Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives

発行 Thintri, Inc. 商品コード 268875
出版日 ページ情報 英文
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摩耗被覆市場:硬質クロムとその代用物 Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives
出版日: 2016年06月16日 ページ情報: 英文



第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 硬質クロム被覆産業

  • クロム
  • クロム被覆
  • 健康・環境への影響
  • 汚染防止規制の影響
  • 今日の産業

第3章 硬質クロム市場・市場促進因子

  • 概要:磨耗被覆におけるクロムの独占
  • 今日の硬質クロム被覆市場
  • 硬質クロムの使用におけるデメリット
  • 硬質クロム市場の現況
  • 硬質クロム市場の予測

第4章 六価クロム被覆の代用技術

  • 溶射
  • 従来型硬質クロムの被覆代用物
  • 放電蒸着
  • 爆着
  • レーザークラッディング
  • 真空技術
  • 視線、内径の問題

第5章 クロム代用物市場

  • 硬質クロム市場をターゲットに、代用物別の普及率
  • 非クロムめっき・蒸着ソリューション市場・予測
  • 産業需要・市場予測、溶射
  • 航空宇宙の需要・予測
  • 溶射サプライヤー市場・予測



Product Code: CR5


Thintri Inc. announces the release of Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives, 2016 , a new update of its study on hard chrome wear coatings and chrome replacement. This comprehensive examination of the subject discusses the various technologies, the industries in which they will, and won't, be used, and forecasts to 2022.

The Chrome Plating Industry

  • Health and environmental issues
  • Effects of pollution control laws
  • The industry today
  • Economic factors
  • Drawbacks in hard chrome

Chrome plating Market Analysis

  • Aerospace
  • Oil & gas
  • Hydraulics & heavy machinery
  • General industry
  • Today's economy
  • New legislation
  • Geographic segmentation

Chrome Plating Alternatives

  • Hard trivalent chrome
  • Plasma spray
  • High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)
  • High velocity air-fueled (HVAF)
  • Twin wire arc spray
  • Electro-spark deposition
  • Electroless nickel plating
  • Electroless nickel boron plating
  • Electroless nickel composite plating
  • Electrodeposited nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus coatings
  • Nickel-cobalt alloy coatings
  • Plated tin alloys
  • Explosive bonding
  • Laser cladding
  • Physical vapor deposition (PVD)
  • Intensified plasma-assisted processing

Market Demand

2016 to 2022 forecasts

  • Aerospace
    • Actuator hydraulics
    • Landing gear
    • Gas turbines
    • Other Components
  • General industrial
    • Automotive
    • Agriculture
    • Pulp & paper
    • Transportation & roads
    • Mining
    • Heavy equipment
    • Oil & gas
    • Stamping and molding

Background on Wear Coatings

Used as a fundamental wear-resistant coating in a wide range of industries-aerospace, heavy equipment, automotive and many others - hard chrome plating has overcome increasing obstacles to market growth in recent years. Industry downsizing and consolidation following toughened legislation led to the closure or offshore relocation of as many as half of the chrome plating shops in North America, but the remaining the chrome plating industry has been stable for several years. Most chrome plating shops, having accommodated new regulations, are now thriving and profitable.

However, the situation is changing rapidly. In this, the fourth update to Thintri's original 2003 study on wear coatings, alternatives to hexavalent hard chrome are now poised to have a significant impact on hex chrome's markets to the degree that sales of hard chrome plating consumables may fall into negative territory.

A number of alternatives to hard chrome are available. The chief substitute is thermal spray, in particular high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), often favored due to its high strength and wear resistance and fast turnaround time. Some of the industry has begun transitioning to high-velocity air-fueled (HVAF) and high energy plasma spray. Thermal spray as a rule, however, faces fundamental limitations such as high cost, low throughput and difficulty with complex shapes or non-line of sight situations.

Thermal spray faces growing competition from new plating solutions that easily accommodate non-line of sight and complex shapes. These include electroless nickel composite plating, which can deposit diamond-composite coatings, and electrodeposited nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus alloys. Plasma vapor deposition (PVD) can make thin, high quality coatings for less cost, in some cases, than even decorative chrome.

