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錫の世界市場:2030年までの展望、第12版

Tin: Outlook to 2030, 12th Edition

出版日: | 発行: Roskill Information Services | ページ情報: 英文 | 納期: 即日から翌営業日

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錫の世界市場:2030年までの展望、第12版
出版日: 2020年08月31日
発行: Roskill Information Services
ページ情報: 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
担当者のコメント
Roskill Information Services より 錫の世界市場:2030年までの展望、第12版 が発行されました。当レポートは、世界の錫市場を調査したもので、サプライチェーンの流れ、世界的な生産と消費の状況、生産コスト、国際的な取引、今後の展望、生産国と企業のプロファイル、消費動向などの情報を提供しています。
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

世界の錫消費量は、2015年以降一貫して伸び続けてきましたが、2019年には減少に転じています。この背景には、世界的な景気後退に伴う家電製品の生産量減少という要因があり、新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)のパンデミックによりこの状況は当面続くものの、5Gサービスの開始、スマートホーム機器やリチウムイオン(Li-ion)電池の進歩などにより、長期的には需要の着実な拡大が期待できます。錫需要のおよそ半分は、主に家電製品で用いられるはんだによるものですが、 2019年には携帯電話やスマートフォン、デスクトップコンピューターの生産量が落ち込んだことから拡大を続けてきた需要が一段落しました。2020年には、COVID-19の影響が世界経済全体に及び、家電製品の消費がさらに低迷する可能性が高まっていることから、この傾向は当面続くと見られています。精錬錫の70%以上は中国、インドネシア、マレーシアで生産されており、ペルー、ボリビア、ブラジルが14%を占めています。錫のサプライチェーンがこのように地理的に集中しているため、精製錫業界はCOVID-19に対する各国政府の対応に左右される傾向が強く、生産国のなかには生産量を削減したり、操業を停止したりしているところもあります。このため、2019年から2020年までの精錬錫の生産量は前年同期比で5%近く減少すると予想されます。 錫鉱山でも同様の事態が予想されており、生産量の50%以上が中国とインドネシアに、20%近くがペルー、ボリビア、ブラジルに集中していることから、パンデミックの影響はさらに大きくなると思われます。2019年には、過剰供給に伴う生産量の削減が行われ、2020年に入ってからもCOVID-19の影響が続いていますが、2021年以降、5Gサービスの拡大などに伴って需要は急速に回復する見通しです。

当レポートは、世界の錫市場を調査したもので、サプライチェーンの流れ、世界的な生産と消費の状況、生産コスト、国際的な取引、今後の展望、生産国と企業のプロファイル、消費動向などの情報を提供しています。

目次

  • 1.エグゼクティブサマリー
  • 2.サプライチェーンのフローチャート
  • 3.世界の生産状況
  • 4.生産コスト
  • 5.世界の消費状況
  • 6.国際的な取引
  • 7.価格
  • 8.展望
  • 9.背景
  • 10.持続可能性
  • 11.生産国のプロファイル
  • 12. 企業のプロファイル
  • 13.用途別の消費状況
図表

