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市場調査レポート

送電塔・電柱の世界市場 (2015年)

Global Market for Towers and Poles 2015 Ed 3

発行 StatPlan Energy Limited 商品コード 318493
出版日 ページ情報 英文 137 Pages
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送電塔・電柱の世界市場 (2015年) Global Market for Towers and Poles 2015 Ed 3
出版日: 2015年07月23日 ページ情報: 英文 137 Pages
概要

送電塔・鉄柱は送電・配電網に不可欠な存在です。全世界の送電塔・鉄柱市場は、年間280億米ドルの規模に達すると言われています。大規模な送電塔 (費用も大きい) と比べると標準的な電柱は相対的に安価ですが、それでも年間合計5億ドルもの市場規模となっています。今後も、更新需要や新興国市場での新設などを受けて、当面は安定的に成長する見通しです。

当レポートでは、全世界の送電用鉄柱および電柱の市場について分析し、現在の市場規模(設置ベース、需要額など)や、将来の市場動向の見通し(今後7年間分)、長期的な需要サイクル、地域別・素材別・用途別の詳細動向、設計上の特徴、関連市場(電気鉄道向け設備、整備サービスなど)の動向、環境への影響(バードストライクなど)、主要メーカーのプロファイルなどを調査・推計しております。

エグゼクティブ・サマリー

第1章 送電塔・電柱の設置ベース

  • 全世界の送電塔の設置ベース
  • 北米
  • 欧州
  • CIS諸国
  • 中東
  • アフリカ
  • アジア太平洋地域
  • ラテンアメリカ・カリブ海地域 (LAC)

第2章 送電塔市場

  • 全世界の送電塔需要
  • 北米
  • 欧州
  • CIS諸国
  • 中東
  • アフリカ
  • アジア太平洋地域
  • ラテンアメリカ・カリブ海地域 (LAC)

第3章 送電塔の長期的な需要サイクル

  • 送電線ネットワークの拡大率

第4章 送電塔 (パイロン) の種類

  • 懸垂鉄塔
  • 耐張鉄塔
  • 角度鉄塔
  • 引留鉄塔
  • 転換鉄塔
  • 塔の設置方法
    • 完成品/部品輸送方式
    • 部品組み立て方式
    • 現地組み立て方式
    • ヘリコプター輸送方式
  • 送電塔の設計

第5章 電柱の設置ベース

  • 設置ベース
  • 電柱の生産量の増加
  • 電柱の設置ベース:国別・電力企業別
    • 北米

第6章 電柱の需要

  • 電柱需要:数量ベース
  • 電柱需要:金額ベース

第4章 電柱市場

  • 電柱の設置ベース:長期的な成長実績
  • 現在の設置ベース:用途別
  • 国別の電柱の設置ベース

第5章 電柱市場:現在の売上高と今後の見通し

  • 世界の電柱市場の全体的動向(電力用・通信用・鉄道用など)
  • 世界の電柱市場の規模(電力用のみ)
  • 各地域の市場規模見通し(今後7年間分)

第7章 各国市場の分析

  • 米国
  • 欧州
  • オーストリア
  • チェコ
  • キプロス
  • フィンランド
  • フランス
  • ドイツ
  • ギリシャ
  • アイルランド
  • オランダ
  • ノルウェー
  • スペイン
  • スウェーデン
  • スイス
  • 英国
  • ロシア
  • 日本
  • 中国
  • インド
  • 韓国
  • シンガポール・マカオ
  • オーストラリア
  • 中東
  • アフリカ

第8章 電柱用の材料と耐用年数

  • 材料
  • 用途
  • 解説
  • サイズの分類
  • 木製電柱
    • 木材防腐剤
    • 木材防腐剤の溶出による汚染
  • 鉄製電柱
  • コンクリート製電柱
  • 複合材料 (グラスファイバー製) 電柱
  • 処分

第9章 電柱の間隔

第10章 電柱の種類

  • その他の装置
  • 接地棒
  • 引留柱
  • 物理的アクセス
  • 建造方法の分類

第11章 多目的電柱での使用スペースの割り当て

  • 電力供給用スペース
  • 安全圏のスペース
  • 通信用スペース

第12章 鋼鉄製送電塔・電柱の耐用年数と整備段階

  • 耐用年数
  • 整備段階
    • フェーズ1:染みが着く
    • フェーズ2:錆が若干発生する
    • フェーズ3:錆が大量に発生する
    • フェーズ4:倒壊

