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マンガン:2030年までの見通し (第16版)

Manganese: Outlook to 2030, 16th Edition

出版日: | 発行: Roskill Information Services | ページ情報: 英文 | 納期: 即日から翌営業日

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マンガン:2030年までの見通し (第16版)
出版日: 2020年11月03日
発行: Roskill Information Services
ページ情報: 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
担当者のコメント
世界の金属・鉱物市場調査のリーダーとして定評のあるRoskill Information Servicesより マンガン:2030年までの見通し (第16版) が発行されました。当レポートでは、世界のマンガン市場について調査し、市場の概要、生産動向、生産コスト、消費動向、貿易動向、価格、今後の見通し、各国プロファイル、および主要企業のプロファイルなどを提供しています。
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

鋼は引き続きマンガン需要において支配的ですが、電池におけるマンガンの消費量は今後10年間で急速に増加する見込みです。リチウムイオン電池からの硫酸マンガンの需要は、EV市場への浸透が加速し、マンガン金属のサプライチェーンに大きな影響を与えるため、今後10年間で2倍になると予測されています。

当レポートでは、世界のマンガン市場について調査し、市場の概要、生産動向、生産コスト、消費動向、貿易動向、価格、今後の見通し、各国プロファイル、および主要企業のプロファイルなどを提供しています。

目次

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

  • マンガン市場の概要
  • 需要
  • 供給
  • 価格

第2章 マンガンのフローチャート

第3章 世界の生産

  • マンガン鉱石の生産
  • マンガン合金の生産
  • マンガン金属の生産
  • 二酸化マンガンの生産

第4章 マンガンの生産コスト

  • マンガン鉱石の生産コスト
    • マンガン鉱石のコスト曲線
    • マンガン鉱石生産コストの成長要因
  • マンガン合金の生産コスト
    • SiMnのコスト曲線
    • HCFeMnのコスト曲線
    • マンガン合金の生産コストの成長要因

第5章 世界の消費

  • マンガン鉱石の消費
  • マンガン合金と金属の消費
    • SiMnの消費
    • HCFeMnの消費
    • MLCFeMnの消費
    • マンガン金属の消費
  • マンガン化学物質の消費

第6章 国際貿易

  • マンガン鉱石の国際貿易
  • マンガン合金の国際貿易
    • シリコマンガン(SiMn)の国際貿易
    • 高炭素フェロマンガン(HC FeMn)の国際貿易
    • 中炭素および低炭素フェロマンガン(MLC FeMn)の国際貿易
  • マンガン金属の国際貿易
  • 二酸化マンガンの国際貿易
  • アンチダンピング関税、輸出入税
    • マンガン合金の輸入関税
    • 二酸化マンガンと金属の輸入関税
    • 米中貿易戦争
    • 輸出税

第7章 価格

  • 一次製品と中間製品の相関関係
  • マンガン鉱石の価格
  • マンガン合金の価格
    • シリコンマンガン
    • 高炭素フェロマンガン
    • 中低炭素フェロマンガン
  • マンガン金属の価格
  • マンガン化学薬品の価格

第8章 2030年までの見通し

  • 過去の市場バランス
  • マンガン消費の見通し
    • 製鋼におけるマンガン消費の見通し
    • 他の用途におけるマンガン消費の見通し
  • マンガン生産の見通し
    • マンガン合金生産の見通し
    • マンガン鉱石生産の見通し
  • マンガン価格の見通し
    • マンガン鉱石価格の見通し
    • マンガン合金と金属価格の見通し

第9章 背景

  • マンガンの歴史
  • マンガンの性質
  • マンガンの発生
    • マンガン鉱物
    • マンガン鉱床の種類
  • 世界のマンガン埋蔵量と資源
  • マンガンの採掘、加工、精製
    • マンガン鉱石採掘
    • マンガン鉱石処理
    • マンガンの製錬と精製
    • マンガン合金
    • マンガン金属
    • 二酸化マンガン(NMD、CMD、EMD)
    • その他のマンガン化学物質