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Estimates of tin mine production by data source, 2014-2019
  • Table 2: World: Tin mine production and estimated capacity by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 3: World: Tin mine production by country and operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 4: Estimates of refined tin production by data source, 2014-2019
  • Table 5: Production of refined tin by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 6: Refined tin production by country and operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 7: Apparent consumption of tin, 2014-2020
  • Table 8: Estimated consumption of refined tin by data source, 2014-2019
  • Table 9: Estimated consumption of tin by country, 2014-2020
  • Table 10: Tin mine production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Table 11: Tin mine production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Table 12: Tin mine production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index
  • Table 13: Critical raw materials identified by key government bodies
  • Table 14: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2020
  • Table 15: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 16: World: Exports of tin ores and concentrates, 2014-2020
  • Table 17: LME-approved brands, 2020
  • Table 18: LME-approved tin warehouses, 2020
  • Table 19: World: Outlook for demand for tin, 2020-2030
  • Table 20: World: Forecast mine production and nameplate capacity from existing producers, 2020, 2025 and 2030
  • Table 21: World: Overview of probable and possible new feedstock projects and expected output, 2020-2030
  • Table 22: World: Forecast refined production and nameplate capacity by country, 2020, 2025 and 2030
  • Table 23: Base-case annual average price forecast for tin metal, 2020-2030
  • Table 24: Roskill outlook for tin metal prices, low, base, and high-case scenarios 2020-2030
  • Table 25: World: Reserves and mine production of tin, 2019
  • Table 26: Australia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 27: Australia: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 28: Australia: Tin mine projects under development, 2020
  • Table 29: Australia: Measured and indicated resources of tin projects, 2020
  • Table 30: Austria: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 31: Belgium: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 32: Belgium: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 33: Bolivia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 34: Bolivia: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 35: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 36: Brazil: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 37: Canada: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 38: Canada: Tin mine projects under development, 2020
  • Table 39: Canada: Measured and indicated resources of tin projects, 2020
  • Table 40: China: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 41: China: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 42: Czech Republic: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 43: DRC: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 44: DRC: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 45: Egypt: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 46: France: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 47: Germany: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 48: Germany: Tin mine projects under development, 2020
  • Table 49: Germany: Measured and indicated resources of tin projects, 2020
  • Table 50: India: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 51: Indonesia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 52: Indonesia: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 53: Italy: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 54: Japan: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 55: Japanese recycling of tin, 2014-2018 (t)
  • Table 56: Kazakhstan Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 57: Laos: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 58: Malaysia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 59: Malaysia: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 60: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 61: Mongolia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 62: Morocco: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 63: Myanmar: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 64: Namibia: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 65: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 66: Nigeria: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 67: Peru: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 68: Peru: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 69: Philippines: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 70: Poland: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 71: Portugal: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 72: Portugal: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 73: Portugal: Measured and indicated resources of tin projects, 2020
  • Table 74: Russia: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 75: Russia: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 76: Russia: Tin mine projects under development, 2020
  • Table 77: Rwanda: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 78: Rwanda: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 79: Singapore: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 80: Slovak Republic: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 81: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 82: South Korea: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 83: Spain: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 84: Spain: Summary of production by operation, 2014-2020
