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脱塩 & 水市場の調査

Desalination & Water Sector Report - Ed 1 2018

発行 StatPlan Energy Limited 商品コード 648721
出版日 ページ情報 英文
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脱塩 & 水市場の調査 Desalination & Water Sector Report - Ed 1 2018
出版日: 2018年06月07日 ページ情報: 英文
概要

当レポートでは、世界の脱塩・水市場について調査し、上下水道の処理技術および競合技術の分析を提供しており、将来の技術、各国市場、および主要企業の分析をまとめています。

エグゼクティブサマリー

第1章 世界の水供給、消費、および汚染

第2章 脱塩および広範な水市場

  • 水のバリューチェーン
  • 水のエンドユーズ
  • 工業廃水処理
  • 自治体廃水処理
  • 農業廃水処理
  • 水のバリューチェーンにおける総コスト
  • 水の供給
  • 公衆衛生
  • 塩分濃度
  • 脱塩の年間契約容量
  • 脱塩のCapex
  • 脱塩のコスト

第3章 水質汚染

  • 工業廃水
  • 農薬汚染
  • 自治体水質汚染

第4章 自治体の廃水処理

  • 1次処理/スクリーニング
  • 1次処理
  • 2次処理
  • 3次処理
  • 先進処理
  • アフリカ
  • アラブ諸国
  • アジア太平洋
  • 欧州・北米
  • ラテンアメリカ・カリブ海

第5章 農業廃水処理

第6章 工業廃水処理

  • 工業廃水の中身
  • 工業廃水処理
  • 工業廃水処理のコスト要因
  • 流量
  • 水質、ほか

第7章 脱塩技術

  • 多段フラッシュ法 (MSF)
  • 多重効用法 (MED)
  • 機械的蒸気圧縮/ベイパーコンプレッション (VCD)
  • 逆浸透 (RO)
  • 正浸透 (FO)
  • 電気浸透 (ED) および (EDR)
  • 電気透析反転 (EDR)
  • 逆電気浸透 (EDR)
  • マイクロ燃料燃料電池 (MFC)、ほか

第8章 再生可能エネルギー (RE) 電動脱塩

  • 太陽光
  • ソーラー熱
  • 太陽光PV
  • 風力
  • 地熱
  • バイオマス
  • OTEC
  • 波力
  • 垂直発電
  • 原子力、ほか

第9章 脱塩コスト

  • 原価構成:CAPEX
  • 原価構成:OPEX

第10章 将来の技術

  • 正浸透 (FO)
  • 容量性脱イオン法 (CDI)
  • FO市場
  • その他の新しい脱塩技術

第11章 ピークソルト:脱塩の環境への影響

第12章 水の種類

第13章 世界の脱塩市場

第14章 各国の脱塩市場:中東

第15章 各国の脱塩市場:アフリカ

第16章 各国の脱塩市場:アジア

第17章 各国の脱塩市場:中央アジアの3ヶ国

第18章 各国の脱塩市場:太平洋

第19章 各国の脱塩市場:南北アメリカ

第20章 各国の脱塩市場:欧州

第21章 上下水道処理・脱塩企業

目次

The Desalination Market as a Segment of the Water & Waste Market

Desalination is one of many technologies for water supply. In 2018 de-salination accounted for 13.9% of the capex for municipal and industri-al water supply and the cumulative desalination plants delivered less than 1% of the supply of water. It is the most expensive form of deliv-ering fresh water and it can cause serious environmental damage with discharges of brine into inland seas. So, when is it viable?

Desalination is sometimes the only solution for water supply in very demanding circumstances, either of water shortage or when ultra pure water is required for industrial process.

This report positions desalination in the maze of water flows and treat-ment technologies for water and waste, and examines competitive technologies.