第10章 持続可能性

  • 環境、社会、ガバナンス(ESG)
    • 環境
    • 社会
    • ガバナンス
  • 主要原材料
  • 責任ある調達イニシアチブ

第11章 国別プロファイル

  • アルゼンチン
  • オーストラリア
    • オーストラリア:マンガン鉱石の生産
    • オーストラリア:マンガン合金の生産
    • オーストラリア:将来のマンガン鉱石生産者
  • バーレーン
  • ベルギー
  • ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ
  • ボツワナ
  • ブラジル
    • ブラジル:マンガン鉱石生産
    • ブラジル:マンガン合金の生産
  • ブルガリア
  • ブルキナファソ
  • カナダ
  • チリ
  • 中国
  • コスタリカ
  • コートジボワール
  • チェコ共和国
  • コンゴ民主共和国(DRC)
  • エジプト
  • フランス
  • ガボン
  • ジョージア
  • ガーナ
  • ギリシャ
  • ガイアナ
  • ハンガリー
  • インド
    • インド:マンガン鉱石
    • インド:マンガン合金
  • インドネシア
  • イラン
  • イタリア
  • 日本
  • カザフスタン
  • ケニア
  • マケドニア
  • マレーシア
  • マリ
  • メキシコ
  • モロッコ
  • ミャンマー
  • ナミビア
  • ノルウェー
  • オマーン
  • ペルー
  • ポーランド
  • ルーマニア
  • ロシア
  • サウジアラビア
  • スロバキア
  • 南アフリカ
    • 南アフリカ:マンガン鉱石の生産
    • 南アフリカ:マンガン鉱石プロジェクト
    • 南アフリカ:マンガン合金の生産
    • 南アフリカ:マンガン金属および化学製品の生産
  • 韓国
  • スペイン
  • トーゴ
  • トルコ
  • ウクライナ
  • 米国
  • ベネズエラ
  • ベトナム
  • ザンビア

第12章 企業プロファイル

  • Asia Minerals Limited
  • Assmang
  • Bosai Group
  • Mineraçao Buritirama
  • CITIC Dameng
  • Dongbu Metal
  • Eramet
  • Eurasian Resources Group
  • Ferroglobe
  • Inner Mongolia Xinchuang Metallurgy
  • Tshipi
  • Minera Autlan
  • Mizushima Ferroalloy
  • MOIL
  • Ningxia Shengyan Group
  • Nippon Denko
  • OM Holdings
  • Prince Minerals
  • Privat Group
  • Renova Group
  • Russian Ferro Alloys
  • Sichuan Chuantou Emei Ferroalloy
  • South32
  • Tianyuan Manganese Industry
  • Tosoh Hellas
  • Vale

第13章 第一用途における消費

  • 製鋼におけるマンガンの使用
  • 鋼種のマンガン強度
    • 製鋼工程でのマンガンの添加
    • 製鋼における合金選択に影響を与える要因
  • COVID-19の影響
  • 粗鋼
    • 粗鋼の見通し
  • ステンレス鋼
    • ステンレス鋼の見通し
  • 電池でのマンガンの使用
    • 一次電池
    • 二次電池
    • 一次電池でのマンガンの消費
    • リチウムイオン電池でのマンガンの消費
    • リチウムイオン電池の展望
  • 非鉄合金でのマンガンの使用
    • アルミニウム合金
    • その他の非鉄合金
  • 非鉄合金におけるマンガン消費の見通し
  • マンガンの他の用途
    • 農業
    • 着色剤と顔料
    • フェライト
    • 溶接フラックス
    • 水処理
    • 湿式製錬
  • 燃料添加剤
    • 酸化剤
    • 臭気制御
    • 触媒
    • シーラント
    • 金属コーティング
    • 回路基板
    • 二酸化硫黄の除去
    • ハイドロキノンの生産
    • その他のマイナーな用途

