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リチウムの世界市場:2030年までの展望、第17版

Lithium: Outlook to 2030, 17th Edition

出版日: | 発行: Roskill Information Services | ページ情報: 英文 | 納期: 即日から翌営業日

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リチウムの世界市場:2030年までの展望、第17版
出版日: 2020年08月07日
発行: Roskill Information Services
ページ情報: 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

炭酸リチウムと水酸化リチウムの価格は、2019年を通じて下降傾向を示し続け、炭酸リチウムの月間平均価格は1月から12月の間に36%低下しました。 2020年第1四半期には、炭酸リチウムの月間平均価格がトン当たり7,000ドルを下回り、リチウムイオンバッテリー業界の需要急増と将来的な供給の不透明感により2014年以降一貫して続いていた上昇基調は一段落しました。二次電池業界でのリチウム化合物の需要は、自動車用途での大型リチウムイオン電池の利用拡大に伴い、2010年代を通じて急速に成長しており、 2019年には、充電池がリチウム需要全体の54%を占めるという状況になりました。しかし2019年下半期には、EVの最大の市場である中国で販売台数が減少し、2020年上半期には、新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)のパンデミックに伴うロックダウンで世界的に販売台数が減少したことにより、リチウムの需要拡大も短期的に止まった状態になっています。とはいえ長期的なシナリオでは、今後10年間にわたってリチウム需要は着実に伸び続ける見通しであり、2030年まで毎年18%を超える成長率で拡大を続けると思われます。

当レポートは、世界のリチウム市場を調査したもので、サプライチェーンの流れ、世界の生産と消費の状況、生産コスト、国際的な取引、今後の展望、生産国と企業のプロファイル、消費動向などの情報を提供しています。

目次

  • 1.エグゼクティブサマリー
  • 2.サプライチェーンのフローチャート
  • 3.世界の生産状況
  • 4.生産コスト
  • 5.世界の消費状況
  • 6.国際的な取引
  • 7.価格
  • 8.展望
  • 9.背景
  • 10.持続可能性
  • 11.生産国のプロファイル
  • 12. 企業のプロファイル
  • 13.用途別の消費状況
図表

