 158 Tables
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=102.12円で換算しております。
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風力発電施設の運用・保守 (2016年):オンショア風力発電資産のROI最大化に向けた高コスト効率O&M戦略のためのリアルデータ・独自分析 The Wind Energy Operations & Maintenance Report 2016: Real Data and Independent Analysis to Help You Choose the Most Cost-effective O&M Strategy to Maximize ROI on Your Onshore Wind Power Assets
出版日: 2016年04月06日 ページ情報: 英文 350 Pages; 215 Figures; 158 Tables
概要

当レポートでは、風力発電施設の運用・保守の最適化戦略について調査し、風力エネルギー市場の現状、関連参入事業者、各種コスト、各コンポーネントの故障の状況・原因・影響、保守・保全戦略の種類と概要、タービンサイズ・発電容量による最適な保守戦略の選定に関する分析、様々なO&Mサービスと最適なO&Mサービス利用に関する検証などをまとめています。

エグゼクティブサマリー

第1章 O&M市場の概要・規模・状況

  • 風力エネルギー市場の展望
    • 世界の設備発電容量
    • 現在の主要市場
    • 世界市場の展望
  • 主要参入事業者
    • オペレーター
    • オーナー
    • タービン製造業者
  • タービンサイズ
  • O&M市場
    • 風力発電所O&M市場の規模
    • 保証ステータス
    • O&M市場の動向

第2章 コスト&パフォーマンスの進化

  • コンポーネントの資本コスト
  • 風力発電電力コスト
  • O&Mコスト
  • 性能 - イールド/アベイラビリティ

第3章 故障頻度・ダウンタイム

  • 定義と調査手法
  • サブコンポーネントレベルでの故障率
  • タービン設備容量の影響
  • タービン技術の影響
  • タービン使用年数の影響

第4章 主要コンポーネントの故障:原因・モード・影響

  • 利用不可の理由
  • 主要コンポーネントの故障
    • ギアボックス
    • ブレード
    • 発電機

第5章 二次コンポーネントの故障:原因・モード・影響

  • サマリー
  • 故障モード・コスト因子
    • 機械的コンポーネント
    • 電気的コンポーネント
    • その他の構造的コンポーネント

第6章 保守戦略

  • 事後保全
  • 予防保全
  • 予知保全
  • CMSのメリットの概要
  • 改良保守

第7章 最適化への潜在的道筋

  • 産業オートメーション
  • サプライチェーンアライメント
  • 近代化・標準化
  • 労働者のスキル
  • 先進資産管理
  • R&D・技術の動向

第8章 O&Mサービス環境について

  • サマリー
  • O&M環境の進化
  • O&Mサービス
  • 契約とリスク

第9章 オーナー/オペレーターと社内オプション

  • 保証期間の成功戦略
  • 保証期間後のO&Mサービスの意思決定
  • 社内オプション

第10章 タービンOEMと延長保障オプション

  • サマリー
  • オーナータイプ別の各種OEMサービス
  • O&Mヒューマンリソース戦略
  • 製造&サプライチェーン/調達オプション
  • EOWの契約上の保証
  • O&M投資戦略
  • OEM戦略の進化

第11章 独立系サービスプロバイダーとサードパティ

  • サマリー
  • 主なエントリーポイント
  • 長期O&M戦略
  • ISPサービス要件:オーナータイプ別
  • O&Mヒューマンリソース戦略
  • 製造・供給/調達オプション
  • O&M契約オプション
  • O&M投資戦略・新しい市場機会

第12章 保険会社

  • サマリー
  • 風力O&M保険の環境
  • リスクのカテゴリー化
  • O&Mリスク管理
  • タービン技術関連リスク
  • その他のリスク因子
  • リスク環境の変化

第13章 O&M市場スコアカード

  • O&Mサービスオプション
  • 手法
  • O&M市場スコアカード
    • 北米
    • 南米
    • 北欧
    • 西欧
    • 東欧
    • 南欧
    • アジア太平洋
    • アフリカ・中東
  • O&Mサービス市場サマリー

第14章 資産保守戦略スコアカード

  • 保守戦略
    • 事後保全
    • 予防保全
    • 予知保全
    • 改良保守
  • 手法
  • 保守戦略スコアカード
  • 制約など

第15章 総論

付録

用語

図表

このページに掲載されている内容は最新版と異なる場合があります。詳細はお問い合わせください。

目次

Once a wind farm is operational, adopting a cost-effective operations and maintenance strategy is the main path for operators to maximize ROI on wind energy. In order to arrive at the optimal O&M strategy, an operator needs to make three crucial decisions:

Who carries out O&M?

The options are contracting the turbine manufacturer, relying on independent service providers or servicing wind turbines in-house

Should O&M be predictive, scheduled or reactive?

And what are the costs and performance implications of each approach?

Which approach is most cost effective depending on the size, age and location of each wind power asset?

The WEU Wind Energy O&M Report 2016 provides data and analysis to help you answer these questions and enable you to formulate the most cost-effective O&M strategy for your wind power assets

Once a wind farm is operational, adopting a cost-effective operations and maintenance strategy is the main path for operators to maximize ROI on wind energy. In order to arrive at the optimal O&M strategy, an operator needs to make three crucial decisions:

Who carries out O&M?

