市場調査レポート

洋上風力エネルギー施設の運転および保守

Offshore Wind Energy Operations and Maintenance

発行 Wind Energy Update 商品コード 234200
出版日 ページ情報 英文 100+ Pages
納期: 即日から翌営業日
価格
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=101.32円で換算しております。
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洋上風力エネルギー施設の運転および保守 Offshore Wind Energy Operations and Maintenance
出版日: 2011年11月30日 ページ情報: 英文 100+ Pages
概要

急速な技術発展、新製品の登場、困難な海上環境、急成長する設置発電容量、さらには風力発電施設の名目容量により、その運転および保守(O&M:operations and maintenance)が深刻化しています。こうした事態に、予知不能なコンポーネント故障、サービス船の不足、施設アクセスの難しさ、議論の余地を残す新型タービンの信頼性といった問題も加わって、コスト効率の高い洋上発電事業の実施が、過去に例を見ないほど、困難になっています。

当レポートでは、コスト効率にすぐれたO&M戦略およびシステムの立案に向けて、予測・事後保守の実質コスト、ダウンタイムで消失する実質時間、実際のコンポーネント欠陥率を明らかにする調査データを集め、概略以下の構成でお届けします。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 イントロダクション

  • 調査方法
  • オフショアO&Mのトレンド
  • オフショアO&Mの将来見通し

第3章 コンポーネントの信頼性

  • ローターブレード
    • ブレードルートコネクション
    • ブレード修理
  • タワー
  • 基礎
  • ドライブトレイン
    • ギヤボックス
    • ジェネレーター
    • ダイレクトドライブ
  • 電気系
    • パワーエレクトロニクス
    • トランスフォーマー
  • その他
    • 海底電線
    • 電気レイアウト

第4章 O&M管理

  • 戦略的考察
    • コスト考察
    • 海況
    • 岸との距離
    • 可動資源
    • 各プロジェクトの特殊事情
    • 「予定内」と「予定外」
  • 予防保守
    • 定期保守
    • 予測保守
  • 事後保守
  • 保守の最適化
    • 資産ライフステージ考察
    • 遠隔監視と事象検知
  • O&Mコスト

第5章 諸設備

  • 好天期
  • 洋上アクセス
    • ヘリコプター
    • 宿泊施設
  • 港湾設備
  • 使用可能な船舶
    • 大型コンポーネント運搬船
    • ケーブル敷設船
    • サービス船
    • 汎用船
    • 船舶建造の見通し
  • コスト考察

第6章 健康および安全

  • 関連法
  • 事故および災害
  • 訓練
    • 海中作業訓練
  • 海洋考察
    • 安全圏
    • 人員の快適性
  • コスト

第7章 結論

第8章 その他の情報

第9章 謝辞

第10章 著者について

第11章 参考資料

目次

Abstract

Optimise your operations and maintenance strategy by identifying the true costs, downtimes and failure rates of modern and future wind farms.

A unique insight into what the true costs and downtimes are for offshore wind farm O&M and unearth the component failure rates that continue to affect your OPEX.

With rapidly evolving technology, new product offerings, a challenging marine environment and rapidly growing installed capacity as well as wind park nominal capacity come serious operation and maintenance challenges. Combine this with the unpredictability of component failures, the limited number of servicing vessels, the challenging park accessibility and the debatable reliability of new rolled-out turbines make ensuring a cost effective offshore operations and maintenance strategy is in place has never been more difficult.

This report unearths the true costs of predictive and corrective maintenance, the real hours lost to downtime and actual component failure rates, to allow you to build the best strategies and systems for cost effective operations and maintenance.

Purchase this report today and get...

  • Comprehensive scrutiny of the true costs of preventative and corrective maintenance
  • Analysis of current and predicted component failure rates
  • In-depth breakdowns of current and future accessibility options
  • An understanding of how to utilise SCADA and Condition Monitoring data

Cut straight to the facts with this industry leading report...