  • The water and waste sector is quantified In $ capex at all stages of the water value chain, including desalination as a segment within the total infrastructure.
  • The water value chain is analysed in four segments - Water Supply (withdrawal in-cluding desalination/distribution/treatment) - Sanitation (collection/treatment) - Indus-try (including desalination) - Agriculture - Point-of-Use .
  • Desalination sales are plotted from 1972 to 2017 and forecast to 2022 in m3/d and $ value.
  • Comprehensive learning curve analysis is employed to predict price trends.
  • National markets are analysed in detail for all countries using desalination.
  • End-user shares are given with a tabulation of the main customers in user countries.
  • Membrane (ED, EDR & RO) and thermal (MSF, MED & VCD) desalination technolo-gies are described, with global shares regional emphasis.
  • Renewable energy desalination systems are witnessing an increasing interest world-wide and increasingly being adopted in some regions.
  • Municipal and industrial wastewater treatments and their technologies are outlined and discussed, as recycling competitors to desalination supply.
  • The costs of desalination are analysed with the factors influencing them, past trends plotted and future projections made.
  • Peak Salt - the environmental impact of desalination, is having a critical impact on some inland seas and waterways, notably the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.
  • Desalination, like other major industrial processes, has environmental impacts that must be understood and mitigated.
  • Future desalination technologies are outlined.
  • The three French giants water and waste companies are profiled; Veolia, Suez and Saur.
  • More than 150 participants in the industrial water treatment chemicals market in North America are listed.
  • The 25 top desalination companies are listed.
  • Leading reverse osmosis membrane manufacturers are listed, with materials, configu-ration (hollow, plated, spiral) and application.

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • Desalination within the global water value chain
  • The global water value chain capex
  • Desalination capex
  • Cost of desalination
  • The global water value chain
  • Demand for desalination
  • The competitive pressures - water pollution and its reuse
  • Industrial waste water
  • Agricultural pollution
  • Municipal water pollution
  • Water Stress
  • Technology
  • Desalination Costs
  • Advantages of Desalination
  • Peak salt - environmental impact of desalination

1 THE WORLD'S WATER SUPPLY, CONSUMPTION AND POLLUTION

  • The resources gap
  • Wastewater treatment

2 DESALINATION AND THE WIDER WATER MARKET

  • The water value chain
  • End use of water
  • Industrial waste water treatment
  • Municipal waste water treatment
  • Agricultural waste water treatment
  • Total cost in the water value chain
  • Water supply
  • Sanitation
  • Salinity
  • Desalination annual contracted capacity
  • Desalination capex
  • Cost of desalination

3 WATER POLLUTION

  • Industrial waste water
  • Agricultural pollution
  • Municipal water pollution

4 MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

  • Preliminary treatment/screening
  • 1 Primary treatment
  • 2 Secondary treatment
  • 3 Tertiary treatment
  • Advanced treatment
  • Africa
  • Arab countries
  • Asia Pacific
  • Europe and North America
  • Latin America and the Caribbean

5 AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

6 INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

  • Content of industrial wastewater
  • Industrial water treatment
  • Cost factors of industrial water treatment
  • Flow rates
  • Water quality
  • Target purity
  • Construction materials
  • Capital costs of industrial water treatment
  • Process water treatment
  • Process purification and separation
  • Wastewater treatment systems

7 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES

  • Thermal
  • Multistage Flash (MSF)
  • Multi Effect Distillation (MED)
  • Mechanical Vapour Compression / Vapour Compression (VCD)
  • Membrane
  • Reverse Osmosis (RO)
  • Forward Osmosis (FO)
  • Electrodialysis (ED) and (EDR)
  • Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR)
  • Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC)
  • Cogeneration
  • Hybrid Systems
  • Energy Recovery Devices

8 RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) POWERED DESALINATION

  • Solar
  • Solar Thermal
  • Solar PV
  • Wind
  • Geothermal
  • Medring
  • Biomass
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
  • Wave
  • Salinity Gradient/Osmotic Power
  • Hydroelectric
  • Nuclear

9 COSTS OF DESALINATION

  • Cost Components - CAPEX
  • Cost Components - OPEX

10. FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES

  • Forward Osmosis (FO).
  • Capacitive Deionisation (CDI)
  • The FO market
  • Other new desalination technologies

11. PEAK SALT - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DESALINATION

  • Peak salt
  • Technical factors
  • Water Stress, Surplus and Users
  • Water Users

