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硫酸ニッケル:2029年までの展望 (第3版)

Nickel Sulphate: Outlook to 2029, 3rd Edition

発行 Roskill Information Services 商品コード 930102
出版日 ページ情報 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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硫酸ニッケル:2029年までの展望 (第3版) Nickel Sulphate: Outlook to 2029, 3rd Edition
出版日: 2020年05月22日 ページ情報: 英文
担当者のコメント
世界の金属・鉱物市場調査のリーダーとして活動を続けているRoskill 社の硫酸ニッケルの第3版です。世界の生産・消費動向、国際取引、および価格などを示しており、需要の展望、主要企業のプロファイルなどを提供しています
概要

電池セクターの発展は、ニッケルのサプライチェーンを根本的に再構築しています。ニッケルは、ニッケル金属水素化物(NiMH)とニッケルカドミウム(NiCd)電池にいくつかの成熟した用途がありますが、電池におけるニッケルの消費量は、これまでのところ総消費量の5%を超えていません。しかし、リチウムイオン電池におけるニッケルの需要は、まもなく電池がニッケルの2番目に大きな最終用途になると思われます。

化石燃料車からの排出量を削減する方法として電気自動車(EV)を推進するための世界的な取り組みは、すでにリチウムイオンにおける一次ニッケル消費の増加をもたらしています。中国のインセンティブおよび規制により、電池メーカーとOEMはより高いエネルギー密度の電池と長距離オプションに向けて進んでおり、ニッケルを含むNCM・NCAカソードは、今後10年間を通じて主要なカソード技術になると予測されています。

しかし、2019年の電池部門における一次ニッケルの需要は、中国政府によるEV補助金の削減に伴うEV販売の伸びの鈍化などにより、2018年よりも伸びが鈍化しました。電池におけるニッケル需要の長期的な見通しは依然として強いですが、短期的にはEV需要の伸びの鈍化とNCM811技術の採用が予想以上に遅れていることから、消費の伸び率は抑制される見込みです。

当レポートでは、世界の硫酸ニッケル市場について調査分析し、世界の生産・消費動向、国際取引、および価格などを示しており、需要の展望、主要企業のプロファイルなどを提供しています。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 ニッケルのフローチャート

第3章 世界の生産

  • 硫酸ニッケル原料の生産
    • ニッケル中間体の生産
    • 精製ニッケルの生産
  • 硫酸ニッケルの生産
    • 原料別生産量
    • 国別・種類別生産量
    • 生産者別生産量
    • サプライチェーン統合の動向

第4章 生産コスト

  • 硫酸ニッケルの生産コスト
  • 生産コストの推移
    • 原料
    • 電力・光熱費・燃料費
    • 人件費
    • 試薬コスト
    • 為替レート
  • 硫酸ニッケルプロジェクトの分析
    • ニッケル鉱山プロジェクト
    • 硫酸ニッケルプラント

第5章 世界の消費

  • 一次ニッケルの消費量
  • 硫酸ニッケルの消費量

第6章 国際取引

  • ニッケル中間体の取引
  • クラス1ニッケルの取引
  • 硫酸ニッケルの取引

第7章 価格

  • LMEおよびSHFEにおけるニッケル
  • ニッケルの価格
  • 硫酸ニッケル原料の価格
  • 硫酸ニッケルの価格

第8章 展望

  • 硫酸ニッケル需要の見通し
    • ニッケル総需要の見通し
    • 硫酸ニッケル需要の見通し
  • 硫酸ニッケル供給の生産見通し
    • インドネシアの動向
    • ニッケル中間体の生産見通し
    • 硫酸ニッケルの原料供給の見通し
    • 硫酸ニッケル供給の見通し
  • 硫酸ニッケルの市場バランスの見通し
    • ニッケルの市場バランス
    • 硫酸ニッケルの市場バランス
  • ニッケル価格の見通し
    • ニッケル価格の見通し
    • 硫酸ニッケルのプレミアの見通し
  • COVID-19 の影響
    • 経済シナリオ
    • 硫酸ニッケル供給への潜在的な影響
    • 硫酸ニッケル需要への潜在的な影響