The big news is that hard trivalent chrome, long sought as a more health- and environmentally-friendly alternative to hex chrome, is now a commercial reality. Hard trivalent chrome coatings have been demonstrated in large scale production and the technology is now available. The impact will be significant on established markets for hex chrome plating, since it's among the most economical and easily implemented hex chrome substitute. The good news for chrome platers is that they can convert to hard trivalent chrome coatings with relative ease and remain at the forefront of wear coating technology.

However, new legislative initiatives, particularly REACH in Europe, have made many nervous about any chromium content at all in their coatings, leading to growing interest in chromium-free coatings. Furthermore, REACH has also targeted cobalt salts, a prime constituent of nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus coatings, a very promising and economical plating alternative to hard chrome.

For wear coating markets, the picture is wildly uncertain. Users face wild swings in the cost of raw materials and uneven economic growth. Coating demand in the oil and gas sector went from frenzied to dormant in a short couple of years as a worldwide glut reduced demand for coatings. Forestry and pulp & paper continue a precipitous, long term decline. Other sectors are reporting reasonably optimistic conditions. Even players within the same industry, like small thermal spray powder suppliers, report widely varying market conditions. It is a time of great uncertainty, but also great promise.

Understand the Markets

Success in wear coating markets will depend almost completely on a balance of cost and performance that will be highly application-specific. Many, if not most, chrome substitutes like thermal spray will require higher up-front costs, usually in the form of equipment purchases. However, longer component lifetimes and reduced frequency of repairs can lead to significant long-term savings, not to mention the benefits of improved performance. Other alternatives offer a crossover benefit that depends on the scale of implementation or other factors. For example, PVD is more expensive than chrome for small lots but can be significantly less expensive in large-scale production. Most alternatives also offer a large advantage in reduced hazardous waste management costs compared to hexavalent chrome.

Thintri's study Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives examines each of the leading alternative technologies in detail: its capabilities, limitations and most promising applications. The report also explores their potential in major market segments and forecasts markets to 2022.

Table of Contents

Report Table of Contents:

Executive Summary

  • E.1 Introduction
  • E.2 Hard Chrome Wear Coatings
    • E.2.1 Health & Environmental Hazards, Legislation
    • E.2.2 The Hard Chrome Industry Today
    • E.2.3 Hard Chrome Markets
    • E.2.4 The Need for Chrome Alternatives in Wear Coatings
  • E.3 Primary Chrome Alternatives
    • E.3.1 Thermal Spray
      • E.3.1.1 HVOF/HVAF
      • E.3.1.2 Plasma Spray
      • E.3.1.3 Twin Wire Arc Spray
    • E.3.2 Thermal Spray Consumables
    • E.3.3 Plated and PVD Alternatives to Chrome
      • E.3.3.1 Trivalent Chrome
      • E.3.3.2 Electroless Nickel and its Variations
      • E.3.3.3 Nanocrystalline Alternatives
      • E.3.3.4 Physical Vapor Deposition
    • E.3.5 Electrospark Deposition
    • E.3.6 Explosive Bonding
  • E.4 The Market Outlook for Alternatives

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: The Hard Chrome Plating Industry

  • 2.1 Chromium
  • 2.2 Chrome Plating
  • 2.3 Health and Environmental Effects
  • 2.4 Effects of Pollution Control Legislation
    • 2.4.1 OSHA's PELs
    • 2.4.2 EPA Rules
    • 2.4.3 Europe
  • 2.5 The Industry Today

Chapter 3: Hard Chrome Markets and Market Drivers

  • 3.1 Overview: Chrome's Dominance in Wear Coatings
  • 3.2 Today's Hard Chrome Plating Markets
    • 3.2.1 Aerospace Markets for Hard Chrome Plating
      • Aircraft Actuator Hydraulics
      • Landing Gear
      • Gas Turbines
      • Other Aircraft Components
      • Overhaul & Repair
    • 3.2.2 Oil Field, Heavy Equipment, and General Industrial Markets for Hard Chrome
  • 3.3 Drawbacks in Using Hard Chrome
  • 3.4 Hard Chrome Market Conditions Today
  • 3.5 Hard Chrome Market Forecasts
    • 3.5.1 Introduction
    • 3.5.2 Aerospace
    • 3.5.3 Industry
      • Oil & Gas
      • Hydraulics & Heavy Machinery
      • Other General Industry