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Joint ventures between automaker and battery makers
  • Table 2: Forecast price trend for lithium carbonate and hydroxide, 2019-2030
  • Table 3: Annual average price forecast trend for chemical grade spodumene, 2019-2030
  • Table 4: World: Mine capacity of lithium by country, 2013-2020
  • Table 5: World: Operational mine capacity of lithium by major producers, 2013-2020
  • Table 6: World: Mine capacity of lithium at operations on care and maintenance, 2013-2020
  • Table 7: Refined lithium capacity by origin and first product, 2013-2020
  • Table 8: Capacity of lithium brine operations by major producers, 2013-2020
  • Table 9: Mineral conversion capacity by company & plant, 2013-2020e
  • Table 10: Mineral conversion capacity on care and maintenance, 2013-2020
  • Table 11: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing capacity by company & plant, 2013-2020
  • Table 12: World mine production of lithium by country, 2013-2020
  • Table 13: Mine production of lithium by major producers, 2013-2020
  • Table 14: Details of off-take agreements for lithium mineral products, 2020
  • Table 15: World: Technical-grade lithium mineral production, 2013-2020
  • Table 16: Refined lithium output by source and first product, 2013-2020
  • Table 17: Lithium carbonate by company and product, 2013-2020
  • Table 18: Lithium hydroxide by company and product, 2013-2020
  • Table 19: Lithium chloride output by company, 2013-2020
  • Table 20: Lithium output from brine producers, 2013-2020
  • Table 21: Mineral conversion production by company & plant, 2013-2020
  • Table 22: World: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing production by company & plant, 2013-2020
  • Table 23: Royalty payments applicable to CORFO from Salar de Atacama brine producers
  • Table 24: World: Consumption of lithium by first use, 2000-2019
  • Table 25: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion rechargeable batteries by cathode, type of lithium, and end-use, 2019
  • Table 26: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2000-2019
  • Table 27: Chinese imports of spodumene, lepidolite, petalite concentrates and DSO material by country, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 28: Monthly Chinese imports of DSO from Australia, Jan 2017-Mar 2020
  • Table 29: Exports of lithium carbonate, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 30: Exports of lithium carbonate by country and destination, 2019
  • Table 31: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 32: Imports of lithium carbonate by major exporting countries, 2019
  • Table 33: Exports of lithium hydroxide & oxides by leading countries, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 34: Exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide by major importers, 2019
  • Table 35: Imports of lithium hydroxide & oxide by leading countries, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 36: Imports of lithium hydroxide and oxide by major exporters, 2019
  • Table 37: Exports of lithium chloride, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 38: Imports of lithium chloride, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 39: Comparison of battery-grade and technical-grade lithium carbonate average annual contract and spot prices, 2011-2020 H1
  • Table 40: Comparison of battery-grade and technical-grade lithium hydroxide average annual contract and spot prices, 2010-2020 H1
  • Table 41: Average values of trade in lithium chloride and metal, 2008-2020 H1
  • Table 42: Lithium demand by end-use application, 2019-2030
  • Table 43: World: Forecast lithium demand by product, 2019-2030
  • Table 44: World: Lithium demand in rechargeable batteries by cathode, type of lithium, and end-use, 2030
  • Table 45: Forecast mine nameplate capacity by company, 2020-2030
  • Table 46: Mine capacity on care and maintenance by company, 2020-2030
  • Table 47: Potential expansions and new mine project capacity by project
  • Table 48: Forecast refined lithium capacity by company, 2020-2030
  • Table 49: Refined lithium capacity on care and maintenance by company, 2020-2030
  • Table 50: Forecast re-processing refined lithium capacity by company, 2020-2030
  • Table 51: Roskill refined producer Tier criteria
  • Table 52: Potential new refined lithium capacity by project
  • Table 53: Average annual contract and spot price forecast trend for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 2019-2030
  • Table 54: Average annual price forecast trend for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2019-2030
  • Table 55: Average annual price forecast trend for technical-grade lithium hydroxide, 2019-2030
  • Table 56: Annual average price forecast trend for battery-grade lithium hydroxide, 2019-2030
  • Table 57: Annual average price forecast trend for lithium chloride and metal, 2019-2030
  • Table 58: Details of off-take agreements for lithium mineral products, 2020
  • Table 59: Annual average price forecast trend for chemical grade spodumene, 2019-2030
  • Table 60: Comparison of average annual forecast nominal prices for battery-grade lithium carbonate, hydroxide and chemical-grade spodumene, 2019-2030
  • Table 61: Annual average price forecast trend for technical grade spodumene, 2019-2030
  • Table 62: Properties of lithium
  • Table 63: Significant lithium minerals
  • Table 64: Major lithium bearing smectite group members
  • Table 65: Brine concentrations at selected deposits
  • Table 66: Reserves and resources at lithium operations, 2020
  • Table 67: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves of advanced projects, 2020
  • Table 68: Lithium mine & brine production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Table 69: Lithium mine & brine production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Table 70: Lithium mine & brine production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index
  • Table 71: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 72: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2020
  • Table 73: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 74: Argentina: Summary statistics, 2013-2020
  • Table 75: Argentina: Lithium carbonate exports, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 76: Argentina: Lithium chloride exports, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 77: Argentina: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 78: Australia: Summary statistics, 2013-2020
  • Table 79: Australia: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 80: Austria: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 81: Austria: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 82: Belgium: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 83: Bolivia: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 84: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2013-2020
  • Table 85: Brazil: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 86: Canada: Summary statistics, 2013-2020
  • Table 87: Canada: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 88: Chile: Summary statistics, 2013-2020
  • Table 89: Chile: Lithium carbonate exports, 2014-Q1 2020
  • Table 90: Chile: Lithium hydroxide and oxide exports, 2013 -- Q1 2020
  • Table 91: Chile: Lithium chloride exports, 2013 - Q1 2020
  • Table 92: Chile: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 93: China: Summary statistics, 2013-2020
  • Table 94: China: Imports of lithium carbonate by origin, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 95: China: imports of lithium hydroxide by origin, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 96: China: Imports of lithium chloride by destination, 2013 -- Q1 2020
  • Table 97: China: Imports of mineral substances (represent lithium mineral concentrates) by destination, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 98: China: Exports of lithium hydroxide by destination, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 99: China: Exports of lithium carbonate by destination, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 100: China: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 101: China: Details of major lithium mineral conversion plants, 2020
  • Table 102: Production at lithium chemical conversion facilities, 2017-2020
  • Table 103: Cote D'Ivoire: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 104: Czech Republic: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 105: Czech Republic: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 106: DRC: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 107: Finland: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 108: Finland: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 109: France: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 110: Germany: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 111: Germany: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 112: Ghana: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 113: India: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 114: Ireland: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 115: Ireland: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 116: Italy: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 117: Japan: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 118: Japan: Imports of lithium carbonate and hydroxide by country, 2019
  • Table 119: Korea, South: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 120: Mali: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 121: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 122: Mexico: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 123: Namibia: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 124: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 125: Peru: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 126: Peru: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 127: Portugal: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 128: Portugal: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 129: Russia: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 130: Russia: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 131: Serbia: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 132: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 133: South Africa: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 134: Spain: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 135: Spain: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 136: Sweden: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 137: Sweden: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 138: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2013--Q1 2020
  • Table 139: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 140: UAE: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 141: Ukraine: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 142: Ukraine: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 143: UK: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 144: UK: Details of lithium projects, 2020
  • Table 145: USA: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 146: USA: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 147: Zimbabwe: Summary statistics, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Table 148: Zimbabwe: Details of lithium operations and projects, 2020
