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高度自動車安全技術の分析:ドライバーの注意散漫防止、ADAS(先進運転支援システム)、HMI(ヒューマン・マシン・インターフェース)

Advanced Auto Safety Report 2014 - Driver Distraction, ADAS & HMI

発行 TU Automotive 商品コード 310593
出版日 ページ情報 英文 104 Pages; 57 Figures & Graphs; 13 Tables
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高度自動車安全技術の分析:ドライバーの注意散漫防止、ADAS(先進運転支援システム)、HMI(ヒューマン・マシン・インターフェース) Advanced Auto Safety Report 2014 - Driver Distraction, ADAS & HMI
出版日: 2014年09月30日 ページ情報: 英文 104 Pages; 57 Figures & Graphs; 13 Tables
概要

安全性は自動車メーカーにとって常に最優先の考慮事項となっています。そして近年は、独自の安全性機能の開発が進んできました。第1・第2世代までの技術はすでに様々な自動車に搭載されているため、現在は第3世代の技術開発が各メーカーで進められています。

当レポートでは、全世界の自動車業界における安全運転技術の開発状況について分析し、自動車メーカー各社の経営者・技術者へのインタビューに基づいて、特にドライバーの注意散漫の防止技術や、ADAS(先進運転支援システム)、自動運転技術、それらの技術の管理・操作のためのHMI(ヒューマン・マシン・インターフェース)の現在までの開発状況や今後の開発・市場化の見通しなどに関する情報をお届けいたします。

第1章 ドライバーの注意散漫に関する理解

  • 「ドライバーの注意散漫」とは何か?
    • ドライバーの「不注意」と「注意散漫」
  • ドライバーの注意散漫の原因
  • ドライバーの注意散漫の構造の解明
    • ドライバーの能力に関する実験的研究
    • 自然な運転方法に関する研究
    • 衝突事故ベースの研究
    • 観察ベースの研究
  • 一次的・二次的タスクに関する再考
    • 認識力の散漫化と視覚・行動の散漫化:どちらがより危険か
    • 音声制御は万能ではない
    • 人間・技術の注意散漫に対する影響
  • ドライバーの注意散漫に関する研究:情報源

第2章 ガイドラインと規制

  • 関係組織と規制当局
    • 欧州委員会
    • NHTSA(高速道路交通安全事業団)
    • AAM(自動車製造業者連合)
    • ISO(国際標準化機構)
    • SAE(自動車技術者協会)
    • JAMA(日本自動車工業会)
    • ITU(国際電気通信連合)
    • ITSに関する欧州・米国・日本の協力関係
  • ドライバーの注意散漫防止・誘導に関するマイルストーン(過去・未来)
  • 今後のインターフェース・技術に関する規制の発展

第3章 民生用家電・モバイル通信機器の傾向

  • コンテンツとコネクテッドサービス:数の力
  • IoT(モノのインターネット)
  • ウェアラブル技術
    • デジタル医療技術
  • 物体認識のための各所へのカメラ設置

第4章 インターフェースとインタラクション

  • 音声・肉声・発音
    • ボイスコントロール
    • 音声認識
  • ヘッドアップ・ディスプレイ内のAR(拡張現実)
  • 大型タッチスクリーン
  • ジェスチャーでのインタラクション
  • 触覚的なフィードバックのあるタッチ・インタラクション

第5章 ドライバーの注意散漫の緩和戦略と、未来の自動車のための魅力的なHMIの設計

  • HMIの設計戦略
    • 単純化
    • 個人化
      • モバイル通信機器との一体化
        • Apple
        • Google
        • MirrorLink
      • サマリー
    • マルチモード・インタラクション
    • ドライバーの視線の先への情報の優先的表示
    • 状況認識と適応的なHMI
      • 心理的な負荷
      • ドライバーのモニタリング
    • 設計・実装の品質
      • 前面デザイン
  • プロセスの改善
    • 公式なガイドラインや規制が公表されるまで待ってはならない
    • パートナーとの協力関係の改善

第6章 ADASと未来の自動運転

  • 自動運転のロードマップ
    • 法規制
  • 状況認識と制御回復
  • ADASからの警告の認識に関する課題

業界側の教訓

略語集

図表一覧

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目次

Safety has always been at the top of the agenda in the mind of automakers, and recently it has been propelled to new heights with the development of safety specific functions. There are already vehicles on the road with L1 and L2 capabilities - with L3 being the next step for the automakers. It's the perfect time to conduct in-depth research, to ensure strategies are in line with industry trends and developments.

This report takes a step by step approach, taking the reader through all aspects that require consideration when devising safety solutions. These range from driver distraction, through to ADAS and autonomous features.

The report draws on in-depth interviews with more than 30 industry specialists, and an exclusive Telematics Update survey of international market sentiments drawing on the answers of 352 executives. Telematics Update then turned these insights into an impartial assessment of the market.