The options are contracting the turbine manufacturer, relying on independent service providers or servicing wind turbines in-house

Should O&M be predictive, scheduled or reactive?

And what are the costs and performance implications of each approach?

Which approach is most cost effective depending on the size, age and location of each wind power asset?

The WEU Wind Energy O&M Report 2016 provides data and analysis to help you answer these questions and enable you to formulate the most cost-effective O&M strategy for your wind power assets

KEY QUESTIONS ANSWERED:

  • What are the main causes of turbine failure and how can I prevent them?
  • What types of turbine failure have the biggest impact on productivity?
  • How can I avoid catastrophic failure of gearboxes, generators or blades through best O&M practice?
  • When is it more cost effective to carry out O&M in-house rather than working with OEMs or ISPs?
  • How are other companies reducing their O&M costs whilst delivering better wind farm performance?
  • Under which circumstances is it cost-effective to invest in condition monitoring systems, rather than carry out scheduled O&M?
  • Which O&M strategies are more suitable for my particular type of asset and market?

SAMPLE

Figure 37: Wind speeds and produced energy for an example Vestas turbine

                     Source: Vestas, 2011

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

Methodology

1. O&M Market Overview, Sizing and Status

  • 1.1. Wind energy market outlook
    • 1.1.1. Global installed capacity
    • 1.1.2. Leading markets in 2014
    • 1.1.3. Worldwide future prospects
    • 1.1.4. Towards 2020 and beyond to 2030
  • 1.2. Major market players
    • 1.2.1. Operators
    • 1.2.2. Owners
    • 1.2.3. Turbine manufacturers
  • 1.3. Turbine size
  • 1.4. O&M market
    • 1.4.1. Wind farm O&M market size
    • 1.4.2. Warranty status
    • 1.4.3. O&M market trends

2. Evolution of costs and performance

  • 2.1. Component capital costs
    • 2.1.1. Turbine transaction costs
    • 2.1.2. Turbines with gearbox
    • 2.1.3. Direct drive turbines with Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)
  • 2.2. Cost of wind generated electricity
    • 2.2.1. Historical LCOE trends
    • 2.2.2. Other sources of electricity and grid parity
  • 2.3. O&M costs
    • 2.3.1. Historical trends
    • 2.3.2. Initial warranty and post warranty periods
    • 2.3.3. Cost breakdown comparison with other energy sources
    • 2.3.4. Breakdown of cost factors
  • 2.4. Performance - yield/availability
    • 2.4.1. Historical availability trends
    • 2.4.2. Market benchmarking
    • 2.4.3. Actual contract warranties for availability
    • 2.4.4. Operational performance
    • 2.4.5. Capacity factor trends and comparison with other sources
    • 2.4.6. Routes to improvement

3. Failure frequency and downtimes

  • 3.1. Definitions and methodology
  • 3.2. Failure rates at the sub-component level
  • 3.3. The effect of turbine capacity
  • 3.4. The effect of turbine technology
  • 3.5. The effect of turbine age

4. Failure of major components: causes, modes and implications

  • 4.1. Reasons for unavailability
  • 4.2. Major component failure
    • 4.2.1. Gearbox
      • Gearbox failure causes
      • Gearbox failure modes
      • Best practices
      • Buy new, repair or remanufacture?
      • Design improvements
    • 4.2.2. Blades
      • Blade failure causes
      • Blade failure modes
      • Changing loads with increasing size
      • Serial defects
      • Best practices
    • 4.2.3. Generator
      • Generator failure causes
      • Generator failure modes
      • Generator failure rates
      • Best practices

5. Failure of secondary components: causes, modes and implications

  • Chapter Summary
  • 5.1. Failure modes and cost factors
    • 5.1.1. Mechanical components
      • Drivetrain components
      • Yaw system
      • Mechanical brakes
      • Hydraulic systems
    • 5.1.2. Electrical components
      • Pitch system
      • Power converter
      • Sensors
    • 5.1.3. Other structural components
      • Tower and foundations
      • Bolted joints
      • Torque vs. Tension

6. Maintenance strategies

  • 6.1. Reactive maintenance (corrective)
  • 6.2. Preventive (time-based) maintenance
    • 6.2.1. Critical inspections of major components
      • Gearbox and lubrication
      • Rotor blades
      • Generator
  • 6.3. Predictive maintenance
    • 6.3.1. Performance monitoring (non-intrusive condition monitoring)
      • SCADA data analysis
      • Performance monitoring
      • Power signal analysis
      • Electrical signature analysis
    • 6.3.2. Condition-based maintenance
      • Vibration analysis
      • Remote oil debris monitoring
      • Strain measurements
      • Fiber optic measurements
      • Shock pulse method
      • Thermography
      • Temperature monitoring
      • Acoustic monitoring
      • Visual inspection
      • Ultrasonic testing
      • Radiographic inspection
    • 6.3.3. Reliability-based maintenance (risk-based)
  • 6.4. Benefits of CMS in a nutshell
    • 6.4.1. Reduction of failure rate
      • Cost savings
    • 6.4.2. Trend analysis
    • 6.4.3. Improved documentation
      • Insurance premium
  • 6.5. Improvement maintenance