  • Table 149: Albemarle: Operational details
  • Table 150: Albemarle: Downstream production facilities in the Lithium and Advanced Materials division
  • Table 151: Royalty paid on lithium products under January 2018 Albemarle-CORFO agreement
  • Table 152: Jiangxi Jiangli New Materials Science and Technology: Operational details
  • Table 153: Alita Resources Assets: Operational details
  • Table 154: Altura Mining: Operational details
  • Table 155: AMG: Operational details
  • Table 156: AMG: Resource estimation for the Mibra property, April 2017
  • Table 157: Argosy Minerals: Operational details
  • Table 158: AVZ Minerals: Operational details
  • Table 159: Bacanora: Operational details
  • Table 160: Bikita Minerals: Operational details
  • Table 161: CATL: Operational details
  • Table 162: China Minmetals project information
  • Table 163: CBL: Operational details
  • Table 164: Core Lithium: Company information
  • Table 165: Critical Elements project information
  • Table 166: Eramet Group operational details
  • Table 167: European Lithium: Company information
  • Table 168: European Metals: Operational details
  • Table 169: Feiyu New Energy: Operational details
  • Table 170: Frontier Lithium: Project information
  • Table 171: Galaxy Resources: Operational details
  • Table 172: Mt Cattlin: Resources and reserves, December 2019
  • Table 173: Sal de Vida: Mineral resource estimate, 2012
  • Table 174: General Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 175: Guangxi Tianyuan operational details
  • Table 176: Qinghai Hengxinrong Lithium operational details
  • Table 177: Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium: Operational details, 2019
  • Table 178: Ganfeng Lithium: Lithium-ion battery industry subsidiaries, 2018
  • Table 179: Ganfeng Lithium: Lithium production, 2015-2019
  • Table 180: Ganfeng Lithium: Mine operational details
  • Table 181: Jiangxi Special Electric: Operational details
  • Table 182: Jiangxi Tungsten Industry Group: Operational details
  • Table 183: Jiangxi Yun Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 184: Keliber: Operational details
  • Table 185: Kidman Resources: Project information
  • Table 186: Lepidico: Operational details
  • Table 187: Lithium Americas: Operational details
  • Table 188: Thacker Pass project: Mineral resource and reserve estimates, April 2018
  • Table 189: Lithium Americas brine reserves: Cauchari-Olaroz project
  • Table 190: Lithium Power: Operational details
  • Table 191: Livent: Operational details
  • Table 192: Livent: Brine reserves at the Salar del Hombre Muerto
  • Table 193: Mali Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 194: Mineral Resources: Operational details
  • Table 195: Mineral Resources: Mt. Marion mineral resource, December 2017
  • Table 196: Nanshi Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 197: Nemaska Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 198: Nemaska Lithium: Whabouchi mineral resource and reserve estimates, Jan 2018
  • Table 199: Neo Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 200: Orocobre: Operational details
  • Table 201: Pilbara Minerals: Operational details
  • Table 202: Prospect Resources operational details
  • Table 203: Dongtai Lithium Resources: Operational details
  • Table 204: Dongtai Jinaier Salt Lake mineral resources
  • Table 205: Qinghai Salt Lake Fozhao Lake Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 206: Qinghai Salt Lake BYD Resources Development: Operational details
  • Table 207: Rincon Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 208: Rincon Group: Salar del Rincon reserve estimation, 2018
  • Table 209: Rio Tinto project information
  • Table 210: Savannah Resources: Operational details
  • Table 211: Sayona Mining: Project information
  • Table 212: Shandong Ruifu Lithium Industry: Operational details
  • Table 213: Sichuan Energy Investment Dingsheng Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 214: Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Industries operational details
  • Table 215: Resource estimate for the Grota do Cirilo project, May 2019
  • Table 216: Sigma Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 217: Sociedad Minera de Pegmatites operational details
  • Table 218: SQM: Operational details
  • Table 219: SQM: Associated operation details
  • Table 220: Reserves within brines at the Salar de Atacama
  • Table 221: Royalty payments on SQM production, January 2018
  • Table 222: Royalty paid on lithium products under January 2018 SQM-CORFO agreement
  • Table 223: Tibet Mineral Development operational details
  • Table 224: Tibet Mineral Development: Lithium compound production, 2012-2019
  • Table 225: Yahua Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 226: Yahua Lithium Lijiagou: Project resources and reserves
  • Table 227: Yongxing New Energy: Operational details
  • Table 228: Youngy Co: Operational details
  • Table 229: Wudi Jinhaiwan Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 230: Zangge Holding Limited: Operational details
  • Table 231: Zhiyuan Lithium: Operational details
  • Table 232: Summary table of ESS technologies, 2019
  • Table 233: Battery companies using LTO anodes (2019)
  • Table 234: List of commercial and operating solid state batteries, 2019
  • Table 235: World: Lithium in NiMH and NiCd automotive & industrial batteries, 2019
  • Table 236: Global Li-ion battery capacity scenarios for 2020 (GWh)
  • Table 237: Suitability of ESS technologies on different energy applications
  • Table 238: Base-case automotive market outlook summary table (unit sales)
  • Table 239: Commercial fully electric vehicles examples (BEV)
  • Table 240: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by product, 2019-2030
  • Table 241: Lithium deals between battery makers and lithium producers
  • Table 242: Lithium deals between battery makers and lithium producers
  • Table 243: Lithium demand by application and chemical compound
  • Table 244: Typical whiteware body compositions
  • Table 245: World: Leading ceramic tile manufacturing companies, 2019
  • Table 246: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2019
  • Table 247: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2009-2019
  • Table 248: Glass-ceramic matrices
  • Table 249: Compositions of commercial glass-ceramics
  • Table 250: World consumption of electric cooktops, stove, ranges
  • Table 251: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics by end-use and product type, 2019
  • Table 252: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass-ceramics, 2019-2030
  • Table 253: Properties of commercial greases
  • Table 254: Grease production summary
  • Table 255: World: Producers of lubricating grease
  • Table 256: World: Forecast demand for lithium in greases, 2019-2030
  • Table 257: World: Consumption of lithium in metallurgical powders, 2009-2019
  • Table 258: Forecast demand for lithium in casting powders, 2019-2030
  • Table 259: Typical batch compositions for glass by type
  • Table 260: Main sources of lithium used in glass
  • Table 261: World: Estimated production of glass by region and type, 2019
  • Table 262: EU: Production of glass by type, 2009-2019
  • Table 263: Typical chemical composition of types of textile-grade fibreglass
  • Table 264: World: Estimated consumption of lithium in glass, 2019
  • Table 265: World: Consumption of lithium in glass, 2009-2019
  • Table 266: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass, 2019-2030
  • Table 267: Microstructure of different types of polybutadienes
  • Table 268: Producers of SSBR, BR and SBC, 2017
  • Table 269: World: Recent and planned new/expanded SBR, BR and SBC plants
  • Table 270: World: Consumption of lithium in polymers by end-use and product type, 2019
  • Table 271: Forecast demand for lithium in synthetic rubber and thermoplastics, 2019-2030
  • Table 272: World: Capacity for lithium bromide production, 2019
  • Table 273: World: Forecast demand for lithium in air treatment, 2019-2030
  • Table 274: Characteristics of primary lithium batteries
  • Table 275: Japan: Production of primary batteries by type, 2000 to 2019
  • Table 276: Leading producers of lithium primary batteries
  • Table 277: Primary lithium batteries and their material compositions
  • Table 278: Specifications for battery-grade lithium metal
  • Table 279: Producers of battery-grade lithium metal, 2019
  • Table 280: Applications for lithium primary batteries
  • Table 281: World: Consumption of lithium in primary batteries, 2009-2019
  • Table 282: Forecast demand for lithium in primary batteries, 2019-2030
  • Table 283: World: Consumption of lithium in other end-uses, 2009, 2013, 2019 and 2030
  • Table 284: Examples of uses for lithium in organic synthesis
  • Table 285: Physical properties of Al-Li alloys
  • Table 286: Chemical composition of Al-Li alloys
  • Table 287: Use of Al-Li alloys in selected aircraft
  • Table 288: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys, 2019-2030
  • Table 289: Effects of additives and temperatures on properties of molten cryolite
  • Table 290: World: Aluminium smelters using Soderberg technology, 2019
  • Table 291: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium smelting, 2019-2030
  • Table 292: Properties of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate
  • Table 293: Applications for SAW components
  • Table 294: Applications for speciality inorganic lithium compounds
  • Table 295: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 296: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 297: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 298: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 299: Deep V Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 300: Prolonged Global Recession Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 301: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 302: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 303: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: The rise of rechargeable batteries in lithium demand, 2000-2019 vs. EV sales
  • Figure 2: Installed large-cell battery manufacturing capacity by country, 2010-2019
  • Figure 3: Lithium consumption by country/region, 2019
  • Figure 4: Demand for lithium by product type, 2019
  • Figure 5: Mine production of lithium by type, 2013-2020
  • Figure 6: Mine production of lithium by country, 2019 & 2020
  • Figure 7: Refined production of lithium (first product) by source, 2013-2020
  • Figure 8: First and final product refined lithium production by product type, 2020
  • Figure 9: Refined lithium production by country, 2020
  • Figure 10: Refined lithium production by 'Top 5' major producers and others, 2013-2020
  • Figure 11: Lithium compounds cost curve in 2020, by production type
  • Figure 12: Average yearly contract and spot prices for lithium compounds and mineral concentrate, 2008-2020 H1
  • Figure 13: Roskill lithium demand scenarios, 2019-2030
  • Figure 14: Lithium demand outlook and Y-on-Y% change, 2019-2030