  • Drill down on component reliability and failure rates
  • Identify which components are causing the most failure events
  • Discover what successes that have been implemented by the industry
  • Understand how condition monitoring systems can drive down cost
  • Find out how increased CAPEX on a wind farm can hugely reduce OPEX
  • Unearth how future technology can reduce the man hours needed for maintenance
  • Operations and Maintenance management
  • Discover the true costs of preventative and corrective maintenance
  • Get an insider's perspective to maintenance strategies and optimisation
  • Learn how SCADA and CMS data analysis are integrated in O&M planning

Offshore Logistics

  • Discover what are the current trends and future outlook in marine access
  • Understand how technology innovation is widening the weather window
  • Uncover the latest Health and Safety best practice

Offshore Health and Safety

  • Find out how the offshore wind industry can benefit from a strong HSE culture
  • Realise what key challenges O&M providers are facing at sea
  • Gain a new perspective on how other industry sectors deal with HSE controls & measures

Who should buy this report?

  • Offshore wind farm owners capitalising on the lowest per kWh costs
  • Developers seeking avenues to produce cost effective projects
  • Any investor seeking an understanding of CAPEX and OPEX requirements in an offshore wind project
  • Manufacturers and suppliers developing more reliable components and systems
  • Logistics, access and HSE providers assessing commercial opportunities
  • Third party companies wanting to provide technology and systems capable of coping the requirements of the offshore wind industry

Report Methodology

Wind Energy Update undertook in-depth interviews and surveys of over 125 industry leading executives within utility companies, developers, investors, operators, OEMs and service providers.

The extensive data that was accumulated from theses interviews and surveys allowed for the production of key industry benchmarks for the true costs of offshore O&M, the hours lost to downtime and the most prevalent component failures. The research team has created a single document including all aspects that affect operational expenditure and challenges of offshore wind.

About Wind Energy Update

We are a global business intelligence and conference company.

Part of the First Conferences Ltd. group, it's our people that make us the market leader we are today. We are passionate about realising the potential of wind energy to its fullest, and look to do so by building on the strengths we've developed over 19 years of business success. Provides business intelligence to the Global Wind Energy Industry.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

2. Introduction

  • 2.1. Methodology
  • 2.2. Offshore Operation and Maintenance Trends
  • 2.3. Offshore Operation and Maintenance Outlook

3. Component Reliability

  • 3.1. Rotor Blades
    • 3.1.1. Blade Root Connection
    • 3.1.1. Blade Repair
  • 3.2. Tower
  • 3.3. Foundation
  • 3.4. Drive Train
    • 3.4.1. Gearbox
    • 3.4.2. Generator
    • 3.4.3. Direct Drive
  • 3.5. Electrical Systems
    • 3.5.1. Power Electronics
    • 3.5.2. Transformers
  • 3.6. Balance of Plant
    • 3.6.1. Sub-Marine Conductors
    • 3.6.2. Electrical Layouts

4. Operation and Maintenance Management

  • 4.1. Strategic Considerations
    • 4.1.1. Cost Considerations
    • 4.1.2. Marine Conditions
    • 4.1.3. Distance to Shore
    • 4.1.4. Mobilization Resource
    • 4.1.5. Project-Specific Considerations
    • 4.1.6. Planned vs Unplanned
  • 4.2. Preventive Maintenance
    • 4.2.1. Scheduled Maintenance
    • 4.2.2. Predictive Maintenance
  • 4.3. Corrective Maintenance
  • 4.4. Maintenance Optimization
    • 4.4.1. Asset Life Stage Considerations
    • 4.4.2. Remote Monitoring and Event Detection
  • 4.5. Operation & Maintenance Cost

5. Logistics

  • 5.1. Weather Window
  • 5.2. Marine Access
    • 5.2.1. Boat
    • 5.2.2. Helicopter
    • 5.2.3. Accommodation
  • 5.3. Port Facilities
  • 5.4. Ship Availability
    • 5.4.1. Large Component Vessels
    • 5.4.2. Cable-Laying Vessel
    • 5.4.3. Service Vessel
    • 5.4.4. Multi-Purpose Ship
    • 5.4.5. Vessel Building Outlook
  • 5.5. Cost Considerations

6. Health and Safety

  • 6.1. Legislation
  • 6.2. Incidents & Hazards
  • 6.3. Training
    • 6.3.1. Subsea Training
  • 6.4. Nautical Considerations
    • 6.4.1. Safety Zones
    • 6.4.2. Crew Comfort
  • 6.5. Cost