7. Potential routes towards optimization

  • 7.1. Industrial automation
  • 7.2. Supply chain alignment
  • 7.3. Modularization and standardization
  • 7.4. Labor skills
  • 7.5. Advanced asset management
    • 7.5.1. Performance upgrades
    • 7.5.2. Aerodynamic performance
    • 7.5.3. Site parameters
    • 7.5.4. Cost and risk considerations
  • 7.6. Trends in R&D and technology
    • 7.6.1. A fundamental question: Gearbox or no gearbox?
    • 7.6.2. Wind specific designs
    • 7.6.3. Integration and interaction of monitoring and control systems
      • Smart Monitoring

8. Understanding the O&M services landscape

  • Chapter Summary
  • 8.1. Evolution of the O&M landscape
    • 8.1.1. O&M in other power industries
    • 8.1.2. O&M in the onshore wind market
    • 8.1.3. The future of wind O&M: condition-based monitoring and beyond
  • 8.2. O&M services
    • 8.2.1. OEMs and EOW full-service contracts
    • 8.2.2. Independent service providers (third parties)
    • 8.2.3. In-house O&M
    • 8.2.4. Tapered (Hybrid)
  • 8.3. Contracts and risks
    • 8.3.1. Contract length
    • 8.3.2. Scope of services
    • 8.3.3. Allocation of costs and revenues
    • 8.3.4. Allocation of risks

9. Owners/operators and the in-house option

  • 9.1. Warranty period success strategy
    • 9.1.1. OEM contract negotiation
    • 9.1.2. Risk mitigation
    • 9.1.3. OEM partnership
    • 9.1.4. Active involvement
    • 9.1.5. Managing end of warranty: inspections
  • 9.2. O&M service decision-making in the post-warranty period
    • 9.2.1. Decision parameters
    • 9.2.2. Technical asset management
    • 9.2.3. Benchmarking
    • 9.2.4. Risk mitigation versus profitability optimization
    • 9.2.5. Improving performance and availability
    • 9.2.6. Cooperation with other owners/operators (data sharing)
  • 9.3. In-house option
    • 9.3.1. Activities and resources
    • 9.3.2. Best practices
    • 9.3.3. Supply chain management
    • 9.3.4. Going hybrid

10. Turbine OEMs and the extended warranty option

  • Chapter Summary
  • 10.1. OEM services based on the owner type
    • 10.1.1. Utilities
    • 10.1.2. IPPs
    • 10.1.3. Medium investors
    • 10.1.4. Co-op investors
    • 10.1.5. Small investors
  • 10.2. O&M human resource strategy
  • 10.3. Manufacturing and supply chain/procurement options
  • 10.4. EOW contractual guarantees
    • 10.4.1. Gamesa's flexible offering
    • 10.4.2. GE's production-based guarantees
    • 10.4.3. Driving down loss production at Vestas
    • 10.4.4. Siemens' five-point service offering
    • 10.4.5. Suzlon offers time-based and production-based guarantees
    • 10.4.6. Enercon's successful partner concept
  • 10.5. O&M investment strategies
  • 10.6. Evolving OEM strategies

11. Independent service providers and third parties

  • Chapter Summary
  • 11.1. Main entry points
    • 11.1.1. The value added by ISPs
    • 11.1.2. The future of ISPs
    • 11.1.3. Other third parties
  • 11.2. Long-term O&M strategy
  • 11.3. ISP service requirements by owner type
    • 11.3.1. Utilities
    • 11.3.2. IPPs
    • 11.3.3. Medium investors
    • 11.3.4. Co-op investors
    • 11.3.5. Small investors
  • 11.4. O&M human resource strategy
  • 11.5. Manufacturing and supply chain/procurement options
  • 11.6. O&M contracts options
  • 11.7. O&M investment strategies and new opportunities

12. Insurers

  • Chapter Summary
  • 12.1. Wind O&M insurance landscape
  • 12.2. Risk categorization
  • 12.3. O&M risk management
  • 12.4. Risks associated with turbine technology
    • 12.4.1. Legacy models
    • 12.4.2. Up-rate models
    • 12.4.3. New models
  • 12.5. Other risk factors for insurers
    • 12.5.1. Supply chain
    • 12.5.2. Skilled labor
    • 12.5.3. Gearbox vs direct-drive
    • 12.5.4. Life extension
  • 12.6. Changing risk environment
    • 12.6.1. Market exposure
    • 12.6.2. Changing capital sources
    • 12.6.3. Lagging grid investment: curtailment

13. O&M Market Scorecards

  • 13.1. O&M Services Options
    • 13.1.1. OEMs and EOW Full-Service Contracts
    • 13.1.2. Independent Service Providers
    • 13.1.3. In-house O&M
    • 13.1.4. Tapered (Hybrid)
  • 13.2. Market Scorecard Methodologies
    • 13.2.1. Market Readiness
      • Market Strength
      • Market Potential
      • Operational Risk
      • Ease of Doing Business
      • O&M Service Landscape
      • Weighting of O&M Market Readiness Scorecard factors
    • 13.2.2. Service Market Strategy Suitability
  • 13.3. O&M Market Scorecards
    • 13.3.1. North America
      • US
      • Mexico
    • 13.3.2. South America
      • Brazil
    • 13.3.3. Northern Europe
      • UK
      • Denmark
      • Sweden
    • 13.3.4. Western Europe
      • Germany
      • France
    • 13.3.5. Eastern Europe
      • Poland
      • Turkey
      • Romania
    • 13.3.6. Southern Europe
      • Spain
      • Italy
    • 13.3.7. Asia-Pacific
      • China
      • India
      • Australia
    • 13.3.8. Africa and Middle East
      • South Africa
  • 13.4. O&M Service Market Summary