  • Figure 15: Forecast lithium mine capacity by mineral type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 16: Forecast refined lithium compound output, 2020-2030
  • Figure 17: Overview of the lithium industry supply chain, 2020
  • Figure 18: Mine capacity for lithium by country, 2013-2020
  • Figure 19: World mine capacity of by mineral type and lithium carbonate price, 2013-2020
  • Figure 20: Refined output by integration level and recycling, 2013-2020
  • Figure 21: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing capacity country market share, 2013-2020
  • Figure 22: World mine production of lithium by country, 2013-2020
  • Figure 23: World: Mine production of lithium by mineral type and lithium carbonate price, 2013-2020
  • Figure 24: Mined lithium output market share, 2020
  • Figure 25: Australian DSO production by company, 2017-2019
  • Figure 26: Chemical grade concentrate availability, 2013-2020
  • Figure 27: China chemical-grade imports adjusted to 6% benchmark, Monthly Jan 2018-Mar 2020
  • Figure 28: China chemical grade concentrate imports by company, 2019
  • Figure 29: China chemical-grade concentrate imports by source and integration, Apr 2019-Mar 2020
  • Figure 30: Technical grade mineral production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 31: Lithium carbonate production by source, 2013-2020
  • Figure 32: Lithium carbonate production by product classification, 2013-2020
  • Figure 33: Lithium hydroxide production by source, 2013-2020
  • Figure 34: Lithium hydroxide production by product classification, 2013-2020
  • Figure 35: Lithium chloride production by source, 2013-2020
  • Figure 36: Refined production by integration, 2013-2020
  • Figure 37: Refined lithium output market shares, 2020
  • Figure 38: Refined lithium output from brine source by country, 2020
  • Figure 39: Lithium upgrading/ re-processing production market share by country, 2020
  • Figure 40: Lithium recycling from Li-ion batteries, 2013-2020
  • Figure 41: Lithium compounds cost curve in 2020
  • Figure 42: Lithium compounds cost curve in 2020, by production type
  • Figure 43: Spodumene production cost curve in 2020
  • Figure 44: Lithium carbonate cost curve in 2020
  • Figure 45: Lithium hydroxide cost curve in 2020
  • Figure 46: Trends in lithium production costs, 2010-2020
  • Figure 47: Key reagent costs, Q1.2016 -- Q1.2020 (index, Q1.2010=100)
  • Figure 48: Exchange rate movements versus US$ (index, Q1.2010=100)
  • Figure 49: Energy prices in US dollars (index, Q1.2010=100)
  • Figure 50: Quarterly Baltic Dry Shipping Index
  • Figure 51: Lithium production costs in 2014, 2020 & future average
  • Figure 52: Potential future lithium production cost profile
  • Figure 53: World: Consumption of, and demand for, lithium, 2000-2019
  • Figure 54: Lithium supply chain lags in the battery industry, 2019 data
  • Figure 55: World: Consumption of lithium by first use, 2000-2019
  • Figure 56: World: Consumption of lithium by first use, 2009 and 2019
  • Figure 57: World: Lithium demand by Li-ion battery application
  • Figure 58: Lithium consumption vs. battery capacity in Li-ion batteries, 2019
  • Figure 59: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2000-2019
  • Figure 60: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2009 and 2019
  • Figure 61: World: Consumption of lithium by country/region, 2010-2019
  • Figure 62: World: Consumption of lithium by country/region, 2010-2019
  • Figure 63: Chinese imports of spodumene concentrate by source, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Figure 64: Chinese imports of spodumene mineral concentrates, Jan 2017-Mar 2020
  • Figure 65: Exports of lithium mineral concentrates from Zimbabwe to South Africa, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Figure 66: Chinese imports of direct shipping ores, Jun 2017- Mar 2020
  • Figure 67: Lithium carbonate exports by major producing nations, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Figure 68: Unit value of lithium carbonate exports by major producing countries, 2013-Q1 2020
  • Figure 69: Export of lithium carbonate by producing country and destination, 2019
  • Figure 70: Exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide by producing country and destination, 2019
  • Figure 71: Lithium supply and price, 1990-2020
  • Figure 72: Average annual contract and spot prices for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 1999-2020 H1
  • Figure 73: Average annual contract and spot prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 1999-2020 H1
  • Figure 74: Average annual contract prices for technical-grade lithium hydroxide and comparison to lithium carbonate, 2000-2020 H1
  • Figure 75: Average annual contract prices for battery-grade lithium hydroxide, 2007-2019 Q1
  • Figure 76: Average annual contract prices for battery-grade lithium hydroxide and battery-grade lithium carbonate, 2007-2020 H1
  • Figure 77: Comparison of lithium chloride and metal prices to carbonate, 2008-2020 H1
  • Figure 78: Chemical-grade spodumene concentrate prices by supplier, 2017 Q1--2020 Q1
  • Figure 79: Prices for chemical-grade spodumene concentrate and comparison to lithium carbonate, 2000-2020 H1
  • Figure 80: Technical-grade spodumene prices for 5.5% Li2O and 7.25% Li2O concentrates, 2000-2020 H1
  • Figure 81: Average value of DSO imports 2017-2019 Q1
  • Figure 82: Roskill lithium demand scenarios, 2019-2030
  • Figure 83: Scenario comparisons: Lithium demand in rechargeable batteries vs. other non-battery applications
  • Figure 84: World: Forecast demand of lithium by end-use application, 2019-2030
  • Figure 85: Lithium demand by Li-ion battery application, 2019-2030
  • Figure 86: Required growth of key Li-ion battery materials to meet future battery demand (Base = 2019 demand)
  • Figure 87: World: Forecast demand of lithium by product, 2019-2030
  • Figure 88: World: Demand of lithium by country/region, 2019-2030
  • Figure 89: World: Base-case outlook for demand of lithium by country/region, 2019-2030
  • Figure 90: Forecast mine capacity for lithium, 2020-2030
  • Figure 91: Forecast mine capacity for lithium by mineralisation type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 92: Forecast mine capacity for lithium by concentrate grade, 2020-2030
  • Figure 93: Forecast mine output by mineralisation type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 94: Forecast chemical-grade concentrate stocks, 2020-2030
  • Figure 95: Forecast chemical-grade concentrate market balance, 2020-2030
  • Figure 96: Forecast refined compound capacity, 2020-2030
  • Figure 97: Forecast refined compound capacity by type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 98: Forecast base-case refined compound capacity by producer tier, 2020-2030
  • Figure 99: Forecast refined lithium compound output, 2020-2030
  • Figure 100: Forecast base-case refined lithium compound supply by producer tier, 2020-2030
  • Figure 101: Forecast base-case refined battery-grade compound supply, 2020-2030
  • Figure 102: Forecast refined lithium compound stocks, 2020-2030
  • Figure 103: Forecast refined lithium chemical market balance, 2020-2030
  • Figure 104: Forecast refined lithium battery-grade balance, 2020-2030
  • Figure 105: Lithium refined product cost curve progression, 2020, 2025 & 2030
  • Figure 106: Lithium project incentive price curve
  • Figure 107: Lithium price movement schematic
  • Figure 108: Lithium product contract price forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 109: Average annual contract and spot price forecast for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 2000-2030
  • Figure 110: Average annual price forecast for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2000-2030
  • Figure 111: Average annual price forecast for technical-grade lithium hydroxide, 2000-2030
  • Figure 112: Annual average price forecast for battery-grade lithium hydroxide, 2007-2030
  • Figure 113: Pilbara Minerals spodumene pricing linkage, 2018-2033
  • Figure 114: Average annual price forecast for chemical-grade spodumene concentrate, 2010-2030
  • Figure 115: World lithium resources and reserves by status, June 2020
  • Figure 116: World lithium resources and reserves by type, 2020
  • Figure 117: Mineral resource estimates for lithium mineral & clay deposits (excluding Talison Greenbushes), 2020
  • Figure 118: Mineral resource estimates for lithium brine deposits, 2020
  • Figure 119: Division by country of reported lithium resources, 2020
  • Figure 120: Mineral reserve estimates for lithium mines and advanced projects, mineral & clay deposits, 2020
  • Figure 121: Mineral reserve estimates for lithium mines and advanced projects, brine deposits, 2020
  • Figure 122: Lithium mineral reserves at operation and advanced projects, 2020
  • Figure 123: Spodumene concentrate to lithium sulphate production
  • Figure 124: Lithium sulphate to lithium carbonate production flowsheet
  • Figure 125: Lithium sulphate to lithium hydroxide production flowsheet
  • Figure 126: Brine to lithium carbonate production via solar evaporation - using SQM and Albemarle's production pathways as case studies
  • Figure 127: Lithium carbonate to lithium hydroxide re-processing production flowsheet
  • Figure 128: United Nations, Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 129: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 130: Energy intensity curve of lithium producers in 2020 by production type
  • Figure 131: CO2 emissions intensity curve of lithium producers in 2020 by production type
  • Figure 132: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 133: European CRM list 2017
  • Figure 134: Argentina: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2020
  • Figure 135: Australia: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2020
  • Figure 136: Canada: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2020
  • Figure 137: Chile: Reported lithium mineral resources and reserves, 2020
  • Figure 138: Chinese lithium reserves and resources by deposit type, 2020
  • Figure 139: USA: Reported lithium mineral reserves and resources, 2020
  • Figure 140: Albemarle attributable mine production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 141: Albemarle refined lithium production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 142: Albemarle: Salar de Atacama production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 143: Albemarle: Silver Peak production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 144: Albemarle: Volume and unit value of Chilean Li2CO3 exports by destination country, 2019
  • Figure 145: Albemarle: Volume and unit value of Chilean LiCl exports, 2013-2019
  • Figure 146: Alita Mineral Assets: Bald Hill quarterly production, January 2018-June 2019
  • Figure 147: Altura Mining: Pilgangoora quarterly production, July 2018-June 2020
  • Figure 148: Bikita Minerals: Production 2013-2020
  • Figure 149: Galaxy Resources: Mt. Cattlin production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 150: Heyuan mine production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 151: Jiangxi Jiangte Mining Development: Production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 152: Livent: Salar del Hombre Muerto production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 153: Mineral Resources: Wodgina quarterly production, January 2018-December 2019