第9章 主要企業のプロファイル

  • 主要企業のプロファイル
    • Jinchuan Group Limited (JNMC)
    • 住友金属鉱山
    • Guangxi Yinyi
    • GEM
    • Jilin Jien Nickel Industry
    • Nornickel
    • Umicore
    • その他の日本企業
    • 台湾企業
    • 中国の新規主要企業
  • 潜在的な新規生産者
    • 統合されたプロジェクト
    • 統合されていないプロジェクト

第10章 一次使用におけるニッケルの消費

  • 電池
    • リチウムイオン電池
    • NiMHおよびNiCd電池
    • 二次電池におけるニッケルの消費
    • 二次電池におけるニッケルの展望
  • メッキ
  • その他の用途

第11章 自動車部門およびEV需要

  • 電気自動車の種類
  • 過去の動向
  • 電気自動車の展望
  • 電気自動車における金属需要の展望

第12章 持続可能性

  • 環境・社会・ガバナンス
  • 重要な原材料
  • 責任ある調達活動

第13章 マクロ経済の展望

目次

Developments in the battery sector are fundamentally reshaping the nickel supply chain. Nickel has several mature applications in nickel metal-hydride (NiMH) and nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries but nickel consumption in batteries has thus far not exceeded 5% of total consumption. However, demand for nickel in lithium-ion batteries will soon make batteries the second-largest end-use application for nickel.

The major worldwide push to promote electric vehicles (EVs) as a way of cutting emissions from fossil-fuelled vehicles has already resulted in increased primary nickel consumption in lithium-ion. Chinese incentives and regulations have steered battery producers and OEMs towards higher energy density batteries and longer-range options and nickel bearing NCM and NCA cathodes are thus expected to be the dominant cathode technologies throughout the next decade.

However, the road to electrification will be a bumpy one. Primary nickel demand from the battery sector grew more slowly in 2019 than in 2018 due mainly to lower EV sales growth following the Chinese government's withdrawal of EV subsidies. The long-term outlook for nickel demand in batteries remains strong, but over the shorter-term more sluggish EV demand growth and a slower-than-expected adoption of NCM811 technologies will keep consumption growth rates in check.

In line with an uncertain demand and supply situation, prices have been volatile. Like nickel metal prices, nickel sulphate prices fluctuated considerably in 2019, reflecting the spill over effect of key changes taking place in the nickel market, but more specifically, driven by their own market fundamentals as well as seasonality factors. Premia, too, changed considerably. In May it became unviable for nickel sulphate production from powder and briquette, and from mid-July, production from MHP has also turned unprofitable in China, the largest producing and consuming country globally. This led some sulphate plants to either reduce production or switch to production of nickel cathode. It is likely that volatility will remain a feature of the market as it reconfigures.

In the future, it is clear that new capacity for nickel sulphate production will be required and the supply chain is already responding. Processing capacity is rapidly being added by ramp up of integrated producers (likes of Jinchuan and SMM), by conversions of existing plants (likes of BHP Nickel West and Terrafame), and through new third-party processors (likes of Thakadu Battery Materials). Over the next decade it is expected that other existing producers may also convert to sulphate production.

A key question facing the market is where the feedstock for nickel sulphate production may come from. Nickel sulphate can be produced by using a variety of feedstock material, such as crude nickel sulphate, briquettes, mixed sulphide precipitate, mixed hydroxide precipitate, carbonyl pellets and powder or recycled materials. Production of these feedstock materials is going to have to grow to satisfy the growing demand for nickel sulphate by the battery industry.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • How will demand for electric vehicles affect the nickel industry?
  • Which cathode technologies are expected to increase market share?
  • Which feedstocks will be utilised in the production of nickel sulphate?
  • How will developments in Indonesia impact the nickel supply chain?
  • How will nickel sulphate prices evolve?