  • Table 85: Spain: Tin mine projects under development, 2020
  • Table 86: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 87: Thailand: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 88: UAE: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 89: UK: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 90: UK: Tin mine projects under development, 2020
  • Table 91: USA: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 92: Vietnam: Summary statistics, 2014-2020
  • Table 93: Common solder compositions
  • Table 94: Advantages and disadvantages of lead substitutes in solders
  • Table 95: Europe: Use of beverage containers by type, 2015
  • Table 96: World: Recycling rates of packaging materials
  • Table 97: World: Float glass lines by main producers, 2017 (including joint ventures)
  • Table 98: Composition, properties and applications of selected tin bearing brass and bronze
  • Table 99: Typical composition, melting point, and applications of fusing alloys
  • Table 100: Common titanium alloys containing tin
  • Table 101: AfriTin Mining: Project details, 2020
  • Table 102: Alphamin Resources: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 103: Alphamin Resources: Tin production, Q2 2019-Q1 2020
  • Table 104: China Tin Group: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 105: Cornish Metals: Project details, 2020
  • Table 106: Comibol: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 107: Elementos: Project details, 2020
  • Table 108: MSC: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 109: Metallo Belgium: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 110: Metals X: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 111: Minsur: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 112: PT Timah: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 113: Thaisarco: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 114: Tin One: Project details, 2020
  • Table 115: YTC: Operational details, 2020
  • Table 116: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 117: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 118: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 119: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 120: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 121: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 122: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 123: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 124: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World: Refined tin production and feedstock source, 2014-2020
  • Figure 2: World: Production of mined tin by country, 2014-2020
  • Figure 3: World production of refined tin by country, 2014-2020
  • Figure 4: World: Refined tin consumption by application, 2014-2020
  • Figure 5: World: Estimated refined tin consumption by region, 2014-2020
  • Figure 6: World: Imports of tin ores and concentrates, 2014-2020
  • Figure 7: World: Exports of wrought and unwrought tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 8: Prices of refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 9: World: Accountable stocks of refined tin, 2010-2019
  • Figure 10: World: Outlook for demand for tin, 2020-2030
  • Figure 11: World: Outlook for tin feedstock supply, 2020-2030
  • Figure 12: World: Outlook for refined tin supply and demand, 2020-2030
  • Figure 13: Tin metal price outlook, 2020-2030
  • Figure 14: Tin flowchart
  • Figure 15: World: Production of mined tin by country, 2014-2020
  • Figure 16: World: Mine capacity utilisation by country, 2019
  • Figure 17: Total cash and all-in sustaining cost curve for select producers, 2019
  • Figure 18: Exchange rate movements of selected tin producing countries, 2014-2020 (2014=100)
  • Figure 19: Competitive cost factor of major tin producing countries
  • Figure 20: Key energy prices
  • Figure 21: World: Production of refined tin by country, 2014-2020
  • Figure 22: World: Smelter capacity utilisation by country, 2019
  • Figure 23: World: Refined tin production by estimated mine and secondary feedstock, 2014-2020
  • Figure 24: World: Supply of refined and unrefined tin units, 2014-2020
  • Figure 25: World: Apparent consumption of tin by region, 2014-2020
  • Figure 26: World: Estimated consumption of tin by region, 2014-2020
  • Figure 27: World: Consumption of tin by end use, 2014-2020
  • Figure 28: World: Consumption of tin by form, 2014-2020
  • Figure 29: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 30: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 31: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 32: European CRM list 2017
  • Figure 33: World: Imports of tin ore and concentrates, 2014-2020
  • Figure 34: Tin ores and concentrates trade flow, 2019
  • Figure 35: Exports of wrought and unwrought tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 36: Wrought and unwrought tin trade flow, 2019
  • Figure 37: Imports of wrought and unwrought tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 38: World: Exports of tin alloys and articles, 2014-2020
  • Figure 39: World: Exports of tin waste and scrap, 2014-2020
  • Figure 40: World: Imports of tin waste and scrap, 2014-2020
  • Figure 41: World: Tin waste and scrap trade flow, 2019
  • Figure 42: World: Tinned iron and steel waste and scrap trade flows, 2019
  • Figure 43: Accountable stocks of refined tin, 2010-2019
  • Figure 44: Prices of refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 45: China: Prices of tin concentrates, 2010-2020
  • Figure 46: Seasonality effect in LME cash tin prices, 2019