14. Asset Maintenance Strategy Scorecard

  • 14.1. Maintenance Strategies
    • 14.1.1. Reactive Maintenance (Corrective)
    • 14.1.2. Preventive (Time-Based) Maintenance
    • 14.1.3. Predictive Maintenance
      • Performance monitoring (non-intrusive condition monitoring)
      • Condition-based maintenance
      • Reliability-based maintenance (risk-based)
    • 14.1.4. Improvement Maintenance
  • 14.2. Maintenance Scorecard Methodology
    • 14.2.1. Failure Scenarios
    • 14.2.2. Model Parameters
      • Supply Chain Factors
      • CMS Factors
      • Additional Factors
  • 14.3. Maintenance Strategy Scorecard
    • 14.3.1. Reference Failure Scenario
    • 14.3.2. High Gearbox Failure Scenario
    • 14.3.3. High Blade Failure Scenario
    • 14.3.4. High Generator Failure Scenario
  • 14.4. Limitations and Future Work

15. Concluding remarks

Appendixes

  • Appendix A: Regional Outlook and O&M Status
  • Appendix B: Sciemus' simulations on Onshore Wind Turbine Failure Rates. A Note on Methodology
  • Appendix C: O&M Market Readiness Weighted Factor Outputs
  • Appendix D: Example case composed of 105x2MW turbines
  • Appendix E: Optimum O&M Response Strategy Outputs for Different Scenarios

Abbreviations

Bibliography

List of Boxes

  • BOX 1: Case Study - Lifetime costs for a 300MW onshore wind farm
  • BOX 2: Cost of inefficient turbine operation
  • BOX 3: Big data in the wind industry
  • BOX 4: Case Study - Secondary damage and escalating costs
  • BOX 5: Case Study - End-of-warranty inspections
  • BOX 6: Case Study - Close-up on Windar Photonics LIDAR cost/revenue
  • BOX 7: Case Study - Pitch fault types and associated turbine unavailability costs
  • BOX 8: Potential cost savings through bolt conversion
  • BOX 9: Case Study - How clearly defining scope of work impacts the repair budget
  • BOX 10: Drone inspection
  • BOX 11: Case Study - LIDAR measurements to correct yaw misalignment
  • BOX 12: Case Study - Vibration monitoring for the detection of severe blade misalignment
  • BOX 13: Case Study - Main bearing predictive risk-based maintenance
  • BOX 14: Case Study - An upgraded inverter for GE 1.5 S
  • BOX 15: Establishing predictive business capabilities
  • BOX 16: Separating operation and maintenance
  • BOX 17: Industrial internet and SCADA infrastructure virtualization
  • BOX 18: Case study - Cooperation with OEM and ISP and cross-transfer of gained knowledge
  • BOX 19: Case study - Spare part strategy and risk/cost management
  • BOX 20: Case study - Turbine performance improvement cooperating with the OEM
  • BOX 21: Case study - Benchmarking top-line performance by comparing wind farm availability
  • BOX 22: Increasing competition in the O&M market
  • BOX 23: Case study - A successful supply chain strategy
  • BOX 24: Case study - Hands-on cost saving
  • BOX 25: Repowering or life extension
  • BOX 26: OEMs planning to service other OEM products
  • BOX 27: Case study - A benchmarking tool for all size of projects: Greensolver Index
  • BOX 28: Intellectual property right risks for ISPs
  • BOX 29: Virtual power plants (VPP)