第13章 木製電柱の耐用年数と整備段階

  • 耐用年数
  • 整備段階
    • 基線の修理
    • 内部の修理
  • コンクリート柱

第14章 電気鉄道

  • 現在のネットワークの状況
  • 牽引システム
  • 鉄道産業向け電柱 (パイロン) の市場規模

第15章 メーカー

  • 鋼鉄製送電塔メーカー
    • KEC International
    • 中国系メーカー
    • その他のアジア系メーカー
    • 北米系メーカー
  • 配電用電柱の主要メーカー
    • 北米系メーカー
    • 欧州系メーカー
    • アフリカ系メーカー

第16章 回路の位相と伝導帯

  • 単相回路
  • 複相回路
  • 多導体
  • 設置可能な電線の本数の制限

第17章 送電塔のデザイン・コンペ

第17章 鉄塔・電柱の使用権 (ROW)

  • 鉄塔・電柱の様々な用途

第18章 鳥への/鳥によるリスク

  • 問題の大きさ
  • 感電死のメカニズム
    • 衝突の緩和・防止策
    • 感電死の緩和・防止策

図表一覧

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目次

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This is the 3rd edition of the StatPlan Towers and Poles Report. The report sizes demand for electricity transmission towers and utility poles in base year 2014 and forecasts demand from 2015 to 2020.

Towers and poles are vital components of overhead transmission and distribution networks. Between them they constitute a market worth over $28 billion annually. Large towers can be the most expensive element of complex high voltage systems. The basic utility pole can be relatively cheap, but with nearly 1 1/2 billion of them around the world, they amount to a large and often overlooked market, for poles and wood protection products and services

The report contains comprehensive quantitative data and qualitative analysis about the towers and poles markets and stock, globally and for all regions and countries.

1. STEEL TOWERS AND POLES INSTALLED BASE ANALYSIS IN UNITS

Base year 2014

  • By region and 124 countries, separately for:
  • Electricity transmission towers
  • Utility poles
    • Electricity distribution, telecoms, railways
    • Wood, concrete, steel, composite

2. STEEL TOWERS AND POLES MARKET DEMAND IN UNITS

Demand in base year 2014, forecast in nominal $ annually 2015 to 2020

  • By region and 124 countries, separately for:
  • Electricity transmission towers
  • Utility poles
    • Electricity distribution, telecoms, railways
    • Wood, concrete, steel, composite

3. STEEL TOWERS AND POLES MARKET DEMAND EX-FACTORY COST $

Demand in base year 2014, forecast in nominal $ annually 2015 to 2020

  • By region and 124 countries, separately for:
  • Electricity transmission towers
  • Utility poles
    • Electricity distribution, telecoms, railways
  • Wood, concrete, steel, composite

4. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLE FOR STEEL TOWERS

Towers commonly have 40 to 60 year lives so the replacement cycle is a long term issue. To determine the demand cycle it is necessary to chart the growth of the tower stock over many decades. StatPlan has charted this, for towers and poles since 1900 and the cycle is plotted to determine the long term demand cycle

5. EVOLUTION OF THE TRANSMISSON NETWORKS

Length and voltage time series.

6. TYPES OF STEEL TOWER

  • Suspension towers
  • Tension towers
  • Angle suspension towers
  • Dead end towers

7. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL TOWERS

Maintenance practices have a critical impact on the service life of towers, especially in harsh climate conditions.

8. UTILITY POLES SERVICE LIFE AND REPLACEMENT

Demand depends on new build and replacement. In 1950, 4.3% of demand for utility poles was for replacement, in 2015 that has risen to 62%. Poles have widely varying service lives depending on material, and for wood poles the wood species, climate conditions and wood protection. The service lives have been established by region and in some cases for individual countries.

9. JOINT USE OF UTLITY POLES

Joint use by different utilities is a significant factor in the pole market. The protocols for space allocation and standards are outlined.

10. MARKET COMMENTARY FRO UTILITY POLES

Brief market commentary on installed bases and demand for utility poles in 24 countries, with information on numbers and type of pole.

11. TYPES OF UTILITY POLE AND APPLICATIONS

There are many types of pole in use, depending on the purpose. Different types and applications are outlined.

12. ELECTRIC RAILWAY USERS

Railways are a minority but significant users of distribution poles. The networks are outlined, with description of the traction systems. Usage is estimated.

13. CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS

Most distribution networks employ single circuits, whereas transmission networks range from single to multiple circuits. This is an important consideration in specifying the type and dimensions of towers and poles.

14. RIGHTS OF WAY

Rights of Way (ROW) is a significant cost and can be a serious obstacle in designing networks and specifying equipment.