  • Figure 47: World: Outlook for demand for tin, 2020-2030
  • Figure 48: World: Outlook for demand for tin, 2020-2030
  • Figure 49: World: Outlook for tin feedstock supply, 2020-2030
  • Figure 50: World outlook for refined supply and demand to 2030
  • Figure 51: Tin metal price outlook, 2020-2030
  • Figure 52: World: Reserves of tin by region, 2019
  • Figure 53: Simplified tin production process
  • Figure 54: Australia: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 55: Belgium: Production of refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 56: Bolivia: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 57: Brazil: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 58: China: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 59: China: Mined tin production by province, 2014-2020
  • Figure 60: China: Refined tin production by feedstock source, 2014-2020
  • Figure 61: DRC: Production of mined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 62: Indonesia: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 63: Japan: Production of refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 64: Laos: Production of mined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 65: Malaysia: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 66: Myanmar: Production of mined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 67: Nigeria: Production of mined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 68: Peru: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 69: Poland: Production of refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 70: Portugal: Production of mined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 71: Russia: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 72: Rwanda: Production of tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 73: Thailand: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 74: Vietnam: Production of mined and refined tin, 2010-2020
  • Figure 75: World: Consumption of tin by end use, 2014-2020
  • Figure 76: World: Consumption of tin-lead versus lead-free solders, 2007-2020
  • Figure 77: Consumption of refined tin in solders, 2014-2020
  • Figure 78: Solder use by geographic region and end-use, 2019
  • Figure 79: China: Production of PCBs compared to consumer electronics, 2011-2020
  • Figure 80: Outlook for mobile, smartphone and smart home devices, 2014-2030
  • Figure 81: Outlook for PC and tablet shipments, 2014-2030
  • Figure 82: Outlook for wearables and other small electronic devices, 2014-2030
  • Figure 83: Outlook for miscellaneous other electronic devices, 2014-2030
  • Figure 84: Outlook for tin use in electronic solders, 2014-2030
  • Figure 85: Tin use in chemicals by region and application, 2019
  • Figure 86: World: Rigid and flexible PVC consumption by application, 2019
  • Figure 87: World: Forecast demand for PVC by region, 2014-2030
  • Figure 88: World: Outlook for tin use in chemicals, 2014-2030
  • Figure 89: Use of refined tin in tinplate, 2014-2020
  • Figure 90: USA: Shipments of food cans by market, 2014-2020
  • Figure 91: Production of tinplate by region, 2019
  • Figure 92: China: Production of tinplate, 2014-2020
  • Figure 93: World: Outlook for steel production by region, 2014-2030
  • Figure 94: World: Outlook for tin use in tinplate, 2014-2030
  • Figure 95: Trends in the production of rechargeable batteries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 96: Trends in the production of rechargeable batteries, 2014-2020
  • Figure 97: World: Forecast vehicle sales, 2014-2030
  • Figure 98: World: Forecast lead-acid cell production, 2014-2030
  • Figure 99: World: Forecast changes in recycling rates of lead-acid batteries, 2014-2030
  • Figure 100: World: Outlook for primary and secondary use of tin in lead-acid batteries, 2014-2030
  • Figure 101: Europe: Float glass by production by country, 2018
  • Figure 102: World: Consumption of float glass by region and type, 2019
  • Figure 103: World: Outlook for construction, 2014-2030
  • Figure 104: World: Outlook for tin in float glass, 2014-2030
  • Figure 105: USA: Consumption of tin in bronze, brass, and similar alloys, 2014-2020
  • Figure 106: Outlook for tin use in brass and bronze by region, 2014-2030
  • Figure 107: World: Outlook for tinned copper wire production by region, 2014-2030
  • Figure 108: USA: Use of tin in babbitt and white metal, 2014-2020
  • Figure 109: World: Production of cast iron by type, 2014-2020
  • Figure 110: China Tin Group: Production of mined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 111: China Tin Group: Production of refined tin, 2012-2020
  • Figure 112: Comibol: Production of mined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 113: Comibol: Production of refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 114: MSC: Production of mined and refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 115: Metallo Belgium: Production of refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 116: Minsur: Production of mined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 117: Monthly tin concentrate production at San Rafael mine, 2018-2019
  • Figure 118: Minsur: Production of refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 119: PT Timah: Production of mined and refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 120: Thaisarco: Production of refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 121: Yunnan Chengfeng: Production of refined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 122: YTC: Production by end products, 2014-2020
  • Figure 123: YTC: Production of mined tin, 2014-2020
  • Figure 124: YTC: Production of refined tin, 2014-2020
目次