第14章 マクロ経済の見通し

図表

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Manganese demand outlook, 2020-2030
  • Table 2: World: Production of manganese ore by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 3: World: Production of manganese ore by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 4: World: Production of SiMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 5: World: Production of HC FeMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 6: World: Production of MLC FeMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 7: World: Producers of electrolytic manganese metal
  • Table 8: World: Production of Mn metal by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 9: World: Production of electrolytic manganese dioxide by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 10: World: Producers of battery-grade electrolytic manganese dioxide
  • Table 11: World consumption of manganese units, 2014-2020
  • Table 12: World: Apparent and real consumption of manganese ore, 2014-2020
  • Table 13: World: Apparent and real consumption of SiMn, 2014-2020
  • Table 14: World: Apparent and real consumption of HC FeMn, 2014-2020
  • Table 15: World: Apparent and real consumption of MLC FeMn, 2014-2020
  • Table 16: World: Apparent and real consumption of Mn metal, 2014-2020
  • Table 17: World: Exports of manganese products, 2014-2020
  • Table 18: World: Exports of manganese ore by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 19: World: Imports of manganese ore by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 20: World: Exports of SiMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 21: World: Imports of SiMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 22: World: Exports of HC FeMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 23: World: Imports of HC FeMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 24: World: Exports of MLC FeMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 25: World: Imports of MLC FeMn by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 26: World: Exports of Mn metal by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 27: World: Imports of Mn metal by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 28: World: Exports of manganese dioxide by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 29: World: Imports of manganese dioxide by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 30: Quarterly average manganese ore spot prices, Q1 2014-Q2 2020
  • Table 31: Annual average SiMn prices by region, 2014-2020
  • Table 32: Annual average HC FeMn prices by region, 2014-2020
  • Table 33: Annual average MLC FeMn prices by region, 2014-2020
  • Table 34: Annual average manganese metal prices by region, 2014-2020
  • Table 35: Actual and forecast global real consumption of manganese ore and alloys, 2000-2030
  • Table 36: Manganese demand outlook, 2020-2030
  • Table 37: Forecast manganese consumption batteries, 2020-2030
  • Table 38: Actual and forecast manganese ore production by country, 2020 and 2030
  • Table 39: Actual and forecast manganese ore prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 40: Actual and forecast SiMn prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 41: Actual and forecast HC FeMn prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 42: Actual and forecast MLC FeMn prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 43: Actual and forecast manganese metal prices, 2000-2030
  • Table 44: Physical properties of manganese
  • Table 45: Principal manganese minerals
  • Table 46: Composition of ocean-floor manganese nodules by ocean
  • Table 47: World: Land-based reserves and resources of manganese by country and major mine, 2020
  • Table 48: Bureau of Indian Standards: Classification of manganese ore
  • Table 49: Typical manganese ore specifications from selected major producers
  • Table 50: ASTM specifications for manganese alloys
  • Table 51: Selected manganese chemicals: Formulae, manganese content and main markets
  • Table 52: Manganese production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Table 53: Manganese production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Table 54: Manganese production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index
  • Table 55: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 56: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2020
  • Table 57: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 58: Australia: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 59: Australia: Summary of main manganese operations
  • Table 60: Australia: Advanced/idle manganese projects
  • Table 61: Belgium: Manganese dioxide production, 2014-2020
  • Table 62: Belgium: Summary of main manganese chemical operations
  • Table 63: Brazil: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 64: Brazil: Summary of main manganese ore and alloy operations
  • Table 65: Brazil: Summary of manganese ore and alloy operations
  • Table 66: Brazil: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 67: Bulgaria: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 68: China: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 69: China: Manganese ore imports by source, 2019-2020
  • Table 70: China: Ferromanganese capacity by province, June 2020
  • Table 71: China: SiMn capacity by province, June 2020
  • Table 72: China: Manganese alloy capacity by producer, 2020
  • Table 73: China: Manganese metal capacity by province, 2019-2020
  • Table 74: Cote d'Ivoire: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 75: Cote d'Ivoire: Summary of manganese ore operations
  • Table 76: Egypt: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 77: Egypt: Summary of main ore and manganese alloy operations
  • Table 78: France: Manganese alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 79: Gabon: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 80: Summary of manganese ore operations in Gabon
  • Table 81: Georgia: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 82: Georgia: Summary of manganese ore and alloy operations
  • Table 83: Ghana: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 84: Ghana: Summary of manganese ore operations
  • Table 85: Greece: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 86: Greece: Summary of main manganese chemical operations
  • Table 87: India: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 88: India: Identified manganese alloy producing companies and capacities, 2019
  • Table 89: Indonesia: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 90: Indonesia: Summary of manganese ore and alloy production and projects
  • Table 91: Iran: Manganese alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 92: Japan: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 93: Japan: Summary of manganese alloy and metal operations
  • Table 94: Kazakhstan: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 95: Kazakhstan: Summary of manganese ore and alloy operations,
  • Table 96: Kenya: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 97: Malaysia: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 98: Malaysia: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 99: Mexico: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 100: Mexico: Summary of main manganese operations
  • Table 101: Morocco: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 102: Morocco: Summary of manganese ore production
  • Table 103: Myanmar: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 104: Namibia: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 105: Namibia: Summary of manganese ore operations