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Worldwide wind energy capacity
  • Figure 2: Global annual cumulative wind installed capacity
  • Figure 3: Top 10 cumulative capacity markets
  • Figure 4: Worldwide cumulative installed capacity breakdown
  • Figure 5: Top 10 new Installed capacity in 2014
  • Figure 6: New Policies Scenario and forecast cumulative installed capacity by region
  • Figure 7: Top 15 operator around the world by installed capacity
  • Figure 8: Top 15 owners around the world by installed capacity
  • Figure 9: Largest volumes of publically-announced onshore turbine contracts (January-July 2014)
  • Figure 10: Top 10 turbine manufacturers
  • Figure 11: Evolution of wind turbine capacity and size in Germany
  • Figure 12: Evolution of installed capacity in US and average rated power, 2004-2014
  • Figure 13: China's estimated cumulative off-warranty onshore wind capacity
  • Figure 14: Global growth of out-of-warranty O&M market
  • Figure 15: How often do you re-evaluate your turbine O&M strategy throughout the lifecycle of your asset?
  • Figure 16: What do you anticipate will be the contract cost variation in your key market in the next two years?
  • Figure 17: Reported wind turbine transaction prices over time
  • Figure 18: Very common high-speed modular, two-point mounted drivetrain (e.g. Vestas V80, Gamesa 2MW, GE 1.5 77)
  • Figure 19: Manufacturing cost share of components for a geared 2MW turbine
  • Figure 20: Manufacturing cost share of components for a 2MW PMG turbine
  • Figure 21: Very common high-speed modular, two-point mounted drivetrain (e.g. Vestas V80, Gamesa 2MW, GE 1.5 77)
  • Figure 22: LCOE of unsubsidized onshore wind
  • Figure 23: Unsubsidized LCOE comparison
  • Figure 24: LCOE for different generation technologies, 2009-2014
  • Figure 25: LCOE of utility-scale renewable technologies, 2010 and 2014
  • Figure 26: Distribution of wind farm operating costs
  • Figure 27: Average price for full-service O&M contracts
  • Figure 28: Average annual O&M costs, 1982-2013
  • Figure 29: What is the typical length of your O&M service contracts?
  • Figure 30: How would you most likely tailor an O&M strategy in the following scenarios?
  • Figure 31: Warranty/Post warranty O&M costs
  • Figure 32: Lifetime costs for a 300MW wind farm
  • Figure 33: LCOE cost breakdown for different energy sources
  • Figure 34: Total O&M cost breakdown
  • Figure 35: Current and projected fixed O&M costs
  • Figure 36: Current and projected variable O&M costs
  • Figure 37: Wind speeds and produced energy for an example Vestas turbine
  • Figure 38: Different availability definitions used in the industry
  • Figure 39: Time variation of wind farm technical availability
  • Figure 40: Impact of availability benchmarks on equity returns
  • Figure 41: Wind farm availability trend over time
  • Figure 42: What is the most common availability guarantee agreed within full service contracts?
  • Figure 43: Yearly real average capacity factors recorded in US, conventional vs. renewable resources
  • Figure 44: Capacity factors by project and weighted averages for commissioned and proposed wind farms, 2010-2014
  • Figure 45: Failure rates by sub-component for global turbine peer group
  • Figure 46: Lost days per year by sub-component for global turbine peer group
  • Figure 47: Failure rates by turbine capacity
  • Figure 48: Outage duration for different components, split by turbine capacities
  • Figure 49: Lost days per year by turbine capacity
  • Figure 50: Failure rates by turbine technology
  • Figure 51: Outage duration by turbine technology
  • Figure 52: Lost days per year by turbine technology
  • Figure 53: Failure rates by component
  • Figure 54: Average outage duration by component over a turbine's lifetime
  • Figure 55: Lost days per year by component for global turbine peer group
  • Figure 56: Outages as a percentage of turbine operational availability
  • Figure 57: Based upon your wind assets what is currently the most common cause of unavailability?
  • Figure 58: A typical wind turbine gearbox
  • Figure 59: Failing components in wind turbine gearboxes
  • Figure 60: GE's approach for keeping gearbox repairs up-tower
  • Figure 61: Estimated gearbox overhaul and lost revenue costs by nameplate capacity
  • Figure 62: Cost factors for a new, repaired and remanufactured gearbox
  • Figure 63: With respect of your portfolio, which 3 of the following components yield the most expensive O&M activities? (Ranked 1 to 3)
  • Figure 64: Setting up FusionDrive from Moventas
  • Figure 65: Major failure modes for wind turbine blades
  • Figure 66: Severity and incidence of common blade damage and wear
  • Figure 67: Warranty state of inspected blades
  • Figure 68: Blade defect type breakdown
  • Figure 69: Lifecycle of a healthy blade
  • Figure 70: Distribution of main causes of failure of generators or electrical engines
  • Figure 71: Generator magnetic wedge failure modes
  • Figure 72: Rotor banding failure due to overspeed conditions
  • Figure 73: Occurrence of generator failure modes
  • Figure 74: Position of main bearing at the rotor end of the drivetrain
  • Figure 75: Spherical roller main bearing for wind turbine
  • Figure 76: Example of a yaw system