The recent stability in global tin demand came to an end in 2019, with world consumption falling for the first time since 2015. Demand is expected to remain subdued in the short term, driven by falling output of consumer electronics amid a contracting global economy, as result of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. The long-term outlook remains bright for global tin demand, driven by new applications such as 5G network rollout, smart home devices and advances in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.

Around half of all tin demand comes from solder applications and primarily the use of solder in consumer electronics. In 2019, consumption in consumer electronics suffered its first decrease in five years, driven by falling output of conventional mobile phones, smartphones, and desktop computers. This trend is set to continue in 2020 as the impacts of COVID-19 are felt across the global economy, leading to a further slump in consumption of consumer electronics. Demand for consumer electronics is closely tied to GDP growth and a "V-shaped" recovery to the global economy, as appears to be occurring in China, is set to lead to an increase in consumer electronics consumption in 2021.

Over 70% of refined tin production is attributed to China, Indonesia, and Malaysia, with 14% of remaining refined output accounted for by Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. This geographical concentration of the tin supply chain has left the refined tin industry relatively exposed to government responses to COVID-19, with several of the major refined tin producers implementing output cuts and operation suspensions as a result of the pandemic. Year-on-year refined tin production, between 2019 and 2020, is expected to fall by nearly 5% as a result of these measures.

A similar picture is expected for mine supply of tin, with over 50% of mine output attributed to China and Indonesia and nearly 20% centred in Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Mine supply is set to be more severely affected by the pandemic , with a 10% y-on-y fall. Many suspensions related to COVID-19 were in place for between one to two months in H1 2020, with only Peruvian tin producer Minsur's suspension and Indonesian tin producer PT Timah's 20-30% output cut extending beyond two months.

Much of 2019 was marred by oversupply of refined tin, which led to several of the major tin producers, including PT Timah and China's Yunnan Tin, announcing output cuts in 2019. With demand for refined tin set to stutter in 2020, the cutbacks in response to COVID-19 will be vital in maintaining the health of the tin market. The supply/demand balance is set to move into a deficit in 2020, as drops to refined tin production will likely outweigh falls in demand.

Global tin demand is set to recover by 2021, buoyed by several new applications that are set to grow rapidly over the outlook period. The rollout of 5G networks is set to boost the telecommunications and other electronics sectors. Smartphones and conventional mobile phones account for nearly half of all consumer electronics and, with demand for conventional mobile phones rapidly falling, a boost to smartphone demand will be key to increased refined tin use in consumer electronics. The emergence of smart home devices over the last decade has boosted consumer electronics output; such devices accounted for only 2% of output in 2011, but rose to nearly 24% of the total in 2019.

The use of tin in Li-ion battery anodes is a sector that has shown some of the highest growth over the last decade, accounting for 0.4% of refined tin consumption in 2011 and growing to 3% in 2019. This trend is set to continue over the outlook period, with the degree of vehicle electrification expected to increase substantially over the coming decade. Advances in Li-ion battery materials indicate tin and tin compound materials offer increased stability to Li-ion batteries, which could become a major driver for increased used of tin in the sector.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What are the possible implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the tin sector?
  • What are the likely supply developments across existing operations?
  • Where will new sources of mine production come from?
  • How is demand from the solder, chemicals, and battery sectors likely to develop in the next decade?
  • What is the outlook for the market balance and prices to 2030?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Tin supply
  • 1.2 Tin demand
  • 1.3 Tin trade
  • 1.4 Tin prices and stocks
  • 1.5 Tin outlook

2. Tin flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1 Mine production
    • 3.1.1 Discrepancies between data sources
    • 3.1.2 Production by country
    • 3.1.3 Production by company and operation
    • 3.1.4 Capacity utilisation
  • 3.2 Mine production costs
    • 3.2.1 Cost of production of tin
      • 3.2.1.1 Costing Methodology
    • 3.2.2 Trends in production costs
  • 3.3 Refined production
    • 3.3.1 Discrepancies between data sources
    • 3.3.2 Production by country
    • 3.3.3 Production by company and operation
    • 3.3.4 Capacity utilisation
    • 3.3.5 Secondary tin production

4. World consumption

  • 4.1 Apparent consumption by region
  • 4.2 Estimated consumption by region
  • 4.3 Tin use by application and industry
  • 4.4 Use of unrefined secondary tin