  • Table 106: Norway: Manganese alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 107: Norway: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 108: Oman: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 109: Oman: Summary of manganese ore operations
  • Table 110: Poland: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 111: Romania: Manganese ore production, 2014-2020
  • Table 112: Romania: Summary of manganese ore operations
  • Table 113: Russia: Manganese alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 114: Russia: Summary of manganese ore and alloy operations
  • Table 115: Saudi Arabia: Manganese alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 116: Saudi Arabia: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 117: Slovakia: Manganese ore and alloy production
  • Table 118: Slovakia: Summary of manganese production
  • Table 119: South Africa: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 120: South Africa: Summary of main manganese operations
  • Table 121: Manganese ore projects under development
  • Table 122: South Korea: Manganese alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 123: South Korea: Summary of manganese alloy operations
  • Table 124: Spain: Manganese alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 125: Spain: Summary of main manganese operations,
  • Table 126: Togo: Manganese ore production and consumption, 2014-2020
  • Table 127: Turkey: Manganese ore production and consumption, 2014-2020
  • Table 128: Ukraine: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 129: Ukraine: Summary of main manganese operations
  • Table 130: USA: Manganese alloy and chemical production, 2014-2020
  • Table 131: USA: Summary of manganese operations
  • Table 132: Venezuela: Summary of manganese operations
  • Table 133: Zambia: Manganese ore and alloy production, 2014-2020
  • Table 134: Zambia: Summary of manganese operations
  • Table 135: Asia Minerals Limited: Summary
  • Table 136: Assmang: Summary
  • Table 137: Bosai Group: Summary
  • Table 138: Bosai Group: Summary overview of Mn operations
  • Table 139: Minera?ao Buritirama: Summary
  • Table 140: CITIC Dameng: Summary
  • Table 141: Dongbu Metal: Summary
  • Table 142: Eramet: Summary
  • Table 143: ERG: Contact details
  • Table 144: Ferroglobe: Summary
  • Table 145: Inner Mongolia Xinchuang Metallurgy: Summary
  • Table 146: Tshipi: Summary
  • Table 147: Minera Autlan: Summary
  • Table 148: Mizushina Ferroalloy: Summary
  • Table 149: MOIL: Summary
  • Table 150: Ningxia Shengyan Group: Summary
  • Table 151: Nippon Denko: Summary
  • Table 152: OM Holdings: Summary
  • Table 153: Prince Minerals: Summary
  • Table 154: Privat Group: Summary
  • Table 155: Renova Group: Summary
  • Table 156: Russian Ferro Alloys: Summary
  • Table 157: Sichuan Chuantou Emei Ferroalloy: Summary
  • Table 158: South32: Summary
  • Table 159: Tianyuan Manganese Industry: Summary
  • Table 160: Tosoh Electrolytic Manganese Industry: Summary
  • Table 161: Vale: Summary
  • Table 162: Manganese content of various steel grade families
  • Table 163: Manganese specification of principal hot-rolled rebar grades in China
  • Table 164: Historical production of crude steel, 2010-2020
  • Table 165: Forecast production of crude steel, 2020-2030
  • Table 166: Production of crude stainless steel, 2014-2020
  • Table 167: Select trade protection measures imposed on Indonesian stainless steel, 2020
  • Table 168: Base-case stainless steel production, 2020-2030
  • Table 169: Characteristics of primary lithium batteries
  • Table 170: Market structure evolution (2010--2019)
  • Table 171: World: Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2019
  • Table 172: Material composition by cathode chemistry
  • Table 173: Specifications and typical analysis of NMD, EMD and CMD
  • Table 174: Manganese consumption by form in lithium-ion, 2011-2019
  • Table 175: Base Case Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030 (PPP adjusted, Billion international dollars in 2020 terms)
  • Table 176: Base Case Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030 (PPP adjusted, % annual real change)
  • Table 177: Base Case Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030 (PPP adjusted, international dollars in 2020 terms)
  • Table 178: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030 (millions)
  • Table 179: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030 (GDP deflator, percentage change yoy)
  • Table 180: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World: Manganese real consumption by end-use, 2019
  • Figure 2: World: Real consumption of manganese ore, 2000-2030
  • Figure 3: World: Real consumption of manganese alloys, 2000-2030
  • Figure 4: World: Actual and forecast crude steel output, 2000-2030
  • Figure 5: World: Land-based reserves and resources of manganese by country, 2020
  • Figure 6: World: Manganese ore output by top-five producing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 7: Cash cost curve for manganese ore, 2020 (CIF China basis)
  • Figure 8: Actual and forecast manganese ore production by country, 2020 & 2030
  • Figure 9: World: Manganese alloy production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 10: Global average SiMn and HC FeMn FOB cash production costs, 2014-2020
  • Figure 11: World: Manganese metal production by country, 2010-2020
  • Figure 12: South African annual average manganese ore spot prices, January 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 13: Historical and forecast prices and production costs for manganese ore, 2006-2030
  • Figure 14: Historical and forecast average prices for manganese alloys and metal, 2015-2030
  • Figure 15: Manganese flowchart
  • Figure 16: World: Manganese ore production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 17: World: Manganese ore production by country, 2019
  • Figure 18: World: Manganese ore output by top-five producing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 19: World: Average manganese ore grades per country, 2019
  • Figure 20: World: Estimated manganese ore production by company, 2019
  • Figure 21: World: Manganese alloy production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 22: World: Manganese alloy production by region, 2019
  • Figure 23: World: Estimated manganese alloy capacity by company, 2019
  • Figure 24: World: Manganese metal production by country, 2010-2020
  • Figure 25: Global average manganese ore cash production costs, FOB and CIF China basis, 2014-2020
  • Figure 26: Manganese ore cash production costs by component, global average, 2014-2020
  • Figure 27: Cash cost curve for manganese ore, 2020
  • Figure 28: Manganese ore cash costs by region and component, 2020
  • Figure 29: Oil prices (Brent Crude) since 2014
  • Figure 30: Baltic Dry Shipping Index since 2014
  • Figure 31: Global average SiMn and HC FeMn FOB cash production costs, 2014-2020
  • Figure 32: SiMn and HC FeMn ex-plant production costs by component, global average, 2020
  • Figure 33: Global FOB cash cost curve for SiMn, includes SiMn used in the production of MLC FeMn, 2020
  • Figure 34: SiMn ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2020
  • Figure 35: Global FOB cash cost curve for HC FeMn, includes HC FeMn used in the production of MLC FeMn, 2020
  • Figure 36: HC FeMn ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2020
  • Figure 37: Exchange rate movements versus US$ (index, 2014=100)
  • Figure 38: Average electricity tariffs for ferroalloy producers, 2014-2020
  • Figure 39: Average spot prices for metallurgical coke and energy coal since 2014 (index, January 2014=100)
  • Figure 40: World: Manganese real consumption by end-use, 2019
  • Figure 41: World: Apparent consumption of manganese ore by region compared with real consumption, 2014-2020