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Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Nickel sulphate market overview
  • 1.2 Nickel sulphate supply
  • 1.3 Nickel sulphate trade
  • 1.4 Nickel sulphate prices
  • 1.5 Outlook
  • 1.6 COVID-19

2. Nickel sulphate flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1 Production of nickel sulphate feedstocks
    • 3.1.1 Production of nickel intermediates
    • 3.1.2 Production of refined nickel
  • 3.2 Production of nickel sulphate
    • 3.2.1 Production by feedstock
      • 3.2.1.1 Mixed Hydroxide Product (MHP)
      • 3.2.1.2 Class I nickel (Powder, briquette and pellet)
      • 3.2.1.3 Recycled material
      • 3.2.1.4 Mixed Sulphide Precipitate (MSP)
      • 3.2.1.5 Nickel matte
      • 3.2.1.6 Crude nickel sulphate
      • 3.2.1.7 Class I nickel (Electrolytic nickel)
      • 3.2.1.8 Nickel oxide
      • 3.2.1.9 Concentrates
      • 3.2.1.10 Nickel pig iron and ferronickel
    • 3.2.2 Production by country and type
    • 3.2.3 Production by producer
    • 3.2.4 Supply chain integration trends

4. Production Costs

  • 4.1 Cost of production of nickel sulphate
  • 4.2 Trends in production costs
    • 4.2.1 Feedstock
    • 4.2.2 Power, utilities and fuel costs
    • 4.2.3 Labour costs
    • 4.2.4 Reagent costs
    • 4.2.5 Exchange rates
  • 4.3 Nickel sulphate project analysis
    • 4.3.1 Nickel mining projects
    • 4.3.2 Nickel sulphate plants

5. World consumption

  • 5.1 Consumption of primary nickel
  • 5.2 Consumption of nickel sulphate
    • 5.2.1 Consumption of nickel sulphate by application
    • 5.2.2 Consumption of nickel sulphate by region

6. International trade

  • 6.1 Trade in nickel intermediates
    • 6.1.1 Trade in nickel matte
    • 6.1.2 Trade in MSP and MHP
  • 6.2 Trade in Class I Nickel
    • 6.2.1 Trade in unwrought nickel metal, not alloyed
    • 6.2.2 Trade in nickel powders and flakes
  • 6.3 Trade in nickel sulphate

7. Prices

  • 7.1 Nickel on LME and SHFE
  • 7.2 Prices of nickel
  • 7.3 Prices of nickel sulphate feedstocks
  • 7.4 Prices of nickel sulphate

8. Outlook to 2029

  • 8.1 Outlook for nickel sulphate demand
    • 8.1.1 Outlook for total nickel demand
      • 8.1.1.1 Outlook for nickel in batteries
      • 8.1.1.2 Outlook for nickel in stainless steel
      • 8.1.1.3 Outlook for nickel in other applications
    • 8.1.2 Outlook for nickel sulphate demand
  • 8.2 Outlook for production of nickel sulphate supply
    • 8.2.1 Developments in Indonesia
    • 8.2.2 Outlook for production of nickel intermediates
    • 8.2.3 Outlook for feedstock availability for nickel sulphate
      • 8.2.3.1 Availability of nickel intermediate feedstock
      • 8.2.3.2 Availability of nickel metal (Class I) feedstock
      • 8.2.3.3 Outlook for recycling (battery)
      • 8.2.3.4 Outlook for recycling (non-battery)
      • 8.2.3.5 Combined outlook for feedstock availability
    • 8.2.4 Outlook for nickel sulphate supply
      • 8.2.4.1 Outlook for integrated producers
      • 8.2.4.2 Outlook for non-integrated producers
      • 8.2.4.3 Combined outlook for production
  • 8.3 Outlook for nickel sulphate market balance
    • 8.3.1 Market balance for nickel
    • 8.3.2 Market balance for nickel sulphate
  • 8.4 Outlook for nickel prices
    • 8.4.1 Outlook for prices of nickel
    • 8.4.2 Outlook for premia of nickel sulphate
  • 8.5 COVID-19 impact
    • 8.5.1 Economic scenarios
    • 8.5.2 Potential impact on nickel sulphate supply
    • 8.5.3 Potential impact on nickel sulphate demand
      • 8.5.3.1 Short-term scenarios: months to December 2020
      • 8.5.3.2 Long-term scenarios: impact beyond 2020