15. MANUFACTURERS OF TOWERS AND POLES

  • Manufacturers of steel towers are listed with brief details.
  • Companies manufacturing concrete and steel poles are listed with brief details.
  • Companies harvesting and preparing wood poles are listed with brief details.

16. DANGERS & MITIGATION OF DAMAGE TO UTILITY POLES BY BIRDS

Birds constitute a significant threat to poles and to themselves in nesting and perching on wires and poles, and in colliding with energised lines. These accidents not only harms the birds but causes power outages. The problems and mitigations are dis

Table of Contents

Tables

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • STEEL TRANSMISSION TOWERS
  • Drivers of growth for steel transmission towers
  • UTILITY POLES

1. INSTALLED BASE OF ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSON TOWERS & POLES

  • 1.1 Global installed base of towers
  • 1.2 North America
  • 1.3 Europe
  • 1.4 CIS
  • 1.5 Middle East
  • 1.6 Africa
  • 1.7 Asia Pacific
  • 1.8 LAC

2. ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION TOWERS MARKET

  • 2.1 Global demand for towers
  • 2.2 North America
  • 2.3 Europe
  • 2.4 CIS
  • 2.5 Middle East
  • 2.6 Africa
  • 2.7 Asia Pacific
  • 2.8 LAC

3. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLES FOR ELECTRICITY TOWERS

Growth of transmission line networks

4. TYPES OF TOWER OR PYLONS

  • 4.1 Suspension tower
  • 4.2 TENSION TOWERS
  • 4.3 ANGLE SUSPENSION TOWER
  • 4.4 Termination or dead end towers, also called tension towers
  • 4.5 Transposition towers
  • 4.6 Tower Installation
    • 4.6.1 Build-up or Piecemeal method.
    • 4.6.2 Section method
    • 4.6.3 Ground assembly method
    • 4.6.4 Helicopter method.
  • 4.7 TRANSMISSION TOWERS DESIGN

5. UTILITY POLE INSTALLED BASE

  • 5.1 INSTALLED BASE
  • 5.2 Growth of the pole population
  • 5.4 Installed base of poles by country and utility
    • 5.4.1 North America

6. DEMAND FOR UTILITY POLES

  • 6.1 Demand in numbers of poles
  • 6.2 Demand for poles by value

7. NATIONAL MARKETS

  • 7.1 United States
  • 7.2 Europe
  • 7.3 Austria
  • 7.4 Czech Republic
  • 7.5 Cyprus
  • 7.6 Finland
  • 7.7 France
  • 7.8 Germany
  • 7.9 Greece
  • 7.10 Ireland
  • 7.11 Netherlands
  • 7.12 Norway
  • 7.13 Spain
  • 7.14 Sweden
  • 7.15 Switzerland
  • 7.16 United Kingdom:
  • 7.17 Russia
  • 7.18 Japan
  • 7.19 China
  • 7.20 India
  • 7.21 Korea
  • 7.22 Singapore and Macau
  • 7.23 Australia
  • 7.24 Middle East
  • 7.25 Africa

8. MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF POLES AND SERVICE LIFE

  • 8.1 Materials
  • 8.2 Use
  • 8.3 Description
  • 8.4 Size classification
  • 8.5 Wood
    • 8.5.1 Wood preservatives
    • 8.5.2 Pollution from wood preservatives - Leaching
  • 8.6 Steel
  • 8.7 Concrete
  • 8.8 Composites- fibreglass
  • 8.9 Disposal

9. POLE SPAN

10. TYPES OF POLES

  • 10.1 Other equipment
  • 10.2 Grounding Rod
  • 10.3 Dead-end (anchor or termination) poles
  • 10.4 Physical access
  • 10.5 Construction Classifications

11. SPACE ALLOCATION ON JOINT USE UTILITY POLES

  • 11.1 Supply Space
  • 11.2 Safety Zone Space
  • 11.3 Communications Space

12. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL TOWERS AND POLES

  • 12.1 Service Life
  • 12.2 Maintenance
    • Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust
    • Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust
    • Phase 3 - Extensive Abrasive Rust
    • Phase 4 - Crash

13. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF WOODEN POLES

  • 13.1 Service life
  • 13.2 Maintenance
    • 13.2.1 Groundline Treatment
    • 13.2.2 Internal Treatment
  • 13.3 CONCRETE POLES

14. ELECTRIC RAILWAYS

  • 14.1 OVERVIEW OF CURRENT NETWORKS
  • 14.2 Traction systems
  • 14.3 MARKET SIZE FOR POLES AND PYLONS IN THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY INDUSTRY