  • Figure 42: World: Real consumption of manganese alloys and metal, 2000-2020
  • Figure 43: World: Apparent consumption of SiMn by region compared with real consumption, 2000-2020
  • Figure 44: World: Apparent consumption of HC FeMn by region compared with real consumption, 2000-2020
  • Figure 45: World: Apparent consumption of MLC FeMn by region compared with real consumption, 2000-2020
  • Figure 46: World: Apparent consumption of Mn metal by region compared with real consumption, 2000-2020
  • Figure 47: World exports as a proportion of world production: 2010, 2015, 2019 and 2020
  • Figure 48: World: Top-five exporting and importing countries for manganese ore, 2019
  • Figure 49: World: Exports of manganese ore by top-five exporting countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 50: World: Imports of manganese ore by top-five importing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 51: World: Trade flow for manganese ore, 2020
  • Figure 52: Manganese ore port stocks in China by country of origin, January 2018-June 2020
  • Figure 53: World: Top-five exporting and importing countries for SiMn, 2019
  • Figure 54: World: Exports of SiMn by top-five exporting countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 55: World: Imports of SiMn by top-five importing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 56: World: Trade flow for SiMn, 2020
  • Figure 57: World: Top-five exporting and importing countries for HC FeMn, 2019
  • Figure 58: World: Exports of HC FeMn by top-five exporting countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 59: World: Imports of HC FeMn by top-five importing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 60: World: Trade flow for HC FeMn, 2020
  • Figure 61: World: Top-five exporting and importing countries for MLC FeMn, 2019
  • Figure 62: World: Exports of MLC FeMn by top-five exporting countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 63: World: Imports of MLC FeMn by top-five importing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 64: World: Trade flow for MLC FeMn, 2020
  • Figure 65: World: Top-five exporting and importing countries for manganese metal, 2019
  • Figure 66: World: Exports of manganese metal by top-five exporting countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 67: World: Imports of manganese metal by top-five importing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 68: World: Trade flow for Mn Metal, 2020
  • Figure 69: World: Top-five exporting and importing countries for manganese dioxide, 2019
  • Figure 70: World: Exports of manganese dioxide by top-five exporting countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 71: World: Imports of manganese dioxide by top-five importing countries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 72: World: Trade flow of manganese dioxide, 2020
  • Figure 73: Index prices of manganese ore, silicomanganese, HC and MLC ferromanganese, manganese metal and crude/stainless steel 304 average (January 2014= 100)
  • Figure 74: South African annual average manganese ore spot prices, January 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 75: Monthly manganese ore spot price spread by mainstream ores, nominal terms, February 2018-June 2020
  • Figure 76: South African 37% manganese ore (nominal US$/dmtu) and Chinese port stocks by origin, , February 2018-June 2020
  • Figure 77: Average prices for SiMn and HC FeMn, nominal terms, June 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 78: Monthly silicomanganese (65% Mn) prices, June 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 79: Monthly prices for HC FeMn, January 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 80: Monthly prices for MLC FeMn, June 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 81: Manganese metal and MLC FeMn prices, nominal terms, June 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 82: Monthly prices for manganese metal, nominal terms, January 2014-July 2020
  • Figure 83: China: Annual export prices for manganese dioxide and metal, 2014-2020
  • Figure 84: Manganese sulphate, EXW China, March 2018--July 2020, 32% Mn
  • Figure 85: Historical manganese supply-demand market balance, ore basis, 2000-2020
  • Figure 86: Forecast manganese demand and "Deep-V" Industrial Production Index growth, 2019-2030
  • Figure 87: World: Actual and forecast crude steel output, 2020-2030
  • Figure 88: World: Actual and forecast average manganese content of world crude steel production, 2000-2030
  • Figure 89: Forecast manganese supply-demand market balance, ore basis, 2020-2030
  • Figure 90: Historical and forecast prices and production costs for manganese ore, 2006-2030
  • Figure 91: Outlook: Annual forecast prices of manganese alloys and manganese metal CIF China (Real US$/t), 2019-2030
  • Figure 92: World: Land-based reserves and resources of manganese by country, 2020
  • Figure 93: World: Estimated head grades of manganese ore per major producing country
  • Figure 94: Applications for manganese ores
  • Figure 95: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 96: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 97: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 98: Australia: Mn ore exports, 2014-2020
  • Figure 99: Australia: Geographic distribution of operating manganese mines and deposits
  • Figure 100: China: Manganese ore imports by source, 2014-2020
  • Figure 101: China: Manganese ore imports by source, 2019-2020
  • Figure 102: China: High-carbon ferromanganese capacity by province, June 2020
  • Figure 103: China: Medium- and low-carbon ferromanganese capacity by province, June 2020
  • Figure 104: China: SiMn capacity by province, June 2020
  • Figure 105: China: Manganese metal capacity by province, 2020
  • Figure 106: South African manganese ore exports by port,
  • Figure 107: South Africa: Manganese ore exports by destination, 2014-2020
  • Figure 108: World: Average manganese content of crude steel production, 2000-2020
  • Figure 109: World: Real consumption of Mn alloys relative to crude steel output, 2000-2020
  • Figure 110: World: Share of manganese units contained within global steel output by source, 2000-2019
  • Figure 111: Europe: Price of SiMn versus price of equivalent quantity of FeSi and HC FeMn, January 2000-June 2020
  • Figure 112: Discount for SiMn price relative to price of an equivalent quantity of FeSi and HC FeMn, January 2000-June 2020
  • Figure 113: Jan-May crude steel change
  • Figure 114: May crude steel change
  • Figure 115: Global crude steel production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 116: Forecast global crude steel production, 2020-2030
  • Figure 117: Apparent consumption of stainless steel, 2001-2020
  • Figure 118: Crude stainless steel production by region, 2001-2020
  • Figure 119: Crude stainless steel production by series, 2001-2020
  • Figure 120: Stainless steel apparent consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 121: Forecast crude stainless steel production, 2019-2029
  • Figure 122: Forecast crude stainless steel production by grade, 2019-2030
  • Figure 123: Stainless steel apparent consumption and production, 2019-2030
  • Figure 124: Li-ion cell structure including exterior cell components
  • Figure 125: Gravimetric Energy density at cathode level, 2019
  • Figure 126: Market share evolution of large-sized cell maker
  • Figure 127: World: Historic lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2019
  • Figure 128: World: Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2019
  • Figure 129: Cathode consumption by cathode type, 2013-2019
  • Figure 130: World Li-ion battery use by market, 2019-2029
目次