5. Sustainability

  • 5.1 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 5.1.1 Environmental
      • 5.1.1.1 Resource consumption
      • 5.1.1.2 Emissions
      • 5.1.1.3 Biodiversity and land use
      • 5.1.1.4 Tailings disposal
    • 5.1.2 Social
      • 5.1.2.1 Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 5.1.2.2 Human rights
    • 5.1.3 Governance
      • 5.1.3.1 Corruption
      • 5.1.3.2 Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 5.2 Critical raw materials
  • 5.3 Initiatives
    • 5.3.1 Global Reporting Initiative
    • 5.3.2 Responsible Minerals Assurance Process (RMAP)
    • 5.3.3 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 5.3.4 Dodd-Frank Act on Conflict Minerals
    • 5.3.5 International Tin Supply Chain Initiative (ITSCi)
    • 5.3.6 China Chamber of Commerce of Metals, Minerals & Chemicals Importers and Exporters (CCCMC)
    • 5.3.7 European Union Conflict Minerals Regulation
    • 5.3.8 Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance
    • 5.3.9 Responsible Mining Index
    • 5.3.10 LME Red Flag Scheme
    • 5.3.11 Responsible Sourcing Blockchain Network (RSBN)

6. International trade

  • 6.1 Trade in tin ores and concentrates
  • 6.2 Trade in wrought and unwrought refined tin
  • 6.3 Trade in tin alloys and articles
  • 6.4 Trade in tin waste and scrap
  • 6.5 Trade in tinned iron and steel waste and scrap

7. Prices

  • 7.1 Metal exchanges
  • 7.2 Tin stocks
  • 7.3 Trends in refined tin metal prices
  • 7.4 Trends in tin concentrates prices
  • 7.5 Seasonality

8. Outlook to 2030

  • 8.1 COVID-19 impact
  • 8.2 Outlook for demand
  • 8.3 Outlook for feedstock supply
    • 8.3.1 Outlook for mine supply
    • 8.3.2 Outlook for secondary supply
    • 8.3.3 Outlook for new feedstock projects
  • 8.4 Outlook for refined tin supply
    • 8.4.1 Outlook for new refined projects
  • 8.5 Outlook for refined supply and demand balance
  • 8.6 Outlook for prices

9. Background

  • 9.1 Occurrence
    • 9.1.1 Placer deposits
    • 9.1.2 Hard rock deposits
  • 9.2 Resources and reserves
  • 9.3 Mining and processing of tin
    • 9.3.1 Mining
      • 9.3.1.1 Placer deposits mining
      • 9.3.1.2 Hard rock mining
      • 9.3.1.3 Soft rock mining
    • 9.3.2 Concentration
      • 9.3.2.1 Placer concentrates
      • 9.3.2.2 Hard rock concentrates
    • 9.3.3 Smelting and refining
      • 9.3.3.1 Smelting
      • 9.3.3.2 Refining
    • 9.3.4 Secondary tin