Chapter 4: Alternative Technologies to Hexavalent Chrome Plating

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Thermal Spray
    • 4.2.1 Thermal Spray Technologies Today
    • 4.2.2 High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF)
      • D-Gun
      • HVAF
      • HVOF vs. Chrome
    • 4.2.3 Plasma Spray
      • Conventional Plasma Spray
      • High Energy Plasma
    • 4.2.4 Twin Wire Arc Spray
    • 4.2.5 Thermal Spray Metal Powder/Polymer Combinations
    • 4.2.6 Cold Spray
    • 4.2.7 Powders
    • 4.2.8 Stripping and Grinding Issues
    • 4.2.9 Health, Safety & Environmental Issues in Thermal Spray
  • 4.3 Plating Alternatives to Hard Chrome
    • 4.3.1 Trivalent Chromium
      • Faraday Technology
      • Atotech
      • ECOCHROM
    • 4.3.2 Electroless Nickel Plating
      • Electroless Nickel Boron
      • Electroless Nickel Composite Coating
    • 4.3.3 Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Coatings
      • Integran's Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Cobalt-Phosphorus
      • US Chrome/USC Technologies
    • 4.3.4 Plated Tin Alloys
  • 4.4 Electrospark Deposition
  • 4.5 Explosive Bonding
  • 4.6 Laser Cladding
  • 4.7 Vacuum Techniques
    • 4.7.1 PVD
    • 4.7.2 Intensified Plasma-Assisted Processing
  • 4.8 Line of Sight, Inner Diameter Issues

Chapter 5: Markets for Chrome Alternatives

  • 5.1 Target Hard Chrome Markets, Penetration by Alternatives
  • 5.2 Markets and Forecasts for Non-Chrome Plated and Vapor Deposition Solutions
  • 5.3 Commercial Demand and Market Forecasts, Thermal Spray
    • 5.3.1 Background: Industrial Thermal Spray in Today's Economy
    • 5.3.2 Oil Field Applications
    • 5.3.3 Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment
    • 5.3.4 Other General Industry
  • 5.4 Aerospace Demand and Forecasts
    • 5.4.1 Commercial vs. Defense Demand
    • 5.4.2 Opportunities in Overhaul and Repair vs. Manufacture
    • 5.4.3 Landing Gear
    • 5.4.4 Aircraft Hydraulics
    • 5.4.5 Gas Turbines
      • Aircraft Gas Turbines
      • IGTs
    • 5.4.6 Other Aerospace Applications
  • 5.5 Thermal Spray Supplier Markets and Forecasts
    • 5.5.1 Wear Coatings Markets
    • 5.5.2 Markets for Services
    • 5.5.3 Cost Issues
    • 5.5.4 Geographic Segmentation
    • 5.5.5 Powder Providers and Markets
    • 5.5.6 Equipment Providers and Markets
    • 5.5.7 HVOF vs. Plasma vs. Wire Arc