12. WATER TYPES

13. GLOBAL DESALINATION MARKET

  • Historical development of the desalination market
  • Cost of water
  • Construction cost versus size
  • Construction gains and plant size
  • Cost trends
  • Future price trends
  • The learning curve concept
  • Validation of the learning curve predictions
  • Capex
  • Installed cost
  • The installed base of desalination plant
  • End -users of desalination
  • Private and Public Sector Participation

14. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - MIDDLE EAST

  • Middle Eastern Mediterranean countries
  • Israel and the Palestinian Territories
  • Jordan
  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
  • Bahrain
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Other Persian Gulf countries
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Yemen

15. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AFRICA

  • North Africa
  • Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Sudan
  • Tunisia
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Kenya
  • Namibia
  • South Africa

16. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - ASIA

  • Afghanistan
  • China
  • The desalination market in China
  • Past constraints on desalination development in China
  • India
  • Japan
  • Maldives
  • Pakistan
  • Singapore
  • South Korea
  • Taiwan

17. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - THE STANS

  • Kazakhstan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan

18. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - PACIFIC

  • Australia
  • Pacific Islands

19. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AMERICAS

  • NORTH AMERICA
  • Mexico
  • United States
  • Financial engineering
  • Municipal desalination
  • Industrial desalination
  • Regional distribution of desalination.
  • SOUTH AMERICA
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Peru
  • Caribbean
  • American Virgin Islands
  • Anguilla and the Bahamas
  • Aruba
  • Barbados
  • Bermuda
  • Bonaire
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Cayman Islands
  • Cuba
  • Netherland Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • St Maarten
  • Trinidad and Tobago

20. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - EUROPE

  • North
  • Ireland
  • United Kingdom
  • Cyprus
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Malta
  • Spain

21. WATER & WASTE TREATMENT AND DESALINATION COMPANIES

  • The three French leaders in water & waste, municipal and industrial
  • Suez
  • Veolia Environnement
  • SAUR Group-Societé d'Aménagement Urbain et Rural
  • Industrial waste water treatment companies
  • Companies managing and optimising the global industrial water cycle.
  • Desalination