  • Figure 154: Mineral Resources: Mt. Marion production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 155: Orocobre: Production at Salar de Olaroz 2013-2020
  • Figure 156: Pilbara Minerals: Pilgangoora quarterly production, January 2018-March 2020
  • Figure 157: Dongtai Lithium Resources: Production 2013-2020
  • Figure 158: Qinghai Salt Lake Fozhao Lake Lithium production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 159: Tianqi Lithium: Attributable mine production and lithium compound processing capacity, 2013-2020
  • Figure 160: Greenbushes production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 161: SQM: Refined lithium production, 2013-2020
  • Figure 162: SQM: Volume and unit value of Li2CO3 exports, January 2013-March 2020
  • Figure 163: SQM: Volume and unit value of LiOH exports, January 2013- April 2020
  • Figure 164: SQM: Volume and unit value of LiOH exports by destination country, 2019
  • Figure 165: Tibet Mineral Development: Production 2013-2020
  • Figure 166: Electrochemical battery demand by technology, 2009-2019
  • Figure 167: Lithium consumption in the battery sector, 2009-2019
  • Figure 168: Comparison of volumetric and gravimetric energy densities by technology
  • Figure 169: Li-ion battery schematic
  • Figure 170: Capacity and voltage potential of cathode materials
  • Figure 171: Specific capacity of different anode materials in Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 172: Relative thickness of solid-electrolyte battery (right) and existing commercial Li-ion batteries.
  • Figure 173: Lithium metal polymer battery schematic
  • Figure 174: Lithium-sulphur cell schematic
  • Figure 175: Lithium-air cell schematic
  • Figure 176: World: Historic lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2019
  • Figure 177: Market share evolution of large-sized cell maker
  • Figure 178: World: Market for rechargeable batteries, 2009-2019
  • Figure 179: Li-ion battery demand by end-use application, 2019
  • Figure 180: Battery chemistries share in portable electronics, 2009-2019
  • Figure 181: World: Shipments of portable consumer devices (GWh of Li-ion batteries), 2009--2019
  • Figure 182: Battery chemistries share in power applications, 2009-2019
  • Figure 183: Portable electronics sales, 2009-2019
  • Figure 184: Trends in shipment of motive applications, 2009-2019
  • Figure 185: Sales in motive applications, 2009-2019
  • Figure 186: Historic cumulative ESS installations by technology (TWh), 2009-2019
  • Figure 187: Annual new installations of ESS (ex. Electro-mechanical), 1970-2019
  • Figure 188: Energy applications for Lithium-ion ESS systems, 2008-2019
  • Figure 189: Market size of electro-chemical ESS. Annual new capacity
  • Figure 190: Plug-in (BEV-PHEV) passenger sales by region, 2010-2019
  • Figure 191: Electrified passenger vehicle sales by e-powertrain type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 192: Commercia electric vehicle sales by vehicle type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 193: Sales of plug-in vehicles (BEV & PHEV) by Automotive Group, 2010-2019
  • Figure 194: Sales of plug-in vehicles (BEV & PHEV) by Chinese automotive Group, 2010-2019
  • Figure 195: World: Rechargeable battery energy consumption by xEV type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 196: Li-ion battery active materials value chain
  • Figure 197: World: Cathode capacity by country, 2019
  • Figure 198: World: Demand for cathode materials by type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 199: World: Production of cathode materials by type and intensity of use, 2010-2019
  • Figure 200: Market shares of cathode producers, 2019
  • Figure 201: Consumption of electrolyte salts & solutions in Li-ion batteries, 2010-2019
  • Figure 202: World: Market share of electrolyte salts manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 203: World: Market share of Li-ion electrolyte solutions 2018
  • Figure 204: Estimated batteries powered by LTO anodes, 2010-2019
  • Figure 205: Relative thickness of solid-electrolyte battery (right) and existing commercial Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 206: World: Production of batteries , cathode and lithium , 2009-2019
  • Figure 207: Lithium demand in batteries vs. Lithium intensity of use, 2009-2019
  • Figure 208: World: Lithium consumption in the supply chain, 2009-2019
  • Figure 209: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by product, 2009-2019
  • Figure 210: World: Lithium demand by Li-ion cathode type, 2009-2019
  • Figure 211: Production yields and manufacturing losses (% material losses), 2019
  • Figure 212: World: Lithium demand by end-use of Li-ion batteries, 2009-2019
  • Figure 213: Lithium compound used by end-use application, 2019
  • Figure 214: Lithium consumed (Kg) and its value (US$) by end-use application (2019 lithium price)
  • Figure 215: Lithium consumed (Kg Li LCE) and its value (US$) by EV model (2019 lithium price)
  • Figure 216: Lithium intensity of use by cathode type, 2019
  • Figure 217: Cobalt & Nickel impact on cathode cost in 2018's price peak vs. 2019
  • Figure 218: World: Consumption of lithium in Li-ion batteries by country, 2019
  • Figure 219: ICE (Combustion) vs. EV sales in the first five months of 2019-2020
  • Figure 220: Global installed Li-ion battery production by scenario, 2019-2030
  • Figure 221: Global Li-ion battery production by end-use application, 2019-2030
  • Figure 222: Global Li-ion battery production for small battery capacity applications, 2019-2030
  • Figure 223: Levelized cost of different energy generation sources (US$/MWh) vs. Li-ion manufacturing cost (US$/kWh), 2009-2019
  • Figure 224: Historic cumulative ESS installations by technology, 1985-2020
  • Figure 225: ESS electro-chemical technology outlook. Grid and Off-grid, 2019-2030
  • Figure 226: EV sales forecast by modelling approach, 2019-2030
  • Figure 227: Scenario comparisons: Passenger and commercial vehicles, 2019-2029
  • Figure 228: Vehicle cost (US$) in the C-Segment by powertrain type vs. CO2 reduction , 2019
  • Figure 229: Sales of passenger cars by powertrain type, 2010-2030
  • Figure 230: Plug-in passenger cars (BEV+PHEV) sales by region, 2019-2030
  • Figure 231: Plug-in electric vehicle (BEV+PHEV) sales vs. production by region, 2030
  • Figure 232: Sales of commercial vehicles by powertrain type, 2010-2030
  • Figure 233: Outlook commercial electrification by vehicle type, 2019-2030
  • Figure 234: Outlook for battery capacity by vehicle category, 2019-2030
  • Figure 235: Outlook for battery capacity by EV type, 2019-2030
  • Figure 236: World: Demand scenarios for lithium in batteries, 2019-2030
  • Figure 237: Li-ion battery output and lithium intensity of use (kt Li LCE/GWh), 2019-2030
  • Figure 238: Lithium consumption in batteries by compound type, 2019-2030
  • Figure 239: Lithium consumption by cathode type, 2019-2030
  • Figure 240: Lithium consumption by Li-ion battery maker, 2019-2030
  • Figure 241: Lithium consumption by top-15 auto OEM groups by 2030
  • Figure 242: World: Lithium consumption in Li-ion batteries by end-use, 2030
  • Figure 243: Ceramic tile production, 1998-2019 (Mm)
  • Figure 244: GDP (% change) vs. ceramic tiles produced, 2006-2019 (% change production, Mm)
  • Figure 245: World production of ceramic tiles, 2010-2019
  • Figure 246: World production of ceramic tiles. Excluding China, 2010-2019
  • Figure 247: Consumption of tiles by country, 2006-2019
  • Figure 248: USA Shipments' value of cookware, bakeware and kitchenware, 2010-2019
  • Figure 249: Sales of white goods appliances by type, 2019
  • Figure 250: Shipments of white goods by region, 2019
  • Figure 251: Consumption of porcelain (vitreous) enamel by product, 2019
  • Figure 252: Consumption of porcelain (vitreous) enamel by region, 2019
  • Figure 253: Exports (by value US$M) of Vitrifiable enamels & glazes, engobes (slips) & similar preparations, 2017
  • Figure 254: Imports (by value US$M) of Vitrifiable enamels & glazes, engobes (slips) & similar preparations, 2017
  • Figure 255: World: Year-on-year growth in construction spending, housing starts and GDP, 2000-2030
  • Figure 256: World: Year-on-year growth in construction spending, housing starts and GDP, 2000-2030
  • Figure 257: World: Production of lubricating grease by type, 2019
  • Figure 258: World: Production of lubricating grease by type, 2000-2019
  • Figure 259: World: Production of lithium grease by region/country and by type, 2000 and 2019
  • Figure 260: World: Consumption of greases by application, 2019
  • Figure 261: World: Historical sales of passenger & commercial vehicles
  • Figure 262: World: Sales of off-highway construction equipment, 2009-2019
  • Figure 263: World: Agricultural tractor sales, 2008-2019
  • Figure 264: World Indexed: Relative industrial, automotive, off-highway, agricultural and lithium grease output, 2000-2019 (Base: 2000 = 100)
  • Figure 265: World: Production of grease and consumption of lithium, 2000-2019
  • Figure 266: Automotive sales forecast, 2010-2030
  • Figure 267: Production of continuously cast steel by region, 1998-2019
  • Figure 268: World production of glass by application, 2019
  • Figure 269: World: Packaging market by region, 2019
  • Figure 270: USA: Consumption of glass packaging by end-product, 2019
  • Figure 271: World: Synthetic rubber (SR) production by country/region, 2019
  • Figure 272: World: Capacity for synthetic rubber production by type, 2018/2019
  • Figure 273: World: Capacity for ESBR, SSBR, BR, SBC rubber by country/region, 2018/2019
  • Figure 274: World: SBC capacity by region/country, 2019
  • Figure 275: World: Production of synthetic rubber by region, 1995-2019
  • Figure 276: World: Leading producers of synthetic rubber, 2019
  • Figure 277: Market share for (H)SBC
  • Figure 278: Market share for (U)SBC
  • Figure 279: World: Consumption of SBR by region, 2019
  • Figure 280: Total length of roads and highways by country, 2019
  • Figure 281: World: Production of absorption chillers, 2009-2019
  • Figure 282: World: Consumption of lithium bromide in air treatment, 2001-2018
  • Figure 283: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries
  • Figure 284: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries
  • Figure 285: Energy density of different primary batteries
  • Figure 286: World: Production of primary lithium batteries by country, 1999-2019
  • Figure 287: Production of lithium primary cells by country/region in 2019
  • Figure 288: Imports of primary lithium cells , 2000-2019
  • Figure 289: Exports of primary lithium cells , 2000-2019
  • Figure 290: Primary lithium battery schematics
  • Figure 291: Demand for lithium metal in primary batteries, 2000-2019
  • Figure 292: Development of Al-Li alloys
  • Figure 293: Global commercial aircraft fleet: V-shaped recovery. COVID-19 impact until 2022
  • Figure 294: Global commercial aircraft fleet: L-shaped recovery. COVID-19 impact until 2025
  • Figure 295: World: Consumption of alkyd-based paints and coatings, 2019
  • Figure 296: World: Aluminium output by type and lithium consumption, 1999-2019
目次