10. Country profiles

  • 10.1 Australia
    • 10.1.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Australia
    • 10.1.2 Tin operations and projects in Australia
      • 10.1.2.1 Tin operations and projects in Tasmania
      • 10.1.2.2 Tin operation and projects in New South Wales
      • 10.1.2.3 Tin projects in Queensland
      • 10.1.2.4 Tin projects in other parts of Australia
  • 10.2 Austria
  • 10.3 Belgium
    • 10.3.1 Tin operations in Belgium
  • 10.4 Bolivia
    • 10.4.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Bolivia
    • 10.4.2 Tin operations and projects in Bolivia
  • 10.5 Brazil
    • 10.5.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Brazil
    • 10.5.2 Tin operations and projects in Brazil
  • 10.6 Burundi
  • 10.7 Cameroon
  • 10.8 Canada
    • 10.8.1 Tin operations and projects in Canada
  • 10.9 China and Hong Kong
    • 10.9.1 Mined and refined production in China
    • 10.9.2 Resources and reserves of tin in China
    • 10.9.3 Tin operations in China
    • 10.9.4 Regulatory environment for tin production in China
    • 10.9.5 Tariffs on imports and exports of tin
  • 10.10 Czech Republic
    • 10.10.1 Tin projects in Czech Republic
  • 10.11 Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
    • 10.11.1 Resources and reserves of tin in DRC
    • 10.11.2 Tin operations and projects in DRC
  • 10.12 Egypt
    • 10.12.1 Tin projects in Egypt
  • 10.13 France
    • 10.13.1 Tin operations and projects in France
  • 10.14 Germany
    • 10.14.1 Tin projects in Germany
  • 10.15 India
    • 10.15.1 Resources and reserves of tin in India
  • 10.16 Indonesia
    • 10.16.1 Mined and refined tin in Indonesia
    • 10.16.2 Resources and reserves of tin in Indonesia
    • 10.16.3 Tin operations in Indonesia
    • 10.16.4 Regulatory environment for tin production in Indonesia
  • 10.17 Italy
  • 10.18 Japan
    • 10.18.1 Refined production in Japan
  • 10.19 Kazakhstan
    • 10.19.1 Tin projects in Kazakhstan
  • 10.20 Kyrgyzstan
  • 10.21 Laos
  • 10.22 Malaysia
    • 10.22.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Malaysia
  • 10.22.2 Tin operations and projects in Malaysia
  • 10.23 Mexico
  • 10.24 Mongolia
    • 10.24.1 Tin operations and projects in Mongolia
  • 10.25 Morocco
    • 10.25.1 Tin projects in Morocco
  • 10.26 Myanmar
    • 10.26.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Myanmar
    • 10.26.2 Tin operations in Myanmar
      • 10.26.2.1 Tin operations in Shan State
      • 10.26.2.2 Tin operations in the Tanintharyi region
      • 10.26.2.3 Tin operations in Kayah State
    • 10.26.3 Tin projects in Myanmar
    • 10.26.4 Investment climate in Myanmar
    • 10.26.5 Tin investments in Myanmar
  • 10.27 Namibia
    • 10.27.1 Tin operations and projects in Namibia
  • 10.28 Netherlands
  • 10.29 Nigeria
    • 10.29.1 Tin operations and projects in Nigeria
  • 10.30 Peru
    • 10.30.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Peru
    • 10.30.2 Tin operations and projects in Peru
  • 10.31 Philippines
  • 10.32 Poland
  • 10.33 Portugal
    • 10.33.1 Tin operations and projects in Portugal
  • 10.34 Russia
    • 10.34.1 Resources of tin in Russia
    • 10.34.2 Tin operations and projects in Russia
  • 10.35 Rwanda
    • 10.35.1 Resources of tin in Rwanda
    • 10.35.2 Tin operations in Rwanda
  • 10.36 Singapore
  • 10.37 Slovak Republic
  • 10.38 South Africa
    • 10.38.1 Tin projects in South Africa
  • 10.39 South Korea
  • 10.40 Spain
    • 10.40.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Spain
    • 10.40.2 Tin operations and projects in Spain
  • 10.41 Taiwan
  • 10.42 Thailand
    • 10.42.1 Resources and reserves of tin in Thailand
    • 10.42.2 Tin operations and projects in Thailand
  • 10.43 Uganda
  • 10.44 United Arab Emirates (UAE)
  • 10.45 United Kingdom (UK)
    • 10.45.1 Resources and reserves of tin in the UK
    • 10.45.2 Tin operations and projects in the UK
  • 10.46 USA
    • 10.46.1 Resources and reserves of tin in the USA
    • 10.46.2 Tin operations and projects in the USA
  • 10.47 Vietnam
    • 10.47.1 Tin operations in Vietnam
  • 10.48 Zimbabwe