GLOSSARY

Figures

  • Figure 1: The global water cycle
  • Figure 2: Global freshwater withdrawals; consumption and wastewater production by major water use sector
  • Figure 3: The water value chain
  • Figure 4: Use of withdrawn water by regions
  • Figure 5: Investment in water supply by type of cost
  • Figure 6: Investment in distribution by type of cost, new networks, renovation & maintenance
  • Figure 7: Investment in wastewater collection by type of expenditure, treatment or collection
  • Figure 8: The mismatch of capex versus consumption in the water and waste sector
  • Figure 9: Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita in 2013
  • Figure 10: The cost of water supply measures (Indian example)
  • Figure 11: A model of primary, secondary and tertiary water treatment
  • Figure 12: Percentage of population served by different types of sanitation systems, 2014
  • Figure 13: Changes in wastewater treatment in regions of Europe between 1980 and 2012
  • Figure 14: (a) the main desalination processes; (b) the contribution of each desalination process to the world water production
  • Figure 15: Diagram of Multistage Flash Distillation plant
  • Figure 16: Diagram of Multi Effect Distillation plant
  • Figure 17: Diagram of Vapour Compression desalination plant
  • Figure 18: Brief timeline of the development of Reverse Osmosis membranes.
  • Figure 19: Diagram demonstrating the principles of osmosis
  • Figure 20: Diagram demonstrating the principles of Reverse Osmosis
  • Figure 21: Flow diagram of a Reverse Osmosis system
  • Figure 22: Diagram of a cross-flow membrane compared to a conventional membrane
  • Figure 23: Diagram demonstrating the principles of Forward Osmosis
  • Figure 24: Diagram of Electrodialysis desalination
  • Figure 25: Typical hybrid plant set up
  • Figure 26: Energy required to deliver 1 m3 of clean water from various sources
  • Figure 27: Shares of renewable technologies in desalination
  • Figure 28: Global regions appropriate for solar thermal power plants
  • Figure 29: Water stressed countries with wind power potential
  • Figure 30: Global hotspots for geothermal activity
  • Figure 31: The Medring
  • Figure 32: Potential sites for OTEC desalination plants: Caribbean, China, India, Northern Australia, South Western American States and Countries in the Persian Gulf
  • Figure 33: Typical SWRO desalination plant CAPEX breakdown
  • Figure 34: Typical SWRO desalination plant OPEX breakdown
  • Figure 35: Forward Osmosis
  • Figure 36: The difference between Reverse Osmosis and Forward Osmosis
  • Figure 37: Percentage of population facing severe water stress, 2007
  • Figure 38: Global water needs including potential climate change/pollution-driven change
  • Figure 39: Different water sources used in the desalination industry
  • Figure 40: Installed capacity in m3/d and online capacity additions, 1960-2017
  • Figure 41: Capex costs in the MENA region
  • Figure 42: Opex costs in the MENA region
  • Figure 43: Capex and Opex in the MENA region
  • Figure 44: Unit construction cost by size
  • Figure 45: Awarded SWRO capacity from 1977 to 2015 distributed by (top) SWRO plant size and (bottom) online SWRO capacity from 1977 to 2015 distributed by region.
  • Figure 46: SWRO Cost Trends
  • Figure 47: Cumulative Online Capacity by technology from 1969 to 2015 (
  • Figure 48: (top) SWRO Capex Learning Curve for 1977 - 2015 and 1979 - 2003 and (bottom) fit of the modelled capex values to the actual capex values.
  • Figure 49: Price trend per m3/d for water sales and capex, 1972 to 2017
  • Figure 50: Desalination annual capex and contracted m3/d, 1972 to 2022
  • Figure 51: Capex of desalination plants in nominal $ by region, 2017 to 2022
  • Figure 52: Total desalination capacity by country, m3/day
  • Figure 53: Share of desalination capacity, 2017
  • Figure 54: Total worldwide installed capacity by user type
  • Figure 55: Share of desalination capacity by country in the Middle East
  • Figure 56: Water demand in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the UAE, Qatar, Algeria and Libya (not including agricultural)
  • Figure 57: Seawater desalination plants in Saudi Arabia
  • Figure 58: The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System
  • Figure 59: Supply capacity of large-scale desalination and recycled water plants for major capital cities versus total urban water use, 2006-07 to 2012-13 (GL/yr)
  • Figure 60: Cost distribution of desalination processes
  • Figure 61: Location and extent of saline aquifers

Tables

  • Table 1: Shares of water supply
  • Table 2: Composition of water & waste infrastructure and supply cost, 2018
  • Table 3: Wastewater treatment level in Arab countries
  • Table 4: Countries with the lowest level of wastewater treatment in Asia Pacific
  • Table 5: Connections to wastewater treatment
  • Table 6: % levels of treatment in selected countries, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2016
  • Table 7: Generation of wastewater by type of industry, EU, 2011
  • Table 8: Content of typical wastewater in some major industries
  • Table 9: Desalination technologies and processes
  • Table 10: Comparison of different filtration and membrane systems
  • Table 11: Comparison of the different desalination technologies
  • Table 12: Benefits of different hybrid configurations
  • Table 13: Possible combinations of renewable energy and desalination technology
  • Table 14: Comparison of different energy sources for desalination
  • Table 15: Costs for three SWRO plants located in various locations of the globe, such as the US, the Middle East, and Australia.
  • Table 16: Naturally occurring salinity levels
  • Table 17: Water scarce countries
  • Table 18: Water footprint for different energy sources
  • Table 19: Capex of desalination plants in nominal $ by region, 2017 to 2022
  • Table 20: Types of public and private sector participation in the desalination industry
  • Table 21: Key decision makers for desalination plant applications in countries with a significant or potentially significant desalination market
  • Table 22: Cumulative investment in water desalination in selected MENA countries ($billion using 2004 prices as a baseline)
  • Table 23: Summary of Australian desalination plants
  • Table 24: Surface water storage, desalination capacity, desalinated water supplied and recycled water supplied by region.
  • Table 25: Overview of suppliers of RO membranes
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