Tables and Figures

  • Figure E-1 Overall Worldwide Hard Hex Chrome Consumables Market Forecast
  • Figure E-2 Markets, Hard Hex & Trivalent Chrome Consumables, Wear Coatings
  • Figure E-3 Forecast, Total Hard Chrome Consumables Markets, Wear Coatings
  • Figure E-4 Overall Market Forecast, Thermal Spray Consumables, Wear Coatings
  • Table 2-1 Domestic Sodium Dichromate & Chromic Acid Production, US
  • Table 2-2 Typical Process Parameters for Chrome Plating, Conventional Baths
  • Table 2-3 Symptoms of Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Among Chrome Plating and Chromium Chemical Workers
  • Figure 2-1 Sources of Hexavalent Chromium Emissions, 2005
  • Figure 3-1 Worldwide Chrome Plating Demand, Consumables, Equipment, Services, Hard vs. Decorative, 2016
  • Figure 3-2 Geographic Distribution, Hard Chrome Production, 2016
  • Figure 3-3 Projected Geographic Distribution, Hard Chrome Production, 2022
  • Figure 3-4 Global Hard Chrome Consumables Market Breakdown, 2016
  • Figure 3-5 Aerospace Chrome Plating Consumables Market Segments, 2016
  • Figure 3-6 Aerospace Hard Chrome Consumables Markets, Commercial vs. Defense, 2016
  • Figure 3-7 Hard Chrome Demand Segmentation in Gas Turbines, Aerospace vs. IGT, 2016
  • Table 3-1 Industrial Hard Chrome Applications
  • Figure 3-8 Overall Hard Hex Chrome Consumables/Equipment/Services Market Forecast
  • Figure 3-9 Aerospace Hard Hex Chrome Consumables Market Forecast
  • Figure 3-10 Hard Hex Chrome Consumables/Equipment/Services Market Forecast, Oil & Gas
  • Figure 3-11 Overall Hydraulics & Heavy Equipment Hard Hex Chrome Market Forecast
  • Figure 3-12 Hydraulics Hard Hex Chrome Markets: Mining & Earth Moving vs. Forestry & Logging
  • Figure 3-13 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome in Agriculture, Waste& Recycling
  • Figure 3-14 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome in Construction, Concrete & Asphalt
  • Figure 3-15 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome Consumables in Defense & Government, Freight Transport
  • Figure 3-16 Hard Hex Chrome Consumables Market Forecast: General Industry
  • Figure 3-17 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome Consumables in General Industry by Market Segment
  • Figure 3-18 Hard Hex Chrome vs. Hard Trivalent Chrome Markets
  • Figure 3-19 Overall Hard Chrome Consumables Market Forecast
  • Figure 5-1 Overall Market Forecast, Consumables & Equipment, Plated and PVD Alternatives
  • Figure 5-2 Market Forecast, Consumables and Equipment, Plated and PVD Alternatives bySegment
  • Figure 5-3 hermal Spray Equipment vs. Consumables Market, 2016
  • Figure 5-4 hermal Spray Powder Market Forecast, Oil and Gas Sector
  • Figure 5-5 hermal Spray Services Market Forecast, Oil and Gas Sector
  • Figure 5-6 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Mining & Earth Moving, Forestry & Logging
  • Figure 5-7 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Agriculture, Waste& Recycling
  • Figure 5-8 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Construction, Concrete& Asphalt
  • Figure 5-9 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Defense & Government, Freight Transport
  • Figure 5-10 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Overall Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment
  • Figure 5-11 Forecast, Thermal Spray Services, Overall Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment
  • Figure 5-12 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, General Industry by Segment
  • Figure 5-13 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Overall General Industry
  • Figure 5-14 Forecast, Thermal Spray Services, Overall General Industry
  • Figure 5-15 Defense vs. Commercial Aerospace Demand, Thermal Spray Powder, Wear Coatings, 2016
  • Figure 5-16 Defense vs. Commercial Aerospace Demand, Thermal Spray Services, Wear Coatings, 2016
  • Figure 5-17 Aerospace Thermal Spray Powder Demand, Manufacture vs. Repair
  • Figure 5-18 Aerospace Overhaul & Repair, Thermal Spray Outsource vs. In-House, 2016
  • Figure 5-19 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Landing Gear
  • Figure 5-20 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Aircraft Hydraulics
  • Figure 5-21 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Aircraft Gas Turbines
  • Figure 5-22 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, IGTs
  • Figure 5-23 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Other Aerospace
  • Figure 5-24 Thermal Spray Services Forecast, Overall Aerospace
  • Figure 5-25 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coatings Consumables Market Forecast
  • Figure 5-26 Overall Market Forecast, Thermal Spray Services
  • Table 5-1 Time Study Results, HVOF vs. Chrome Plating on a Landing Gear Piston: Hours to Plate 737-300 NLG IC Landing Gear Piston: HVOF vs. Chrome Plating
  • Figure 5-27 Geographic Segmentation Forecast, Thermal Spray Powders, Wear Coatings
  • Figure 5-28 Geographic Segmentation Forecast, Thermal Spray Equipment, Wear Coatings
  • Figure 5-29 Thermal Spray Powder Market Segments by Coating Type, 2016
  • Figure 5-30 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coating Powder Market Forecast
  • Figure 5-31 Market Share, Carbide Powder Producers, 2016
  • Figure 5-32 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coating Equipment Market Forecast
  • Figure 5-33 Market Share, Thermal Spray Equipment Producers, 2016
  • Figure 5-34 Market Share, Plasma Spray Equipment Producers, 2016
  • Figure 5-35 Market Share, HVOF Equipment Producers, 2016
  • Figure 5-36 Market Share, Wire Arc Equipment Producers, 2016
  • Figure 5-37 Thermal Spray Segmentation and Forecast, Consumables
  • Figure 5-38 Thermal Spray Segmentation and Forecast, Equipment
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