7. Conclusions

8. Other Information

9. Acknowledgements

10. About the Authors

11. References

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Offshore Wind Turbine Component-Wise Failure Rates (Faulstich et al. 2011)
  • Figure 2: Bathtub Curve Reliability Distribution
  • Figure 3: Offshore Wind Turbine Failure Severity Landscape (WEU Survey 2011)
  • Figure 4: Offshore Timely Failure Rates (van de Pieterman et al. n.d.)
  • Figure 5: Wind Park Configuration (van de Pieterman et al. n.d.)
  • Figure 6: Damage Accumulation (van de Pieterman et al. n.d.)
  • Figure 7: Structural Failure and Material Damage Modes (McGugan et al. 2008)
  • Figure 8: LM Wind Power Blade Condition Monitoring System (Korsgaard 2004)
  • Figure 9: Offshore Wind Turbine Rotor Blade Bathtub Curve (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Figure 10: Tower Damage Factors Breakdown (Muhlberg 2010)
  • Figure 11: Tower Coating Failure (Guy 2010)
  • Figure 12: Coating Repair Campaign (Guy 2010)
  • Figure 13: Offshore Wind Turbine Technological Foundation Landscape (Wybren 2011)
  • Figure 14: Transition Piece Grouting Improvement (DNV 2011b)
  • Figure 15: Corrosion in Offshore Wind Energy (van der Mijle Meijer 2009)
  • Figure 16: 4MW PMSG Source (The Switch 2011)
  • Figure 17: Vibratory Sensor (Verbruggen 2010)
  • Figure 18: RMS Vibratory Response of a Bearing Pre and Post Replacement (Verbruggen 2010)
  • Figure 19: Middelgrunden Turbine Transformer Impact on Downtime and Production (J. Larsen et al. 2009)
  • Figure 20: Turbine Transformer Retrofit Campaign Cost Breakdown (J. Larsen et al. 2009)
  • Figure 21: Middelgrunden Transformer Replacement (J. Larsen et al. 2009)
  • Figure 22: Power Collection Grid Topology Outage Duration Comparison (Sannino B. K., 2007)
  • Figure 23: Conductor Cost Breakdown (GMS 2011)
  • Figure 24: Cable Fault Landscape (from 1959 to 2006)
  • Figure 25: Lillgrund String Connections and Power Collector System (Vattenfall 2011)
  • Figure 26: Lillgrund Offshore Substation (Siemens 2011)
  • Figure 27: Loss of Production Evolution as a Function of Distance to Port (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Figure 28: Planned and Unplanned Maintenance Patterns (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Figure 29: Annual In-Situ Interventions (WEU Survey 2011)
  • Figure 30: SCADA and CMS Alarm Resulting in Turbine Shutdown (WEU Survey 2011)
  • Figure 31: Analytical 5MW Wind Turbine Power Curve (Wind Energy Update 2011)
  • Figure 32: Condition-Based Monitoring Repair Strategy Example (Verbruggen 2010)
  • Figure 33: Gearbox Condition Monitoring
  • Figure 34: Failure Rate of Sensors Compared to other Turbine Components
  • Figure 35: Maintenance Strategy Allotted Budget Breakdown (WEU Survey 2011)
  • Figure 36: Corrective Maintenance Data from OPEX Calculations (Trollnes S. 2010)(WEU Survey 2011)
  • Figure 37: Risk-Based Decision Tree for O&M Planning (Jessen Nielsen & Dalsgaard Sorensen 2010)
  • Figure 38: Modified Bathtub Curve for Serial Failure (Olme 2009)
  • Figure 39: OPEX Budget Breakdown (WEU Survey 2011)
  • Figure 40: Performance-Based Access and Transfer Design Process (DNV 2011a)
  • Figure 41: Critical Resource to O&M Activity Execution (WEU Survey 2011)
  • Figure 42: Example Weather Window for a Monohul Crane (Costache 2010)
  • Figure 43: Cumulative Distribution Function of the Weather Window (Bussel & Bierbooms 2005)
  • Figure 44: Offshore Wind Supply Vessel (Catamaran Style) (Force 3 Offshore 2011)
  • Figure 45: Offshore Wind Support Crew (Force 3 Offshore 2011)
  • Figure 46: SWATH Boat (Maritime Journal 2010)
  • Figure 47: Fob Lady Access Boat (Offshore Windservice APS 2011)
  • Figure 48: Ampelmann's Active Motion Compensation Gangway System (AMPELMANN 2011)
  • Figure 49: Offshore Access System (Arabian Oil and Gas 2008)
  • Figure 50: Helicopter Access to the Nacelle Top (Wind Energy The Facts 2011)
  • Figure 51: BARD 1's BorWin Alpha's Transformer and Accommodation Platform (Finnern 2010)
  • Figure 52: Maximum Conditions for Current Installation Vessels (Skiba 2010)
  • Figure 53: Nexans' Offshore Skagerrak Cable-Laying Vessel (Scottish Enterprise 2011)
  • Figure 54: Export Cable Carousel
  • Figure 55: Export Cable Carousel
  • Figure 56: Dual Sword Cable Trenching ROV (Blue Offshore 2011)
  • Figure 57: Singe Sword Cable Trenching ROV (Blue Offshore 2011)
  • Figure 58: Wind farm sizes and distance to shore from 1991 to 2009 (Oliver Heinecke 2010)
  • Figure 59: Multi-Purpose Maintenance Vessel Rendering (Scandoil 2011)
  • Figure 60: DNV-OS-J201 Standard (DNV 2011a)
  • Figure 61: Emergency Flow Chart Example (GL Garrad Hassan 2011a)
  • Figure 62: Serious HSE Incident Frequency (Statoil 2011)
  • Figure 63: Total Recordable HSE Injury Frequency (Statoil 2011)
  • Figure 64: Immediate Incident Cause Breakdown (GL Garrad Hassan 2011a)
  • Figure 65: Emergency Response Training (Nielsen 2002)
  • Figure 66: Emergency Rescue Training (Nielsen 2002)