9. Company profiles

  • 9.1 Profiles for top producers
    • 9.1.1 Jinchuan Group Limited (JNMC)
      • 9.1.1.1 Jinchuan Nickel Salt
      • 9.1.1.2 Jinke Nonferrous Metal Co (JINCO)
      • 9.1.1.3 Obi project
    • 9.1.2 Sumitomo Metal Mining (SMM)
      • 9.1.2.1 Niihama refinery
      • 9.1.2.2 Harima refinery
      • 9.1.2.3 Pomalaa project
    • 9.1.3 Guangxi Yinyi
    • 9.1.4 GEM
    • 9.1.5 Jilin Jien Nickel Industry
      • 9.1.5.1 Jien Jilin
      • 9.1.5.2 Jien Xinxiang
      • 9.1.5.3 Jien Chongqing
    • 9.1.6 Nornickel
    • 9.1.7 Umicore
      • 9.1.7.1 Umicore Olen
      • 9.1.7.2 Jiangmen Chancsun Umicore Industry
      • 9.1.7.3 Ganzhou Yihao Umicore
      • 9.1.7.4 Palm International
      • 9.1.7.5 Umicore Specialty Chemicals
    • 9.1.8 Other Japanese producers
    • 9.1.9 Taiwanese producers
      • 9.1.9.1 CoreMax
      • 9.1.9.2 Zenith Chemicals
      • 9.1.9.3 Mechema Toda Corporation (METC)
    • 9.1.10 New major Chinese producers
      • 9.1.10.1 Tianjin Maolian
      • 9.1.10.2 MCC Ramu New Energy Technology
      • 9.1.10.3 Jiangmen Fangyuan New Energy
      • 9.1.10.4 Hunan Brunp
  • 9.2 Potential new producers
    • 9.2.1 Integrated projects
      • 9.2.1.1 BHP Billiton (Nickel West)
      • 9.2.1.2 Terrafame (Sotkamo)
      • 9.2.1.3 PT Halmahera Persada Lygend
      • 9.2.1.4 Tsingsha Joint Ventures
      • 9.2.1.5 Huayou Quzhou (Quzhou plant)
      • 9.2.1.6 Clean TeQ (Sunrise project)
      • 9.2.1.7 Australian Mines (Sconi project)
      • 9.2.1.8 Metals X (Wingellina project)
      • 9.2.1.9 GME Resources (NiWest project)
      • 9.2.1.10 Ardea Resources (Goongarrie project)
    • 9.2.2 Non-integrated projects
      • 9.2.2.1 Alpha Fine Chemicals (Rayong project)
      • 9.2.2.2 Fujian Evergreen
      • 9.2.2.3 Hubei Centre Power Tech
      • 9.2.2.4 Hunan CNGR
      • 9.2.2.5 Jiana Energy
      • 9.2.2.6 Jiangxi Longxi
      • 9.2.2.7 Jinchi Energy
      • 9.2.2.8 Meishan Shunying
      • 9.2.2.9 Northvolt
      • 9.2.2.10 Pure Minerals (TECH project)
      • 9.2.2.11 Thakadu Battery Materials
      • 9.2.2.12 Zhejiang New Times Zhongneng Recycling

10. Consumption by first use

  • 10.1 Batteries
    • 10.1.1 Li-ion batteries
      • 10.1.1.1 Li-ion value chain
      • 10.1.1.2 Overview of main chemistries
      • 10.1.1.3 Comparison of physical properties
      • 10.1.1.4 Nickel content in cathodes
      • 10.1.1.5 Producers of Li-ion batteries
      • 10.1.1.6 Producers of NCM and NCA cathode materials
    • 10.1.2 NiMH and NiCd batteries
      • 10.1.2.1 Nickel use in NiMH batteries
      • 10.1.2.2 Nickel use in NiCd batteries
      • 10.1.2.3 Producers of NiMH batteries
      • 10.1.2.4 Producers of NiCd batteries
      • 10.1.2.5 Producers of nickel hydroxide
    • 10.1.3 Consumption of nickel in rechargeable batteries
      • 10.1.3.1 Trends in automotive market
      • 10.1.3.2 Trends in portable electronics
      • 10.1.3.3 Trends in power devices
      • 10.1.3.4 Trends in motive devices
      • 10.1.3.5 Trends in energy storage systems (ESS)
      • 10.1.3.6 Trends in Li-ion battery chemistries
      • 10.1.3.7 Trends in nickel use in rechargeable batteries
    • 10.1.4 Outlook for nickel in rechargeable batteries
      • 10.1.4.1 Outlook for the automotive market
      • 10.1.4.2 Outlook for portable, power, motive and ESS markets
      • 10.1.4.3 Outlook for energy capacity requirements
      • 10.1.4.4 Outlook for Li-ion battery chemistries
      • 10.1.4.5 Outlook for nickel use in rechargeable batteries
  • 10.2 Plating
    • 10.2.1 Types of nickel used
    • 10.2.2 Types of plating
    • 10.2.3 Applications of industrial nickel plating and coating
    • 10.2.4 Outlook for nickel in plating
  • 10.3 Other chemical applications
    • 10.3.1 Production of other nickel compounds
    • 10.3.2 Nickel sulphate use in catalysts
    • 10.3.3 Nickel sulphate use as a mordant in dyeing and printing
    • 10.3.4 Nickel sulphate use in ceramic making
    • 10.3.5 Outlook for other chemical applications