11. End uses of tin

  • 11.1 Tin in solders
    • 11.1.1 Tin-lead versus lead-free solders
    • 11.1.2 Uses of solder
      • 11.1.2.1 Electronic uses of solder
      • 11.1.2.2 Structural and industrial uses of solder
    • 11.1.3 Consumption of tin in solders
    • 11.1.4 Outlook for tin in solders
  • 11.2 Tin in chemicals
    • 11.2.1 Organic tin compounds (organotins)
      • 11.2.1.1 PVC stabilisers
      • 11.2.1.2 Production of PVC
      • 11.2.1.3 Markets for PVC
      • 11.2.1.4 Catalysts
      • 11.2.1.5 Biocides
    • 11.2.2 Inorganic tin compounds
      • 11.2.2.1 Glass applications
      • 11.2.2.2 Cement additives
      • 11.2.2.3 Ceramics industry
      • 11.2.2.4 Electroplating
      • 11.2.2.5 Brake pads
      • 11.2.2.6 Flame retardants
      • 11.2.2.7 Other uses for inorganic tin chemicals
    • 11.2.3 Outlook for tin in chemicals
  • 11.3 Tin in tinning and tinplate
    • 11.3.1 Uses of tinplate and tinned products
      • 11.3.1.1 Packaging
      • 11.3.1.2 Non-packaging uses of tinplate
      • 11.3.1.3 Other tinning markets
    • 11.3.2 Production of tinplate
      • 11.3.2.1 ArcelorMittal
      • 11.3.2.2 US Steel
      • 11.3.2.3 ThyssenKrupp Rasselstein
      • 11.3.2.4 Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal
      • 11.3.2.5 Tata Group
      • 11.3.2.6 JSW Steel
      • 11.3.2.7 Chinese producers
      • 11.3.2.8 Other producers
    • 11.3.3 Recycling
    • 11.3.4 Outlook for tin in tinplate
  • 11.4 Tin in batteries
    • 11.4.1 Lead-acid batteries
      • 11.4.1.1 Tin in VRLA batteries
      • 11.4.1.2 Tin in motor vehicles
      • 11.4.1.3 Tin in electric bikes
      • 11.4.1.4 Use in other applications
      • 11.4.1.5 Production of lead-acid batteries
    • 11.4.2 Lithium-ion batteries
    • 11.4.3 Trends in lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries
    • 11.4.4 Outlook for tin in lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries
      • 11.4.4.1 Outlook for e-bikes and other applications
      • 11.4.4.2 Outlook for lead-acid batteries
      • 11.4.4.3 Outlook for lead-calcium-tin variant
    • 11.4.5 Outlook for primary and secondary tin use in batteries
  • 11.5 Tin in float glass
    • 11.5.1 Markets for float glass
    • 11.5.2 Outlook for tin in float glass
  • 11.6 Tin in brass and bronze
    • 11.6.1 Outlook for tin in brass and bronze
  • 11.7 Tin in other applications
    • 11.7.1 Tin in tinned copper wire
    • 11.7.2 Tin in high-tin alloys
    • 11.7.3 Tin in cast iron
    • 11.7.4 Tin in other alloys
      • 11.7.4.1 Fusible alloys
      • 11.7.4.2 Brazing alloys
      • 11.7.4.3 Aluminium tin
      • 11.7.4.4 Dental alloys
      • 11.7.4.5 Electrical alloys
      • 11.7.4.6 Titanium alloys
      • 11.7.4.7 Superconductors
      • 11.7.4.8 Zirconium tin
      • 11.7.4.9 Electrolytic tin-lead
      • 11.7.4.10 Tin-cobalt
      • 11.7.4.11 Terneplate and other tin alloy coatings
    • 11.7.5 Use of pure tin
      • 11.7.5.1 Wrought tin
      • 11.7.5.2 Tin powder

12. Company profiles

  • 12.1 AfriTin
  • 12.2 Alphamin
  • 12.3 China Tin Group
  • 12.4 Cornish Metals
  • 12.5 Corporación Minera de Bolivia (Comibol)
  • 12.6 Elementos
  • 12.7 Malaysia Smelting Corporation Berhad (MSC)
  • 12.8 Metallo Belgium
  • 12.9 Metals X
  • 12.10 Minsur
  • 12.11 PT Timah Tbk
  • 12.12 Thailand Smelting and Refining (Thaisarco)
  • 12.13 Tin One
  • 12.14 Yunnan Chengfeng Nonferrous Metal Corporation Limited
  • 12.15 Yunnan Tin Group (Holding) Company Limited (YTC)

13. Macro economic outlook

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