電気自動車 (EV) 用バッテリーセル、モジュール、およびバッテリーパックの最近の技術的課題およびEVの世界市場予測
EV Cell, Module & Pack's Recent Technical Issues and EV Market Forecast
|出版日||ページ情報||英文 261 Pages
|電気自動車 (EV) 用バッテリーセル、モジュール、およびバッテリーパックの最近の技術的課題およびEVの世界市場予測 EV Cell, Module & Pack's Recent Technical Issues and EV Market Forecast|
|出版日: 2015年10月13日||ページ情報: 英文 261 Pages||
EV (電気自動車) の世界市場ではHEV、PHEV、およびBEVの各タイプを合わせて台数が既に200万台を超えており、今後も全体的に急速な伸びを見せて、2020年までの年毎の平均成長率は28%になると予測されます。2020年にはEVの台数は850万台に達する見込みで、こういった状況を背景にEV用二次電池市場も急速に拡大、発展を続けています。
Due to depletion of fossil fuels and environmental regulations such as control of greenhouse gas emissions, the electric vehicle market is gradually expanding with the help of automobiles that are environmentally friendly compared to internal combustion automobiles and that have excellent accelerating performances. Secondary batteries that are used the most for EVs have changed from lead storage cells, Ni-MH cells, to Li-ion cells. Usage for Li-ion cells have already expanded to portable power units and also expanding to medium to large secondary batteries for EVs, and they are regarded as a battery that is the most widely used and with the most applicability. The market for EV secondary batteries is rapidly growing and since Korea is one of the leaders in the market, there are high expectations for domestic industry growth.
According to a Korean market research firm SNE Research, the global EV market volume has exceeded 2 million vehicles including all types like HEV, PHEV, and BEV, and is expected to exceed 8.5 million by 2020. Among different types of EVs, sales of PHEVs and BEVs especially are expected to grow 62.4% and 59.8% yearly on average respectively until 2020, and to lead the sales increase of all EVs. In contrast, sales of HEVs are expected to negatively grow -2% yearly on average. However, in total the EV market is expected to grow 28% yearly on average until 2020.
Currently the global EV market is led by American and Japanese producers, but recently the market is expanding due to aggressive EV developments of European and Chinese producers. The competition in the market is intensifying among American producers like GM, Ford, Chrysler, Tesla, Japanese producers like Toyota, Honda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, European producers like BMW, Damiler, VW, Renault, Volvo, and Chinese producers like BYD and SAIC. In the early phase of the EV market, producers that specialize in EVs like Tesla led the market, but since 2015 large automobile companies have been active in the market, and it is expected that they will gradually become major influencers in the market.
The most important issues in EV battery development are energy density, price, safety, performance in low temperature, and long term reliability. The EV battery development roadmap states that element technologies for battery performance increase are anode and cathode material, electrolyte material and energy storage technologies, and the roadmap also provides directions for technological developments comprehensively. Also, the roadmap has included mileage, battery weight, capacity, and price as indices for battery powered EVs and has been written so that the reader will be able to judge how battery technology development affects vehicle performance improvements. Further, it includes research plans for various next generation battery systems, energy density of which is expected to rapidly improve in medium to long term.
Since Li-ion batteries have energy density that is superior to that of existing secondary batteries and produce large output, they can be used for EVs and electric tools. Also, they can be charged quickly and maintain lifespan after a few hundred cycles. Because the lifespan can be increased to more than 10 years, they can be used for EVs and currently applied to HEVs and PHEVs in the market. Areas that need additional design considerations are cycle characteristics, safety, and insulation, and also weight reduction of components for energy density improvements. Furthermore, because large-sized batteries are used in very high currents of 100 to 300A compared to small batteries, structure and design of terminals suitable for high currents and welding process of foil that is the whole house and terminals should be considered as important factors. Designs that consider protection against heat from rapid charge and discharge were not considered for small batteries, but they are very important factors for medium to large batteries.
SNE Research reviewed the issues regarding the EV batteries, technically analyzed forms of each parts, prices, structures of EV cell module packs, and conducted market research including battery evaluation method of EV producers, research and development trends of major countries, and technological developments and businesses of battery producers. Through these, SNE Research analyzed demands and prices of EVs and EV batteries henceforth until 2020. Readers will be able to check current EV battery technologies and prices, and global EV sales and market prospects from this report.