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Severity Rating of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (Durham University, 2011)
  • Table 2: Failure Mobilization Requirement (Kotsonis 2010)
  • Table 3: Damage Classification of Offshore Rotor Blades (CP.MAX 2011)
  • Table 4: Rotor Blade Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Table 5: Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Reliability (Sorensen 2007)
  • Table 6: Blade Aging Timeline (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Table 7: Offshore Wind Tower Coating Protection Cost (Guy 2010)
  • Table 8: Offshore Wind Tower Coating Protection and Offshore Repair Cost Estimation
  • Table 9: Gearbox Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Table 10: Generator Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Table 11: Electrical System Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Table 12: Control System Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Table 13: Offshore Wind Turbine Gearbox and Generator Details
  • Table 14: Turbine Transformer Failure Rate and MTTR (Holmstrom & Negra 2007)
  • Table 15: Conductor Failure Rate (Sannino B. K., 2007)
  • Table 16: Seasonal Mean Time to Repair (Sannino B. K., 2007)
  • Table 17: Switchgear Failure Rate (Sannino & Breder, 2006)
  • Table 18: O&M Element Cost Estimate (Cavaco C. 2011)
  • Table 19: Availability Category (GL Garrad Hassan 2011b)
  • Table 20: Component-Based Monitoring Examples
  • Table 21: UK Offshore Round I Economics (10% Discount Rate)
  • Table 22: Access System Wave Height and Wind Speed Acceptance (Bussel & Bierbooms 2005)(Kotsonis 2010)
  • Table 23: Maintenance Actions for an Offshore Wind Farm and Their Occurrence (Tveiten 2011)
  • Table 24: Jack-Up Vessel Market Potential (Nerland 2010)
  • Table 25: Vessels Used in Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Europe (Kaiser & Snyder 2010)
  • Table 26: Specification for Newly Built Vessels (Kaiser & Snyder 2010)
  • Table 27: OPEX Generic Project Cost Breakdown (Scottish Enterprise 2011)
  • Table 28: Hazards for O&M Work in Offshore Wind Farms (Tveiten 2011)
  • Table 29: Training Requirements at Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Vattenfall 2011)
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