Price support

Lithium carbonate and hydroxide prices continued to display a downward trend throughout the majority of 2019, with monthly average lithium carbonate prices falling 36% between January and December. Trends in Q1 2020 have seen monthly average prices fall further to <US$7,000/t Li2CO3 for the first time since 2014, eroding price increases caused by forecast strong demand growth in the lithium-ion battery industry and uncertainty over future supply. Just as higher prices incentivised the rapid commissioning of production capacity throughout the supply chain, the slide in lithium prices has stressed almost all producers from mined products to refined compounds, causing output curtailments or suspensions.

The rise, and fall, of automotive batteries

Demand for lithium compounds from the rechargeable battery industry has displayed strong growth throughout the 2010s, with the increasing use of larger Li-ion batteries in automotive applications. In 2019, rechargeable batteries accounted for 54% of total lithium demand, almost entirely from Li-ion battery technologies. Though the rapid rise of hybrid and electric vehicle sales has brought attention to the requirement for lithium compounds, falling sales in H2 2019 in China, the largest market for EV's, and a global reduction in sales caused by lockdowns related to the COVID-19 pandemic in H1 2020 have put the short-term 'breaks' on lithium demand growth, impacting demand from both battery and industrial applications. Longer term scenarios continue to show strong growth for lithium demand over the coming decade however, with Roskill forecasting demand to exceed 1.0Mt LCE in 2027, with growth in excess of 18%py to 2030.

Carbonate versus hydroxide

As battery applications extend their dominance of lithium demand, the market is expected to become more focussed on providing products to meet specifications for automotive batteries. The shift towards high-nickel cathode materials, to increase battery energy density, is accelerating demand growth for lithium hydroxide, though its cost premium over lithium carbonate has made some consumers reluctant to switch feedstock. Lithium hydroxide is expected to become the dominant lithium chemistry consumed, though the balance between lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide remains highly dependent on lithium-ion cathode requirements.

Supply disruption

A correction in the oversupply of mined lithium products observed in 2018 and 2019 is on-going, with in excess of 30,000t LCE contained in spodumene concentrates estimated to be held in stockpiles at end-2019. Continued weak spodumene concentrate prices have caused lithium mineral operations to target reducing production costs through improved recovery, strip ratios and in-situ grades. While lower lithium prices have impacted sales revenue at lithium brine and mineral conversion facilities, production cost have remained largely stable in 2019. This has been largely down to major brine operations in Chile benefiting from price linked 'sliding-scale' royalty payments, and mineral conversion plants benefiting from lower raw material costs and improved feedstock quality.

Outlook

Longer term, further additions to lithium production capacity for mined and refined lithium products will be required to keep pace with demand growth, led by battery applications. Though schedule pipeline capacity appears sufficient to meet this demand growth, challenges and set-backs in developing, financing and commissioning lithium mining and refining operations are expected. Even major incumbent lithium producers are at risk of failing to meet production targets and expansion plans, highlighting the technical and financial hurdles involved with bringing sizable volumes of new capacity online. Roskill maintains the view that future refined lithium supply will remain tight, with a period of sustained supply deficit in the mid-2020s.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • How are lithium prices impacting existing lithium producers?
  • Which companies are the major lithium producers?
  • Will the slowdown in EV sales impact long-term lithium demand growth?
  • Where will new sources of mined and refined lithium supply come from?
  • How will prices of key lithium products perform to 2030?
  • What is the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lithium industry?
  • Which lithium products will be required by key end-use applications?
  • How important will secondary sources of lithium products become?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Demand
  • 1.2. Production and producers
  • 1.3. Costs
  • 1.4. Prices
  • 1.5. Outlook

2. Lithium flowchart

3. World production of lithium

  • 3.1. Mine capacity by country
  • 3.2. Mine capacity by type
  • 3.3. Mine capacity by company
  • 3.4. Refined lithium capacity
    • 3.4.1. Lithium brine capacity
    • 3.4.2. Mineral conversion capacity
    • 3.4.3. Upgrading & reprocessing capacity
  • 3.5. Lithium mine production by country
  • 3.6. Mine production by type
  • 3.7. Mine production by company
    • 3.7.1. Direct shipped ore (DSO)
    • 3.7.2. Mineral concentrate production
      • 3.7.2.1. Chemical grade
      • 3.7.2.2. Technical grade
  • 3.8. Refined lithium production
    • 3.8.1. Lithium carbonate
    • 3.8.2. Lithium hydroxide
    • 3.8.3. Lithium chloride
  • 3.9. Refined lithium production by company
    • 3.9.1. Lithium brine production
    • 3.9.2. Mineral conversion production
    • 3.9.3. Upgrading & re-processing production
  • 3.10. Recycling

4. Production costs

  • 4.1. Lithium carbonate costs
  • 4.2. Trends in production costs
    • 4.2.1. Reagent costs
    • 4.2.2. Labour costs
    • 4.2.3. Energy costs
    • 4.2.4. Transport costs
  • 4.3. Outlook for production costs

5. Consumption of lithium

  • 5.1. Use of lithium in industrial supply chains: demand vs. consumption
  • 5.2. Demand by end-use application
  • 5.3. Consumption by lithium product
  • 5.4. Consumption by country/region

6. International trade in lithium

  • 6.1. Trade in lithium mineral concentrates
    • 6.1.1. Lithium mineral concentrates
    • 6.1.2. Trade in direct shipping ores (DSO)
  • 6.2. Trade in lithium carbonate
  • 6.3. Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide
  • 6.4. Trade in lithium chloride

7. Lithium prices

  • 7.1. Historical price trends
    • 7.1.1. Battery-grade lithium carbonate
    • 7.1.2. Technical-grade lithium carbonate
    • 7.1.3. Technical-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 7.1.4. Battery-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 7.1.5. Lithium chloride and lithium metal
    • 7.1.6. Chemical-grade spodumene concentrate
    • 7.1.7. Technical-grade spodumene concentrate prices
    • 7.1.8. Direct shipped ore (DSO)

8. Market outlook to 2030

  • 8.1. Outlook for consumption and demand
    • 8.1.1. Scenarios: a focus on COVID-19
    • 8.1.2. Outlook by end-use application
    • 8.1.3. Outlook by lithium product
    • 8.1.4. Outlook for demand by country/region
  • 8.2. Outlook for mine capacity
    • 8.2.1. New mine projects
  • 8.3. Outlook for mine supply
    • 8.3.1. Chemical-grade concentrate supply
    • 8.3.2. Chemical-grade concentrate stockpiles
  • 8.4. Outlook for mine market balance
  • 8.5. Outlook for refined capacity
    • 8.5.1. New refined projects
  • 8.6. Outlook for refined supply
    • 8.6.1. Refined lithium compound supply
    • 8.6.2. Refined lithium compound stockpiles
  • 8.7. Outlook for refined market balance
  • 8.8. Outlook for prices
    • 8.8.1. Battery-grade lithium carbonate
    • 8.8.2. Technical-grade lithium carbonate
    • 8.8.3. Technical-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 8.8.4. Battery-grade lithium hydroxide
    • 8.8.5. Lithium chloride and lithium metal
    • 8.8.6. Chemical-grade spodumene concentrate
    • 8.8.7. Technical-grade spodumene concentrate
    • 8.8.8. Direct shipped ore (DSO)
    • 8.8.9. Price risk factors