Key Takeaways

  • Driver distraction :Understand what driver distraction is and what its many causes and effects are. Get a solid overview of the most important driver distraction studies to date. Rethink your views on the safety of voice-based interfaces and the relative dangers of cognitive driver distraction
  • Guidelines and regulations : Get to know the most important regulatory bodies and professional organizations in the area of driver distraction and HMI design. Learn about their latest regulatory efforts and understand how to keep up with their ever-evolving and, at times, conflicting demands
  • Consumer electronics and mobile trends : Consider the many consumer electronics trends pushing their way into modern cars and the various HMI design/driver distraction challenges they engender
  • Interfaces and interactions : Learn about the latest advances in interface technologies - from natural voice processing and large touchscreens to gesture controls and augmented reality - and what advantages they offer modern HMIs for safe and exciting use
  • Strategies for mitigating driver distraction through HMI design : Understand how to combine various interfaces and interactions into overall strategies for managing driver distraction. Review product simplification and personalization plus multimodal interfaces and context-aware HMIs
  • Driver distraction and automated driving : Realize that until self-driving cars are commercially available, distraction will continue to be a significant concern. Understand the situations where a driver's attention will still be required, from ADAS warnings to retaking control of the vehicle

Companies Who Contributed

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Previous Buyers

Companies that have bought previous editions of this report include:

  • Daimler
  • Homda
  • Hyundai Mobis
  • Toyota Motor Europe
  • LG Electronics
  • Fujitsu Ten

Table of Contents

Welcome

Industry reviews

Thought leadership

About Telematics Update

Thought Leadership

Acknowledgments

List of figures

List of tables

Introduction

Executive summary

Chapter 1: Understanding driver distraction

  • Figure 1: Percentage of driver
  • 1.1 What is driver distraction 2
    • 1.1.1 Driver inattention vs. driver distraction
  • 1.2 Sources of driver distraction
  • 1.3 Building a picture of driver distraction
    • 1.3.1 Experimental studies of driving performance
    • 1.3.2 Naturalistic driving studies
    • 1.3.3 Crash-based studies
    • 1.3.4 Observation-based studies
  • 1.4 Rethinking primary vs. secondary tasks
    • 1.4.1 Cognitive distraction vs. visual-manual distraction: Which is more dangerous
    • 1.4.2 Voice control is not the panacea31
    • 1.4.3 People and technology influence distracted driving
  • 1.5 Resources for driver distraction research

Chapter 2: Guidelines and regulation

  • Figure 1: Percentage of driver
  • 2.1 Organizations and regulators
    • 2.1.1 European Commission
    • 2.1.2 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
    • 2.1.3 Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM)
    • 2.1.4 International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    • 2.1.5 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)4
    • 2.1.6 Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)
    • 2.1.7 International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
    • 2.1.8 EU-US-Japan cooperation in ITS
  • 2.2 Milestones in driver distraction regulation and guidance (past and future)
  • 2.3 Regulatory developments for future interfaces and technology

Chapter 3: Consumer electronics and mobile trends

  • Figure 1: Percentage of driver
  • 3.1 Content and connected services: Strength in numbers
  • 3.2 The Internet of Things
  • 3.3 Wearable technology
    • 3.3.1 Digital healthcare
  • 3.4 Cameras everywhere with object recognition

Chapter 4: Interfaces and interaction

  • Figure 1: Percentage of driver
  • 4.1 Sound, voice and speech
    • 4.1.1 Voice control
    • 4.1.2 Sound perception
  • 4.2 Augmented reality in Head-Up Displays
  • 4.3 Large touchscreens
  • 4.4 Gestural interaction
  • 4.5 Touch interaction with haptic feedback

Chapter 5: Strategies for mitigating driver distraction anddesigning winning HMI in the vehicles of tomorrow

  • Figure 1: Percentage of driver
  • 5.1 HMI design strategies7
    • 5.1.1 Simplification
    • 5.1.2 Personalization
      • 5.1.2.1 Integration of mobile devices
        • 5.1.2.1.1 Apple
        • 5.1.2.1.2 Google
        • 5.1.2.1.3 MirrorLink
      • 5.1.2.2 Summary
    • 5.1.3 Multimodal interaction
    • 5.1.4 Prioritize information in the driver's line of sight
    • 5.1.5 Context aware and adaptive HMI
      • 5.1.5.1 Mental workload
      • 5.1.5.2 Driver monitoring
    • 5.1.6 Quality of design implementation
      • 5.1.6.1 Font design
  • 5.2 Process improvements
    • 5.2.1 Don't wait for official distraction guidelines and regulations before acting
    • 5.2.2 Improve collaborative partnerships

Chapter 6: ADAS and the future of automated driving

  • Figure 1: Percentage of driver
  • 6.1 Automated technology roadmap9
    • 6.1.1 Legislation
  • 6.2 Situation awareness and taking back control
  • 6.3 The challenge of making ADAS warnings noticed