15. MANUFACTURERS

  • 15.1 MANUFACTURERS OF STEEL TRANSMISSION TOWERS
    • 15.1.1 KEC International
    • 15.1.2 Chinese manufacturers
    • 15.1.3 Other Asian manufacturers
    • 15.1.4 North American manufacturers
  • 15.2 MANUFACTURERS OF DISTRIBUTION POLES
    • 15.2.1 North American manufacturers
    • 15.2.2 African manufacturers
    • 15.2.3 Indian manufacturers

16. CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS

  • 16.1 SINGLE CIRCUIT
  • 16.2 DOUBLE CIRCUIT
  • 16.3 MULTIPLE CONDUCTORS
  • 16.4 RESTRICTIONS ON MULTIPLE USE OF CORRIDORS

17.COMPETITIONS FOR TOWER DESIGN

17.RIGHTS OF WAY

  • Multiple use of ROWs

18.DANGER TO AND FROM BIRDS

  • 18.1 Extent of the problem
  • 18.2 The mechanics of an electrocution
    • 18.3.1 Mitigation and Prevention of Collisions
    • 18.3.2 Mitigation and Prevention of Electrocution

Figures

  • Figure 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, 2014-2020
  • Figure 2: Global installed electricity transmission towers by regions, 2015
  • Figure 3: Regional growth in electricity transmission towers, 2013-2020
  • Figure 4: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2014
  • Figure 5: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2014
  • Figure 6: Global installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2014
  • Figure 7: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2014
  • Figure 8: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2014
  • Figure 9: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014
  • Figure 10: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Asia Pacific, 2014
  • Figure 11: Global installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2014
  • Figure 12: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2014
  • Figure 13 : World sales of electricity transmission towers, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Figure 14: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2015
  • Figure 15 : The global networks of transmission lines, length in route km 1900 to 2050
  • Figure 16: The evolution of transmission line voltage, the first introductions
  • Figure 17: The long term demand cycles for towers, 1900 to 2050
  • Figure 18: Annual new and replacement installations of towers, 1900 to 2050
  • Figure 19: Suspension tower, single steel pole
  • Figure 20: Lattice steel suspension tower (L6 used in the United Kingdom)
  • Figure 21: Installation of transmission tower by helicopter
  • Figure 22: The scale of the helicopter operation illustrated
  • Figure 23: Peak and Cage of a Transmission Tower
  • Figure 24: Cross Arm and Body of a Transmission Tower
  • Figure 25: 220-kV single-circuit LST
  • Figure 26: 500-kV single-circuit LST
  • Figure 27: 220-kV double-circuit LST
  • Figure 28: 500-kV double-circuit LST
  • Figure 29: World installed base of utility poles, millions of poles by utility, 2015
  • Figure 30: World installed base of utility poles, millions of poles by region, 2015
  • Figure 31: World installed base of utility poles, millions of poles by region and utility, 2015
  • Figure 32: Historical growth of the pole pollution, all poles and electricity poles, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050
  • Figure 33: Historical growth of the pole population by region, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050
  • Figure 34: Historical growth of the pole pollution, all poles and wood poles, 1900 to2015, forecast to 2050
  • Figure 35: Annual demand for utility poles (electricity, telecoms and rail) from 2014 to 2020.
  • Figure 36: Annual demand for utility poles (electricity, telecoms and rail) 2014 to 2020, new and replacements.
  • Figure 37: Annual demand for utility poles (electricity, telecoms and rail) 2014 to 2020, by region.
  • Figure 38: Demand for utility poles of all materials by region, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050
  • Figure 39: Global demand for poles by country in value nominal $, North America, 2014-2020
  • Figure 40: Utility pole in Japan
  • Figure 41: Lines in Bolivia (left) have considerably longer span than lines in Laos (right)
  • Figure 42: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on wood structures
  • Figure 43: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on galvanized steel poles
  • Figure 44: Single-circuit 138-kV line on weathering steel.
  • Figure 45: H-frame wood structure
  • Figure 46 : Space allocations on a joint utility pole
  • Figure 47 : Supply space on a utility pole
  • Figure 48: Fig; Safety Zone Space on a utility pole
  • Figure 49: The Communications Space in a utility pole
  • Figure 50 : The principle of exponential corrosion
  • Figure 51 : Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust
  • Figure 52 : Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust
  • Figure 53 : Phase 3 - Abrasive Rust
  • Figure 54 : Phase 3 - The tower falls
  • Figure 55 : Outline of potential decay patterns
  • Figure 56 : Decay in a wood utility pole
  • Figure 57: Overhead line for rail traction
  • Figure 58: KEC International planned investment by region ($ billion)
  • Figure 59: Tower for single circuit, three phase system (three conductors)
  • Figure 60: Tower for double circuit, three phase system (six conductors)
  • Figure 61: Tower for multiple circuits, three phase system (twelve conductors)
  • Figure 62: Lattice (left) and Monopole (right) Towers
  • Figure 63: 2 Multiple Lines in a Power Corridor
  • Figure 64: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/1
  • Figure 65: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/2
  • Figure 66: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/3
  • Figure 67: Y Pylon by Knight Architects competition for National Grid 2012
  • Figure 68: Plexus by Arup for National Grid 2012
  • Figure 69: The Land of Giants, Iceland, Choi & Shine
  • Figure 70: A distribution line right of way
  • Figure 71: A wetland-scrub/shrub-dominated community the first year after a mow.
  • Figure 72: A grass-dominated community in an agricultural matrix the first year after a mow.
  • Figure 73: An example of a single ROW corridor.
  • Figure 74: An example of parallel transmission ROW corridors
  • Figure 75 : Typical European right of way cross section, self-supporting tower
  • Figure 76: Typical European right of way cross section, guyed tower
  • Figure 77: Right-of-way comparison for equivalent capacity of 765-kV and 345-kV lines
  • Figure 78: Blue crane electrocuted in South Africa
  • Figure 79: White Storks in their nest on a utility pole in Vlădeni, Romania
  • Figure 80: An example of a pole-mounted transformer
  • Figure 81: Distribution pole with symmetric chevron (arrow) on top as bird exclusion device
  • Figure 82 : Dedicated nesting pole next to distribution pole with bird exclusion device