9. Background

  • 9.1. History, properties, geology and reserves of lithium
  • 9.2. Occurrence of lithium
    • 9.2.1. Lithium minerals
    • 9.2.2. Lithium clays
    • 9.2.3. Lithium brines
  • 9.3. Reserves and resources
  • 9.4. Mining and Processing
    • 9.4.1. Mining & Extraction
    • 9.4.2. Mineral Processing
      • 9.4.2.1. Concentrate production
      • 9.4.2.2. Stage 1: Lithium sulphate production
      • 9.4.2.3. Stage 2: Refined lithium production
    • 9.4.3. Brine Processing
    • 9.4.4. Re-processing: Lithium carbonate to lithium hydroxide

10. Sustainability

  • 10.1. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 10.1.1. Environmental
      • 10.1.1.1. Energy consumption
      • 10.1.1.2. Emissions
      • 10.1.1.3. Biodiversity and water use
      • 10.1.1.4. Tailings disposal
    • 10.1.2. Social
      • 10.1.2.1. Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 10.1.2.2. Human rights
    • 10.1.3. Governance
      • 10.1.3.1. Corruption
      • 10.1.3.2. Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 10.2. Critical Raw Materials
  • 10.3. Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 10.3.1. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 10.3.2. International Finance Corporation's performance standards on environmental and social sustainability
    • 10.3.3. China Chamber of Commerce of Metals, Minerals & Chemicals Importers and Exporters (CCCMC)
    • 10.3.4. Global Reporting Initiative
    • 10.3.5. Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance
    • 10.3.6. Responsible Mining Index
    • 10.3.7. Responsible Sourcing Blockchain Network (RSBN)

11. Country profiles

  • 11.1. Argentina
    • 11.1.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.1.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.2. Australia
    • 11.2.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.2.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.3. Austria
  • 11.4. Belgium
  • 11.5. Bolivia
    • 11.5.1. Reserves and resources
    • 11.5.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.6. Brazil
    • 11.6.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.6.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.7. Canada
    • 11.7.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.7.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.8. Chile
    • 11.8.1. Resources and Reserves
    • 11.8.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.9. China
    • 11.9.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.9.2. Lithium operations and projects
    • 11.9.3. Mineral conversion plants
    • 11.9.4. Chemical conversion facilities
  • 11.10. Côte D'Ivoire
  • 11.11. Czech Republic
    • 11.11.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.12. Democratic Republic of Congo
    • 11.12.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.13. Finland
    • 11.13.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.14. France
  • 11.15. Germany
    • 11.15.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.16. Ghana
  • 11.17. India
  • 11.18. Ireland
    • 11.18.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.19. Italy
  • 11.20. Japan
  • 11.21. South Korea
  • 11.22. Mali
  • 11.23. Mexico
    • 11.23.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.23.2. Lithium projects
  • 11.24. Namibia
  • 11.25. Netherlands
  • 11.26. Peru
  • 11.27. Portugal
    • 11.27.1. Reserves and resources
    • 11.27.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.28. Russia
    • 11.28.1. Reserves and resources
    • 11.28.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.29. Serbia
  • 11.30. South Africa
  • 11.31. Spain
    • 11.31.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.31.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.32. Sweden
    • 11.32.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.33. Taiwan
  • 11.34. Turkey
  • 11.35. United Arab Emirates
  • 11.36. Ukraine
  • 11.37. United Kingdom
    • 11.37.1. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.38. USA
    • 11.38.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.38.2. Lithium operations and projects
  • 11.39. Zimbabwe
    • 11.39.1. Resources and reserves
    • 11.39.2. Lithium operations and projects

12. Company profiles

  • 12.1. Albemarle Corporation
    • 12.1.1. Salar de Atacama
    • 12.1.2. Silver Peak
    • 12.1.3. Antofalla
    • 12.1.4. La Negra
    • 12.1.5. Albemarle-CORFO royalties
    • 12.1.6. Jiangxi Jiangli New Materials Science and Technology
    • 12.1.7. Magnolia
    • 12.1.8. Langelsheim
    • 12.1.9. Kings Mountain
    • 12.1.10. New Johnsonville
  • 12.2. Alita Resources
  • 12.3. Altura Mining
  • 12.4. AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group
  • 12.5. Argosy Minerals
  • 12.6. AVZ Minerals
  • 12.7. Bacanora Minerals
    • 12.7.1. Sonora
    • 12.7.2. Zinnwald
  • 12.8. Bikita Minerals
  • 12.9. CATL (North American Lithium)
  • 12.10. China Minmetals
  • 12.11. Companhia Brasileira de Litio
  • 12.12. Core Lithium
  • 12.13. Critical Elements
  • 12.14. Eramet Group
  • 12.15. European Lithium
  • 12.16. European Metals
  • 12.17. Feiyu New Energy
  • 12.18. Frontier Lithium
  • 12.19. Galaxy Resources
    • 12.19.1. Mt. Cattlin
    • 12.19.2. James Bay
    • 12.19.3. Sal De Vida
  • 12.20. General Lithium
  • 12.21. Guangxi Tianyuan
  • 12.22. Hengxinrong Lithium
  • 12.23. Ioneer
  • 12.24. Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium
    • 12.24.1. Xinyu Basic Lithium plant
    • 12.24.2. Specialty Lithium Plant
    • 12.24.3. Ningdu plant
    • 12.24.4. Fengxin
    • 12.24.5. Yichun
    • 12.24.6. Heyuan
  • 12.25. Jiangxi Special Electric
    • 12.25.1. Jiangxi Jiangte Mining Development
    • 12.25.2. Yichun Yinli
    • 12.25.3. Jiangxi Baoli
  • 12.26. Jiangxi Tungsten Industry Group
  • 12.27. Jiangxi Yun Lithium (Yunli Company)
  • 12.28. Keliber Oy
  • 12.29. Kidman Resources
  • 12.30. Lepidico
  • 12.31. Lithium Americas
    • 12.31.1. Thacker Pass
    • 12.31.2. Cauchari-Olaroz
  • 12.32. Lithium Power International
    • 12.32.1. Maricunga
  • 12.33. Livent Corporation
    • 12.33.1. Salar del Hombre Muerto (Fenix)
    • 12.33.2. Bessemer City
    • 12.33.3. Guemes
    • 12.33.4. Zhangjiagang
  • 12.34. Mali Lithium
  • 12.35. Mineral Resources Ltd
    • 12.35.1. Wodgina
    • 12.35.2. Mt. Marion
  • 12.36. Nanshi Lithium
  • 12.37. Nemaska Lithium
    • 12.37.1. Whabouchi
    • 12.37.2. Shawinigan plant
  • 12.38. Neo Lithium
  • 12.39. Neometals
    • 12.39.1. India LiOH plant
    • 12.39.2. Mt Edwards
  • 12.40. Orocobre
    • 12.40.1. Salar de Olaroz
    • 12.40.2. Lithium Hydroxide plant (Japan)
  • 12.41. Pilbara Minerals
  • 12.42. Prospect Resources
  • 12.43. Pulead Technology Industry
    • 12.43.1. Dongtai Lithium Resources
  • 12.44. Qinghai Salt Lake Fozhao Lake Lithium
  • 12.45. Qinghai Salt Lake BYD Resources Development
  • 12.46. Rincon Lithium
  • 12.47. Rio Tinto
  • 12.48. Savannah Resources
  • 12.49. Sayona Mining
  • 12.50. Shandong Ruifu Lithium Industry
  • 12.51. Sichuan Energy Investment Dingsheng Lithium
  • 12.52. Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Industries
    • 12.52.1. Greenbushes
    • 12.52.2. Cuola
    • 12.52.3. Zhangjiagang
    • 12.52.4. Shehong
    • 12.52.5. Chongqing Kunyu Lithium
  • 12.53. Sigma Lithium Resources
  • 12.54. Sociedad Mineira de Pegmatites
  • 12.55. Sociedad Química y Minera (SQM)
    • 12.55.1. Salar de Atacama
    • 12.55.2. Salar de Carmen
    • 12.55.3. SQM-CORFO royalties
  • 12.56. Tibet Mineral Development
  • 12.57. Yahua Lithium
    • 12.57.1. Guanyinqiao
    • 12.57.2. Lijiagou project
    • 12.57.3. Xuankou
    • 12.57.4. Meishan
    • 12.57.5. Ya'an
  • 12.58. Yibin Tianyi Lithium
  • 12.59. Yongshan Lithium
  • 12.60. Yongxing New Energy
  • 12.61. Youngy Co
  • 12.62. Wudi Jinhaiwan Lithium (Lubei Group)
  • 12.63. Zangge Holdings Limited
  • 12.64. Zhiyuan Lithium (Weihua Group)