  • Figure 77: Number of yaw system patents
  • Figure 78: Wrong yaw position in a wind farm
  • Figure 79: Yaw misalignment measurement on a Vestas V-82 turbine in India
  • Figure 80: Windar Photonics LIDAR
  • Figure 81: Mechanical brakes for a typical MW-class wind turbine
  • Figure 82: Braking system faults and their likelihood of detection by remote current analysis
  • Figure 83: Possible hydraulic applications in the nacelle
  • Figure 84: Causes of hydraulic fluid leakage
  • Figure 85: Auxiliary electrical equipment in the nacelle (in orange)
  • Figure 86: Pitch control faults at a 21x2MW turbine wind farm over a two-year period
  • Figure 87: Load control faults at a 21x2MW turbine wind farm over a two-year period
  • Figure 88: Source of stress distribution in power electronic systems
  • Figure 89: Common turbine condition monitoring sensors
  • Figure 90: Typical wind turbine bolt connections
  • Figure 91: Lost turbine due to foundation failure
  • Figure 92: Theoretical torque vs. actual torque on different bolts
  • Figure 93: Direct tension indicator
  • Figure 94: Tension monitoring bolt
  • Figure 95: Currently used maintenance strategies
  • Figure 96: Which O&M response approach do you tend to adopt in relation to a fleet of ageing wind turbines?
  • Figure 97: How would you best describe your approach towards O&M activities over the whole lifecycle of your assets?
  • Figure 98: Blade repair procedure
  • Figure 99: Using drones for wind turbine inspections
  • Figure 100: SCADA mechanism for failure analysis
  • Figure 101: SCADA prediction example: Gearbox bearing temperature
  • Figure 102: Turbine problems that can be detected early through SCADA analysis
  • Figure 103: Operational yaw error data before and after the correction
  • Figure 104: Relative benefits of monitoring approaches
  • Figure 105: Condition monitoring symptom and fault analysis and response process
  • Figure 106: Typical data sources leading to classic condition-based maintenance program
  • Figure 107: In general, do you tend to deploy condition monitoring systems (CMS) on your assets?
  • Figure 108: What kind of CMS do you typically deploy?
  • Figure 109: Possible application of CMSs
  • Figure 110: Potential vibration sensor locations on the drive train
  • Figure 111: Approximate costs for drivetrain O&M and installation of a vibration based CMS
  • Figure 112: Variation of wind speed including period of increased vibration alert
  • Figure 113: Pitch ram before and after corrective action
  • Figure 114: ECN's fiber optic load monitoring sensor and sensor installed on an existing turbine
  • Figure 115: Infrared image of generator connections shows a problem with brushes
  • Figure 116: Potential failure - Functional failure (P-F) curve
  • Figure 117: Mobile scanning unit traversing a turbine blade
  • Figure 118: Costs associated with maintenance strategies
  • Figure 119: Main bearing replacement requires an expensive crane
  • Figure 120: Life expectancy for the main bearing considering micro-pitting damage
  • Figure 121: The strategic equation for reliability based maintenance
  • Figure 122: Failure detection and repair timeline
  • Figure 123: Damage development for corrective (left) - and CB maintenance (right)
  • Figure 124: A blown inverter from a GE 1.5MW S series turbine and an upgraded replacement inverter
  • Figure 125: Anticipated impact of all innovations by element
  • Figure 126: In-situ foam application concept and beltsander prototype for grinding and polishing
  • Figure 127: Levels of vertical integration in OEMs
  • Figure 128: Realizable saving potentials by product standardization
  • Figure 129: The key to modularity
  • Figure 130: Illustration by Vestas of more value propositions with lower complexity
  • Figure 131: Skills gap to 2030 (FTE)
  • Figure 132: Survey results for the ease of finding suitably trained staff in wind industry
  • Figure 133: Optimized management and operations
  • Figure 134: Improvements to the different regions of the power curve
  • Figure 135: Air flow elements: (left) Vortex generators, (right) trailing edge serrations
  • Figure 136: Optimized management and operations
  • Figure 137: Spinner-mounted ultrasonic sensor
  • Figure 138: Drivers and barriers for a typical wind turbine blade upgrade program
  • Figure 139: Rare earth metal prices compared with gold over a six-year period
  • Figure 140: SKF Bearing built for wind turbines
  • Figure 141: Which area is the O&M industry focusing on for 2015?
  • Figure 142: Business capabilities
  • Figure 143: Wind O&M market segments and typical service company
  • Figure 144: Condition monitoring is a key part of a successful O&M strategy, how could it be used more effectively?
  • Figure 145: Which O&M service strategy do you believe is the best fit in the post-warranty period?
  • Figure 146: SCADA infrastructure virtualization
  • Figure 147: What is the typical length of your O&M service contracts?
  • Figure 148: Cost factors as a result of a component failure
  • Figure 149: Owner strategy for success
  • Figure 150: The power curve for a turbine
  • Figure 151: Extended Bathtub Curve
  • Figure 152: O&M strength and weaknesses from a wind park owner perspective