In 2019, manganese ore prices experienced a gradual softening over the first three quarters of the year, followed by an accelerated decline in prices that bottomed out at around US$3.50/dmtu CIF China in November 2019. The key driver of downward pressure on prices was significant production growth, coming from countries such as Ghana and Gabon as well as South Africa. This was highlighted by the strong increase in Chinese port stocks at the end of 2019 and into early 2020, propelling the market into oversupply despite demand remaining relatively robust.

Prices moved back above US$4.0/dmtu CIF China in early 2020, prompted by modest supply cutbacks and logistical restrictions during the Chinese lockdown enforcements to curb the spread of COVID-19. Then, prices suddenly spiked up to almost US$7/dmtu, as a result of the South African mining lockdowns over March and April 2020. As South African production has gradually returned to normal, prices have gradually softened again, though as logistics in South Africa remain constrained to a certain degree, they have not yet lost all of their gains.

The fact that the collapse in oil prices and weak producer currencies against the US dollar (notably the South African Rand) have lowered production costs is likely to be a drag on prices through the second half of 2020 if input costs do not recover.

While demand trends for manganese in steel continues to see higher intensity of use in China, following the implementation of stricter rebar standards, a surge in demand has not materialised as many steel mills were already compliant to the standards and smaller mills were given a tolerance period to adhere to the new regulations. The demand for manganese is overwhelmingly driven by steel output, accounting for well over 90% of global manganese consumption.

Demand will fall back somewhat in 2020 following the global impacts of COVID-19 but, most likely to a lesser extent than supply. China's push to prop-up steel demand domestically from new infrastructure projects under a RMB3.7Tr state stimulus is likely to see a flat year-on-year Chinese steel output, although exports will wane over 2020. As China already produces over half of the world's steel output, the impacts of COVID-19 will to some extent be mitigated for steel raw materials.

Though steel will continue to dominate manganese demand, consumption of manganese in batteries is expected to grow rapidly over the next decade. Manganese sulphate demand from lithium-ion batteries is expected to double over the next decade as EV market penetration ramps up and will have significant impacts on the manganese metal supply chain.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What is the impact of COVID-19 on the fundamentals of the manganese supply chain and market balance going forward?
  • Who are the key market players and what are their development plans?
  • How does China's regulatory environment and state stimulus to prop up the steel industry impact manganese demand?
  • How will lithium-ion battery trends impact the demand for manganese in batteries?
  • What are the complexities of changing competition dynamics and cost curves that define the industry?
  • What is the future scope and outlook for the manganese ore and alloy market?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Manganese market overview
  • 1.2 Demand
  • 1.3 Supply
  • 1.4 Prices

2. Manganese flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1 Production of manganese ore
  • 3.2 Production of manganese alloys
  • 3.3 Production of manganese metal
  • 3.4 Production of manganese dioxide

4. Manganese production cost

  • 4.1 Production costs for manganese ore
    • 4.1.1 Cost curves for manganese ore
    • 4.1.2 Manganese ore production cost drivers
      • 4.1.2.1 Mine costs
      • 4.1.2.2 Trucking and rail costs
      • 4.1.2.3 Shipping costs
      • 4.1.2.4 Royalties and sales commissions
      • 4.1.2.5 Value-in-use adjustment
  • 4.2 Production costs for manganese alloys
    • 4.2.1 Cost curves for SiMn
    • 4.2.2 Cost curves for HC FeMn
    • 4.2.3 Manganese alloy production cost drivers
      • 4.2.3.1 Labour costs
      • 4.2.3.2 Manganese ore costs
      • 4.2.3.3 Electricity costs
      • 4.2.3.4 Reductant costs