Industry learnings

List of acronyms

List of figures

  • Figure 1: Percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes for different age groups in 2012
  • Figure 2: Broad views on driver distraction vs. driver inattention (mean values)
  • Figure 3: Graphical representation of driver inattention showing driver distraction as a specific type of inattention
  • Figure 4: Methods of assessing driving performance and driver demand
  • Figure 5: Cell phone distraction goes underreported in crash-based studies
  • Figure 6: Activities are placed on the continuum based on how essential they are to the driving task and overall workload
  • Figure 7: Driver distraction and risk to safety
  • Figure 8: Understanding driver distraction for the purpose of HMI design
  • Figure 9: Tasks listed in ascending order for the amount of off-road glance time that occurred during the completion of each task
  • Figure 10: Milestones in driver distraction regulation and guidance (past and future)
  • Figure 11: Consumer purchase priorities
  • Figure 12: Consumer interest in ADAS compared with connected services
  • Figure 13: Forecast of connectivity penetration in Western Europe
  • Figure 14: The IoT will connect all kinds of infrastructure, devices and Cloud services
  • Figure 15: Samsung Gear Fit
  • Figure 16: Google Glass
  • Figure 17: Nissan Nismo watch
  • Figure 18: Smart contact lens prototype for detecting glucose levels in tears
  • Figure 19: Importance of different functions for managing driver distraction
  • Figure 20: Customer satisfaction with speech recognition
  • Figure 21: A spatial auditory display aiding the driver by warning him of another vehicle approaching a blind intersection
  • Figure 22: Head-up display showing typical navigation and speed information
  • Figure 23: Theodolite AR app superimposes real time information about position, altitude, bearing, range, and inclination on the iPhone's live camera image
  • Figure 24: Honda's projected path AR concept
  • Figure 25: Continental's augmented reality HUD concept displays ADAS and navigation information
  • Figure 26: Land Rover's augmented reality Transparent Bonnet concept infographic
  • Figure 27: Land Rover's augmented reality Transparent Bonnet concept
  • Figure 28: Customer satisfaction with touch screens
  • Figure 29: BMW research investigating new interaction concepts on large screens.
  • Left: Enlarge interactive areas. Middle: Offer haptic guidance points. Right: Allow for position-independent touch gestures
  • Figure 30: The display can be split into two, or a single function like navigation can be shown full screen
  • Figure 31: Adjusting settings with small target areas can be awkward, although the on/off toggle buttons are easy to swipe
  • Figure 32: Long lists like media libraries or contacts are easier to scroll on such a tall screen
  • Figure 33: Adjusting some common climate controls like fan speed and direction required you to enter a sub menu
  • Figure 34: Touchpad in new Mercedes C-Class, with multi-touch capability and haptic feedback
  • Figure 35: Importance of specified HMI design objectives
  • Figure 36: Opel Intellilink infotainment system showing favourite contacts, radio stations, playlists and nav locations pinned to bottom row of touch screen
  • Figure 37: Top five smartphone operating systems by worldwide shipments
  • Figure 38: Apple CarPlay in 2015MY Volvo XC90
  • Figure 39: Home screen of 'Windows in the Car' smartphone mirroring concept
  • Figure 40: Visteon's multimodal Horizon Cockpit concept with gesture, voice and touch interaction
  • Figure 41: Controlling volume with 3D gesture control in Visteon's Horizon Cockpit
  • Figure 42: Mitsubishi multimodal navigation interface for Chinese-language character input
  • Figure 43: Interior of 2015MY Audi TT has fully reconfigurable instrument cluster and no center display
  • Figure 44: Aviate intelligent homescreen for Android, and EasilyDo personal assistant for iOS/Android
  • Figure 45: Mitsubishi Ultra-easy HMI prototype
  • Figure 46: Interior driver monitoring cameras can observe the position of the driver's head and the viewing angle
  • Figure 47: Audi TT virtual instrument cluster (2015MY) features a 3D model of the car with a confusing radial menu of icons
  • Figure 48: Square grotesque Eurostile font vs. humanist Frutiger font highlighting characteristics thought to improve legibility
  • Figure 49: Importance of HMI and driver distraction guidelines
  • Figure 50: Likely policies that companies will follow to minimize driver distraction
  • Figure 51: SAE J3106 Levels of driving automation
  • Figure 52: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) data showing percentage of owners who drive with lane departure warning turned on
  • Figure 53: IIHS data showing percent change in vehicle damage claims per insured vehicle year for vehicle 5collisions
  • Figure 54: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by primary business of respondent
  • Figure 55: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by job function of respondent
  • Figure 56: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by main target market
  • Figure 57: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by geographic region

List of tables

  • Figure 1: Percentage of driver
  • Table 1: Drivers involved in fatal crashes by age in 2012
  • Table 2: Broad views on driver distraction vs. driver inattention
  • Table 3: Driver distraction and risk to safety
  • Table 4: Understanding driver distraction for the purpose of HMI design
  • Table 5: Research groups and organizations
  • Table 6: ISO standards produced by ISO/TC 22 Road vehicles /SC 13WG 8
  • Table 7: ISO standards produced by ISO/TC 204 Intelligent transport systems
  • Table 8: SAE-issued standards overseen by the Safety and Human Factors Standards Steering Committee
  • Table 9: SAE work-in-progress standards overseen by the Safety and Human Factors Standards Steering Committee
  • Table 10: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by primary business of respondent
  • Table 11: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by job function of respondent
  • Table 12: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by main target market
  • Table 13: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by geographic region
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