  • Figure 153: How often do you re-evaluate your O&M service strategy throughout the lifecycle of your asset? Turbine O&M (left); BoP O&M (right)
  • Figure 154: : Owner's perspective - Insourcing of O&M and Asset Management activities
  • Figure 155: Benchmarking availability of a wind farm compared to the global peer group
  • Figure 156: What are you doing to take advantage of the increasing competition in the O&M market?
  • Figure 157: Different approaches to in-sourcing based on owner's risk feeling
  • Figure 158: In-house operational excellence
  • Figure 159: Which of the following options best describes the service strategy you are currently most commonly deploying in relation to your portfolio?
  • Figure 160: An example of required activities and resources for post-warranty in-house O&M
  • Figure 161: Steps for an effective supply chain management
  • Figure 162: JUWI's spare parts stock
  • Figure 163: Escalation management, levelled support
  • Figure 164: Problem solving procedure and cost structure
  • Figure 165: What is the collective operational capacity of your onshore wind energy portfolio in MW?
  • Figure 166: What percentage of your Onshore Wind portfolio remains within the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) warranty period?
  • Figure 167: Estimated turbine demand by nameplate capacity resulting from repowering
  • Figure 168: Which O&M response approach do you tend to adopt in relation to a fleet of ageing wind turbines?
  • Figure 169: What of the following statements applies to your O&M services?
  • Figure 170: Different availability definitions used in the industry
  • Figure 171: Gamesa's O&M Service Proposition
  • Figure 172: Customer profitability pyramid
  • Figure 173: Site optimization roadmap (illustrative)
  • Figure 174: Vestas' Loss Production Factor
  • Figure 175: Vestas' O&M Strategy
  • Figure 176: Siemens Wind Power Service Programs
  • Figure 177: Which of the following O&M service strategies would you identify as currently representing your biggest competition?
  • Figure 178: O&M Responsibilities through the wind farm lifetime
  • Figure 179: Which of the following service strategies do you anticipate to dominate the O&M landscape in your key market over the next five years?
  • Figure 180: What do you anticipate will be the contract cost variation in your key market in the next two years?
  • Figure 181: When choosing an O&M strategy for you asset, what is the primary objective you are seeking?
  • Figure 182: Expenditure on risk management services in renewable energy (left) Low scenario, (right) High scenario
  • Figure 183: How would you most likely tailor an O&M strategy in the following scenarios (post-OEM warranty period)?
  • Figure 184: Siemens' decentralised energy management system (DEMS)
  • Figure 185: A battery for storing wind energy is housed in a structure located at the base of the turbine
  • Figure 186: Wind power production and curtailment by province in China during 2013
  • Figure 187: Which area is the O&M industry focusing on for 2015?
  • Figure 188: Which O&M service strategy do you believe is the best fit in the post-warranty period?
  • Figure 189: ABEEólica's cumulative wind capacity projections for Brazil
  • Figure 190: Wind energy job landscape in France across the value chain
  • Figure 191: O&M wind energy players in France and the territorial distribution of O&M wind jobs
  • Figure 192: OEM market share for wind farms in operation
  • Figure 193: OEM market share for wind farms under construction
  • Figure 194: Wind energy operator market share in Italy
  • Figure 195: Currently used maintenance strategies
  • Figure 196: Which O&M response approach do you tend to adopt in relation to a fleet of ageing wind turbines?
  • Figure 197: How would you best describe your approach towards O&M activities over the whole lifecycle of your assets?
  • Figure 198: Condition monitoring symptom and fault analysis and response process
  • Figure 199: In general, do you tend to deploy condition monitoring systems (CMS) on your assets?
  • Figure 200: What kind of CMS do you typically deploy?
  • Figure 201: Strategic equation for reliability-based maintenance
  • Figure 202: Maintenance scenario considerations
  • Figure 203: Maintenance strategy scorecard workflow
  • Figure 204: P-F curve
  • Figure 205: Probability versus component condition indicator
  • Figure 206: Reference scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
  • Figure 207: Reference scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
  • Figure 208: High gearbox failure scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
  • Figure 209: High gearbox failure scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
  • Figure 210: High blade failure scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
  • Figure 211: High blade failure scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
  • Figure 212: High generator failure scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
  • Figure 213: High generator failure scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
  • Figure 214: Production Tax Credit and US market activity
  • Figure 215: Brazil's ABEEólica's cumulative wind capacity projections