13. End uses of lithium

  • 13.1. Rechargeable batteries
    • 13.1.1. Types of rechargeable batteries
      • 13.1.1.1. Li-ion batteries
      • 13.1.1.2. Solid-state Li-ion batteries
      • 13.1.1.3. Lithium metal polymer batteries
      • 13.1.1.4. Lithium-sulphur batteries
      • 13.1.1.5. Lithium-air batteries
      • 13.1.1.6. NiMH and NiCd batteries
    • 13.1.2. Manufacturers of Li-ion batteries
    • 13.1.3. Consumption of rechargeable batteries
      • 13.1.3.1. Portable market
      • 13.1.3.2. Power devices
      • 13.1.3.3. Motive devices
      • 13.1.3.4. Energy storage systems (ESS)
      • 13.1.3.5. Automotive
    • 13.1.4. Production of battery materials
      • 13.1.4.1. Cathode materials
      • 13.1.4.2. Electrolyte
      • 13.1.4.3. Anode materials
    • 13.1.5. Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries
      • 13.1.5.1. Lithium consumption in the battery supply chain in 2019
      • 13.1.5.2. Lithium consumption by battery application in 2019
      • 13.1.5.3. Lithium consumption in batteries by country in 2019
    • 13.1.6. Outlook demand for rechargeable batteries
      • 13.1.6.1. COVID-19 crisis impact on battery industry
      • 13.1.6.2. Portable, power, and motive markets to 2030
      • 13.1.6.3. ESS market to 2030
      • 13.1.6.4. Automotive market
    • 13.1.7. Outlook for consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries
      • 13.1.7.1. Lithium consumption in the battery supply chain in 2030
      • 13.1.7.2. Consumption of lithium by battery maker
      • 13.1.7.3. Consumption of lithium by automaker
      • 13.1.7.4. Lithium consumption by battery application in 2030
  • 13.2. Ceramics
    • 13.2.1. Use of lithium in ceramics
    • 13.2.2. Production and consumption of ceramics
      • 13.2.2.1. Ceramic tiles
      • 13.2.2.2. Cookware and bakeware
      • 13.2.2.3. Pyroceramics
    • 13.2.3. Production and consumption of white goods
      • 13.2.3.1. Production and consumption of glazes and enamels
    • 13.2.4. Consumption of lithium in ceramics
    • 13.2.5. Outlook for ceramics production and consumption
    • 13.2.6. Outlook for consumption of lithium in ceramics
  • 13.3. Glass-ceramics
    • 13.3.1. Use of lithium in glass-ceramics
    • 13.3.2. Production and consumption of glass-ceramics
      • 13.3.2.1. Producers of glass-ceramics
    • 13.3.3. Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics
    • 13.3.4. Outlook for consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics
  • 13.4. Greases
    • 13.4.1. Types of lubricating grease
    • 13.4.2. Production of grease
    • 13.4.3. Producers of lithium grease
    • 13.4.4. Consumption of lithium greases
    • 13.4.5. Consumption of lithium in greases
    • 13.4.6. Outlook for demand for lithium in greases
  • 13.5. Metallurgical powders
    • 13.5.1. Use of lithium in continuous casting
    • 13.5.2. Producers of continuous casting mould powders
    • 13.5.3. Use of lithium in traditional metal casting
    • 13.5.4. Continually cast steel production
    • 13.5.5. Consumption of continuous casting mould powders
    • 13.5.6. Consumption of lithium in metallurgical powders
    • 13.5.7. Outlook for lithium demand in metallurgical powders
  • 13.6. Glass
    • 13.6.1. Use of lithium in glass
    • 13.6.2. Production and consumption of glass
    • 13.6.3. Container glass
    • 13.6.4. Fibre glass
    • 13.6.5. Speciality glass
    • 13.6.6. Consumption of lithium in glass
    • 13.6.7. Outlook for demand for lithium in glass
  • 13.7. Polymers
    • 13.7.1. Use of lithium in polymers
    • 13.7.2. Production of polymers
    • 13.7.3. Producers of polymers
    • 13.7.4. Consumption of polymers
    • 13.7.5. Consumption of lithium in polymers
    • 13.7.6. Producers of butyllithium
    • 13.7.7. Outlook for lithium demand in polymers
  • 13.8. Air treatment
    • 13.8.1. Absorption chillers
      • 13.8.1.1. Production of absorption chillers
      • 13.8.1.2. Producers of adsorption chillers
      • 13.8.1.3. Producers of lithium bromide for absorption chillers
      • 13.8.1.4. Consumption of lithium in absorption chillers
    • 13.8.2. Dehumidification
      • 13.8.2.1. Production of desiccant dehumidification systems
      • 13.8.2.2. Producers of desiccant dehumidification systems
      • 13.8.2.3. Consumption of lithium in desiccant dehumidifiers
    • 13.8.3. Air purification
    • 13.8.4. Outlook for lithium demand in air treatment
  • 13.9. Primary batteries
    • 13.9.1. Types of primary batteries
    • 13.9.2. Production of lithium primary batteries
    • 13.9.3. Producers of lithium primary batteries
    • 13.9.4. Trade in primary lithium batteries
    • 13.9.5. Production of primary lithium battery materials
    • 13.9.6. Producers of battery-grade lithium metal
    • 13.9.7. Consumption of lithium primary batteries
    • 13.9.8. Outlook for primary lithium battery consumption
    • 13.9.9. Consumption of lithium in primary batteries
      • 13.9.9.1. Outlook for demand for lithium in primary batteries
  • 13.10. Minor end-uses
    • 13.10.1. Sanitization
    • 13.10.2. Organic synthesis
    • 13.10.3. Alloys
      • 13.10.3.1. Aluminium-lithium alloy
      • 13.10.3.2. Producers of aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 13.10.3.3. Applications for aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 13.10.3.4. Consumption of lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 13.10.3.5. Outlook for demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys
      • 13.10.3.6. Magnesium-lithium alloy
    • 13.10.4. Alkyd resins
    • 13.10.5. Construction
    • 13.10.6. Aluminium smelting
      • 13.10.6.1. Process of aluminium smelting
      • 13.10.6.2. Consumers of lithium in aluminium smelting
      • 13.10.6.3. Consumption of lithium in aluminium smelting
      • 13.10.6.4. Outlook for lithium demand in aluminium smelting
    • 13.10.7. Pharmaceuticals
      • 13.10.7.1. Producers of lithium-based pharmaceuticals
      • 13.10.7.2. Production and consumption of lithium-based pharmaceuticals
      • 13.10.7.3. Consumption of lithium in pharmaceuticals
    • 13.10.8. Electronics
    • 13.10.9. Analytical agents
    • 13.10.10. Dyestuffs
    • 13.10.11. Metallurgy
    • 13.10.12. Photographic industry
    • 13.10.13. Welding fluxes
    • 13.10.14. Electrochromic glass
    • 13.10.15. Speciality lithium inorganics

14. Macro economic outlook

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