5. World consumption

  • 5.1 Consumption of manganese ore
  • 5.2 Consumption of manganese alloys and metal
    • 5.2.1 Consumption of SiMn
    • 5.2.2 Consumption of HC FeMn
    • 5.2.3 Consumption of MLC FeMn
    • 5.2.4 Consumption of manganese metal
  • 5.3 Consumption of manganese chemicals

6. International trade

  • 6.1 International trade in manganese ore
  • 6.2 International trade in manganese alloys
    • 6.2.1 International trade in silicomanganese (SiMn)
    • 6.2.2 International trade in high-carbon ferromanganese (HC FeMn)
    • 6.2.3 International trade in medium- and low-carbon ferromanganese (MLC FeMn)
  • 6.3 International trade in manganese metal
  • 6.4 International trade in manganese dioxide
  • 6.5 Anti-dumping duties, import and export taxes
    • 6.5.1 Manganese alloy import duties
    • 6.5.2 Manganese dioxide and metal import duties
    • 6.5.3 USA-China trade war
    • 6.5.4 Export taxes

7. Prices

  • 7.1 Primary and intermediary product correlations
  • 7.2 Prices for manganese ore
  • 7.3 Prices for manganese alloys
    • 7.3.1 Silicomanganese
    • 7.3.2 High-carbon ferromanganese
    • 7.3.3 Medium-low carbon ferromanganese
  • 7.4 Prices for manganese metal
  • 7.5 Prices for manganese chemical

8. Outlook to 2030

  • 8.1 Historical market balance
  • 8.2 Outlook for manganese consumption
    • 8.2.1 Outlook for manganese consumption in steelmaking
    • 8.2.2 Outlook for manganese consumption in other applications
      • 8.2.2.1 Batteries
      • 8.2.2.2 Non-ferrous alloys
  • 8.3 Outlook for manganese production
    • 8.3.1 Outlook for manganese alloy production
    • 8.3.2 Outlook for manganese ore production
  • 8.4 Outlook for manganese prices
    • 8.4.1 Outlook for manganese ore prices
    • 8.4.2 Outlook for manganese alloy and metal prices

9. Background

  • 9.1 History of manganese
  • 9.2 Properties of manganese
  • 9.3 Occurrence of manganese
    • 9.3.1 Manganese minerals
    • 9.3.2 Types of manganese deposits
  • 9.4 Global manganese reserves and resources
  • 9.5 Mining, processing and refining of manganese
    • 9.5.1 Manganese ore mining
    • 9.5.2 Manganese ore processing
    • 9.5.3 Manganese smelting and refining
    • 9.5.4 Manganese alloys
    • 9.5.5 Manganese metal
    • 9.5.6 Manganese dioxide (NMD, CMD and EMD)
    • 9.5.7 Other manganese chemicals

10. Sustainability

  • 10.1 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 10.1.1 Environmental
      • 10.1.1.1 Environmental pollution
      • 10.1.1.2 Energy consumption and emissions
      • 10.1.1.3 IMO shipping regulations
      • 10.1.1.4 Biodiversity and land use
    • 10.1.2 Social
      • 10.1.2.1 Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 10.1.2.2 Human rights
    • 10.1.3 Governance
      • 10.1.3.1 Corruption
      • 10.1.3.2 Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 10.2 Critical raw materials
  • 10.3 Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 10.3.1 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 10.3.2 Global Reporting Initiative
    • 10.3.3 Responsible Mining Index
    • 10.3.4 Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance

11. Country profiles

  • 11.1 Argentina
  • 11.2 Australia
    • 11.2.1 Australia: manganese ore production
    • 11.2.2 Australia: manganese alloy production
    • 11.2.3 Australia: prospective manganese ore producers
  • 11.3 Bahrain
  • 11.4 Belgium
  • 11.5 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 11.6 Botswana
  • 11.7 Brazil
    • 11.7.1 Brazil: manganese ore production
    • 11.7.2 Brazil: manganese alloy production
  • 11.8 Bulgaria
  • 11.9 Burkina Faso
  • 11.10 Canada
  • 11.11 Chile
  • 11.12 China
  • 11.13 Costa Rica
  • 11.14 Côte d'Ivoire
  • 11.15 Czech Republic
  • 11.16 Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • 11.17 Egypt
  • 11.18 France
  • 11.19 Gabon
  • 11.20 Georgia
  • 11.21 Ghana
  • 11.22 Greece
  • 11.23 Guyana
  • 11.24 Hungary
  • 11.25 India
    • 11.25.1 India: manganese ore
    • 11.25.2 India: manganese alloys
  • 11.26 Indonesia
  • 11.27 Iran
  • 11.28 Italy
  • 11.29 Japan
  • 11.30 Kazakhstan
  • 11.31 Kenya
  • 11.32 Macedonia
  • 11.33 Malaysia
  • 11.34 Mali
  • 11.35 Mexico
  • 11.36 Morocco
  • 11.37 Myanmar
  • 11.38 Namibia
  • 11.39 Norway
  • 11.40 Oman
  • 11.41 Peru
  • 11.42 Poland
  • 11.43 Romania
  • 11.44 Russia
  • 11.45 Saudi Arabia
  • 11.46 Slovakia
  • 11.47 South Africa
    • 11.47.1 South Africa: manganese ore production
    • 11.47.2 South Africa: manganese ore projects
    • 11.47.3 South Africa: manganese alloy production
    • 11.47.4 South Africa: manganese metal and chemical production
  • 11.48 South Korea
  • 11.49 Spain
  • 11.50 Togo
  • 11.51 Turkey
  • 11.52 Ukraine
  • 11.53 USA
  • 11.54 Venezuela
  • 11.55 Vietnam
  • 11.56 Zambia