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Worldwide cumulative installed capacity breakdown
  • Table 2: Top 10 turbine manufacturers worldwide
  • Table 3: Scorecard Market-Specific Regions and Countries
  • Table 4: Representative geared wind turbine manufacturing costs
  • Table 5: Manufacturing costs of a wind turbine with blade pitch control and variable-speed permanent magnet generator
  • Table 6: Percentage change of levelized cost per MWh for selected renewable technologies
  • Table 7: Cost of onshore wind O&M from several sources
  • Table 8: Factors affecting wind farm availability
  • Table 9: Advantages and drawbacks of availability definitions
  • Table 10: Component categories and sub-components of wind turbines
  • Table 11: Classification of wind turbine technology
  • Table 12: US Wind farm operational metrics
  • Table 13: Cost of onshore wind O&M from several sources
  • Table 14: Wind energy asset and data sampling
  • Table 15: GE's up-tower repair capability
  • Table 16: Up-tower repair cost estimations
  • Table 17: Repaired vs. remanufactured gearbox
  • Table 18: Most common causes of blade failure
  • Table 19: Blade failure types at a 67-turbine wind farm (over 14 years)
  • Table 20: Changing loading effects and dominant failure types with increased blade size
  • Table 21: Possible damage found on blade and recommended time for correction
  • Table 22: Effect of leading edge erosion on turbine output
  • Table 23: Up-tower vs. down-tower bearing repairs
  • Table 24: Defect analysis of a wind turbine's supervisory and control system
  • Table 25: 100MW wind farm LIDAR profit estimation
  • Table 26: Scheduled and unscheduled downtime events
  • Table 27: Maintenance constraints
  • Table 28: Wind turbine gear lubrication oil condition and its significance
  • Table 29: Repair offers from various vendors
  • Table 30: Comparison of blade access methods
  • Table 31: Benefits of a drone inspection
  • Table 32: Pros and cons of different maintenance strategies
  • Table 33: Example wind farm characteristics
  • Table 34: Yaw misalignment measurements and estimated gain from correction
  • Table 35: Minimum number of sensors for certification
  • Table 36: Oil debris monitoring complements vibration analysis
  • Table 37: Oil analysis sensors on the market
  • Table 38: Anonymized costs of widely used and commercially available CM and SHM systems
  • Table 39: Turbine gearbox common inspection techniques
  • Table 40: The reliability challenge in the wind industry seen before, today and in the future
  • Table 41: Drive train condition monitoring cost simulation results
  • Table 42: SHM systems on blades, tower and foundation
  • Table 43: Power performance upgrades activities
  • Table 44: Benefits of fully-integrated CMS
  • Table 45: Advantages and disadvantages of OEM service contracts
  • Table 46: Advantages and disadvantages of ISP service contracts
  • Table 47: Current challenges and potential advantages through infrastructure virtualization
  • Table 48: Virtualized solution cost vs. OEM cost
  • Table 49: Advantages and disadvantages of in-house maintenance
  • Table 50: Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid strategies
  • Table 51: JUWI's knowledge gain through hybrid maintenance strategies
  • Table 52: Wind O&M service contract scope
  • Table 53: Outcome of the risk/cost analysis for the given case
  • Table 54: Recommendations for OEM contract negotiation
  • Table 55: Risk factors and their management
  • Table 56: Risk management versus profitability optimization for post-warranty
  • Table 57: Schematic O&M cost savings potential through the hybridization of O&M
  • Table 58: OEMs are adopting new strategies
  • Table 59: Necessary characteristics of ISPs
  • Table 60: Risks associated with wind farms
  • Table 61: Common insurance policies against operational risks
  • Table 62: Advantages and disadvantages of OEM service contracts
  • Table 63: Advantages and disadvantages of ISP service contracts
  • Table 64: Advantages and disadvantages of in-house maintenance
  • Table 65: Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid strategies
  • Table 66: Industry Metric Classes Considered
  • Table 67: O&M Market Readiness Scorecard Factors and Classes
  • Table 68: Capacity Factor Ranking and Weighing
  • Table 69: O&M Market Readiness Scorecard Weights (From WEU Onshore O&M Survey 2015)
  • Table 70: O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard Factors and Classes
  • Table 71: O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard Stakeholder Relevance Matrix
  • Table 72: US' O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 73: US' O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 74: Canada's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 75: Canada's O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 76: Mexico's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 77: Mexico's O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 78: Brazil's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 79: Brazil's O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 80: UK's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 81: UK's O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 82: Denmark's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 83: Denmark's O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 84: Sweden's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 85: Sweden's O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 86: Germany's O&M Market Scorecard
  • Table 87: Germany's O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
  • Table 88: France's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 89: France's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 90: Poland's O&M market readiness scorecard
  • Table 91: Poland's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 92: Turkey's O&M market readiness scorecard
  • Table 93: Turkey's O&M market strategy scorecard
  • Table 94: Romania's O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
  • Table 95: Romania's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 96: Spain's market readiness scorecard
  • Table 97: Spain's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 98: Italy's O&M market readiness scorecard
  • Table 99: Italy's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 100: China's O&M market readiness scorecard
  • Table 101: China's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 102: India's O&M market readiness scorecard
  • Table 103: India's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 104: Australia's O&M market readiness scorecard
  • Table 105: Australia's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 106: South Africa's O&M market readiness scorecard
  • Table 107: South Africa's O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
  • Table 108: O&M market scorecards result summary
  • Table 109: Pros and cons of different maintenance strategies
  • Table 110: 20 year failure rate inputs for all scenarios
  • Table 111: Periodic maintenance cost and frequency
  • Table 112: Component cost assumptions (USD)
  • Table 113: Component downtime per failure assumptions (days)
  • Table 114: Average labor cost per failure assumptions (USD)
  • Table 115: Major component crane assumptions
  • Table 116: Average crane cost per failure assumptions (USD)
  • Table 117: Lead time assumptions
  • Table 118: Transportation time assumptions
  • Table 119: CMS costs
  • Table 120: Total failure cost for all gearbox failures for a given population
  • Table 121: Gearbox CMS parameters for major failure modes
  • Table 122: Compound gearbox CMS parameters
  • Table 123: Major component CMS parameter assumptions
  • Table 124: Additional failure cost due to secondary damage
  • Table 125: Economies of scale for CMS
  • Table 126: Overall cost of generation of conventional fuel-based power vs. wind tariffs
  • Table 127: Farm parameters
  • Table 128: Periodic maintenance costs
  • Table 129: Component risk factors and failure scenario
  • Table 130: Supply chain factors
  • Table 131: Condition monitoring system (CMS) factors
  • Table 132: Major component lifetime O&M costs
  • Table 133: Scorecard output based on the lifetime cost comparison
  • Table 134: Normalized scorecard result
  • Table 135: Case 1 - 3MW turbines, 630MW wind farm
  • Table 136: Case 1 - 2MW turbines, 420MW wind farm
  • Table 137: Case 1 - 1MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
  • Table 138: Case 2 - 3MW turbines, 315MW wind farm
  • Table 139: Case 2 - 2MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
  • Table 140: Case 2 - 1MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
  • Table 141: Case 3 - 3MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
  • Table 142: Case 3 - 2MW turbines, 140MW wind farm
  • Table 143: Case 3 - 1MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
  • Table 144: Case 4 - 3MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
  • Table 145: Case 4 - 2MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
  • Table 146: Case 4 - 1MW turbines, 35MW wind farm
  • Table 147: Case 5 - 3MW turbines, 630MW wind farm
  • Table 148: Case 5 - 2MW turbines, 420MW wind farm
  • Table 149: Case 5 - 1MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
  • Table 150: Case 6 - 3MW turbines, 315MW wind farm
  • Table 151: Case 6 - 2MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
  • Table 152: Case 6 - 1MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
  • Table 153: Case 7 - 3MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
  • Table 154: Case 7 - 2MW turbines, 140MW wind farm
  • Table 155: Case 7 - 1MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
  • Table 156: Case 8 - 3MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
  • Table 157: Case 8 - 2MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
  • Table 158: Case 8 - 1MW turbines, 35MW wind farm
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