Tables

  • Table 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, 2015
  • Table 2: Global installed telecoms towers, by region, 2014-2020
  • Table 3: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2014
  • Table 4: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2014
  • Table 5: Global installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2014
  • Table 6: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2014
  • Table 7: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2014
  • Table 8: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014
  • Table 9: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Asia Pacific, 2014
  • Table 10: Global installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2014
  • Table 11: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2014
  • Table 12: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2015
  • Table 13: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North America, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 14: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Europe, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 15: Sales of electricity transmission towers, CIS, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 16: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Middle East, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 17: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North Africa, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 18: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 19: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Asia, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 20: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Pacific, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 21: Sales of electricity transmission towers, South America, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 22: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Central America, nominal $, 2014-2020
  • Table 23: Installed base of poles by country and utility, North America, 2015
  • Table 24: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Europe, 2015
  • Table 25: Installed base of poles by country and utility, CIS, 2015
  • Table 26: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Middle East, 2015
  • Table 27: Installed base of poles by country and utility, North Africa, 2015
  • Table 28: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2015
  • Table 29: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Asia, 2015
  • Table 30: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Pacific, 2015
  • Table 31: Installed base of poles by country and utility, South America, 2015
  • Table 32: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Central America, 2015
  • Table 33: Demand for poles by country, North America, 2014-2020
  • Table 34: Demand for poles by country, Europe, 2014-2020
  • Table 35: Demand for poles by country, CIS, 2014-2020
  • Table 36: Demand for poles by country, Middle East, 2014-2020
  • Table 37: Demand for poles by country, North Africa, 2014-2020
  • Table 38: Demand for poles by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014-2020
  • Table 39: Demand for poles by country, Asia, 2014-2020
  • Table 40: Demand for poles by country, Pacific, 2014-2020
  • Table 41: Demand for poles by country, South America, 2014-2020
  • Table 42: Demand for poles by country, Central America, 2014-2020
  • Table 43: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, North America, 2014-2020
  • Table 44: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Europe, 2014-2020
  • Table 45: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, CIS, 2014-2020
  • Table 46: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Middle East, 2014-2020
  • Table 47: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, North Africa, 2014-2020
  • Table 48: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014-2020
  • Table 49: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Asia, 2014-2020
  • Table 50: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Pacific, 2014-2020
  • Table 51: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, South America, 2014-2020
  • Table 52: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Central America, 2014-2020
  • Table 53: Description and cost of repairs
  • Table 54: Recommended Pole Inspection Schedules, Rural Utilities Service, US
  • Table 55: Electrified railways throughout the world, 2011
  • Table 56 : Estimates of the annual number of collision victims with above ground transmission lines (excluding distribution lines) for three different countries.
  • Table 57 : The size of large raptors
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