12. Company profiles

  • 12.1 Asia Minerals Limited
  • 12.2 Assmang
  • 12.3 Bosai Group
  • 12.4 Mineração Buritirama
  • 12.5 CITIC Dameng
  • 12.6 Dongbu Metal
  • 12.7 Eramet
  • 12.8 Eurasian Resources Group
  • 12.9 Ferroglobe
  • 12.10 Inner Mongolia Xinchuang Metallurgy
  • 12.11 Tshipi
  • 12.12 Minera Autlan
  • 12.13 Mizushima Ferroalloy
  • 12.14 MOIL
  • 12.15 Ningxia Shengyan Group
  • 12.16 Nippon Denko
  • 12.17 OM Holdings
  • 12.18 Prince Minerals
  • 12.19 Privat Group
  • 12.20 Renova Group
  • 12.21 Russian Ferro Alloys
  • 12.22 Sichuan Chuantou Emei Ferroalloy
  • 12.23 South32
  • 12.24 Tianyuan Manganese Industry
  • 12.25 Tosoh Hellas
  • 12.26 Vale

13. Consumption in first-use applications

  • 13.1 Use of manganese in steelmaking
  • 13.2 Manganese intensity of steel grades
    • 13.2.1 Addition of manganese in the steelmaking process
    • 13.2.2 Factors influencing alloy selection in steelmaking
      • 13.2.2.1 Factors affecting selection of silicomanganese or ferrosilicon
      • 13.2.2.2 Relative price of silicomanganese and ferrosilicon
      • 13.2.2.3 Ratio of manganese to silicon in steel specification
      • 13.2.2.4 Steel plant configuration
  • 13.3 Impact of COVID-19
  • 13.4 Crude Steel
    • 13.4.1 Crude steel outlook
  • 13.5 Stainless steel
    • 13.5.1 Stainless steel outlook
  • 13.6 Use of manganese in batteries
    • 13.6.1 Primary batteries
    • 13.6.2 Secondary batteries
      • 13.6.2.1 Lithium-ion batteries
      • 13.6.2.2 Production of lithium-ion batteries
      • 13.6.2.3 Consumption of lithium-ion batteries
      • 13.6.2.4 Overview of main lithium-ion cathode chemistries
      • 13.6.2.5 Manganese content per kWh
    • 13.6.3 Consumption of manganese in primary batteries
    • 13.6.4 Consumption of manganese in lithium-ion batteries
    • 13.6.5 Outlook for Lithium ion batteries
  • 13.7 Use of manganese in non-ferrous alloys
    • 13.7.1 Aluminium alloys
    • 13.7.2 Other non-ferrous alloys
  • 13.8 Outlook for manganese consumption in non-ferrous alloys
  • 13.9 Other uses for manganese
    • 13.9.1 Agriculture
      • 13.9.1.1 Fertilisers
      • 13.9.1.2 Animal feeds
    • 13.9.2 Colourants and pigments
      • 13.9.2.1 Bricks and tiles
      • 13.9.2.2 Frits
      • 13.9.2.3 Glazes
      • 13.9.2.4 Glass
      • 13.9.2.5 Pigments
      • 13.9.2.6 Tumbling media
    • 13.9.3 Ferrites
    • 13.9.4 Welding fluxes
    • 13.9.5 Water treatment
      • 13.9.5.1 Manganese ore
      • 13.9.5.2 Potassium permanganate
    • 13.9.6 Hydrometallurgy
      • 13.9.6.1 Zinc processing
      • 13.9.6.2 Uranium processing
      • 13.9.6.3 Other uses
  • 13.9.7 Fuel additives
    • 13.9.8 Oxidising agents
    • 13.9.9 Odour control
    • 13.9.10 Catalysts
    • 13.9.11 Sealants
    • 13.9.12 Metal coating
    • 13.9.13 Circuit boards
    • 13.9.14 Sulphur dioxide removal
    • 13.9.15 Hydroquinone production
    • 13.9.16 Other minor uses

14. Macroeconomic outlook

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