11. Automotive applications and EV demand

  • 11.1 Types of electric vehicles
    • 11.1.1 Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
    • 11.1.2 Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
    • 11.1.3 Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
    • 11.1.4 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)
  • 11.2 Historical trends
    • 11.2.1 Historical trends in the automotive market
    • 11.2.2 Historical trends in the market for electric vehicles
    • 11.2.3 Historical trends in cathode and anode materials
    • 11.2.4 Historical trends in nickel demand
  • 11.3 Outlook for electric vehicles
    • 11.3.1 Basic methodology
    • 11.3.2 Forecast change in motorisation rates and vehicle sales
    • 11.3.3 Forecast penetration rates and sales of electric vehicles
    • 11.3.4 Forecast growth in battery requirements
  • 11.4 Outlook for metal demand in electric vehicles
    • 11.4.1 Forecast changes in battery chemistry and performance
    • 11.4.2 Forecast nickel demand
    • 11.4.3 Forecast recycling and secondary supply

12. Sustainability

  • 12.1 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 12.1.1 Environmental
      • 12.1.1.1 Resource consumption
      • 12.1.1.2 Emissions
      • 12.1.1.3 Biodiversity and land use
      • 12.1.1.4 Tailings disposal
    • 12.1.2 Social
      • 12.1.2.1 Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 12.1.2.2 Human rights
    • 12.1.3 Governance
      • 12.1.3.1 Corruption
      • 12.1.3.2 Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 12.2 Critical raw materials
  • 12.3 Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 12.3.1 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 12.3.2 LME Red Flag Assessment scheme
    • 12.3.3 Global Reporting Initiative
    • 12.3.4 Responsible Mining Index
    • 12.3.5 Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance

13. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Base-case forecast for aggregated nickel sulphate premia: 2019-2029
  • Table 2: Production of refined nickel by type, 2013-2019
  • Table 3: Nickel sulphate production by feedstock, 2013-2019
  • Table 4: Nickel sulphate production by country, 2013-2019
  • Table 5: Nickel sulphate production by type, 2013-2019
  • Table 6: Nickel sulphate production by producer, 2013-2019
  • Table 7: Specifications for MHP from selected operations
  • Table 8: Specifications of nickel briquettes
  • Table 9: Specifications of nickel carbonyl
  • Table 10: Specifications of recycled material (non-battery)
  • Table 11: Specifications of recycled material (battery)
  • Table 12: Specifications for MSP from selected operations
  • Table 13: Assumed specifications of laterite-origin matte
  • Table 14: Estimated output of crude nickel sulphate, 2019 (tpy nickel-in-sulphate)
  • Table 15: Overview of capacity and source of feedstock of past and existing producers of nickel sulphate, 2019
  • Table 16: Production and capacity of nickel sulphate by producer and operation, 2013-2019
  • Table 17: Primary nickel consumption by application, 2013-2019
  • Table 18: Consumption of nickel sulphate by application, 2013-2019
  • Table 19: Exports of nickel matte: 2013-2019
  • Table 20: Imports of nickel matte: 2013-2019
  • Table 21: Exports of MSP and MHP, 2013-2019
  • Table 22: Imports of MSP and MHP, 2013-2019
  • Table 23: Selected countries: Trade in nickel-containing MSP and MHP1, 2019
  • Table 24: Selected countries: Exports of unwrought nickel metal, not alloyed, 2019
  • Table 25: Exports of unwrought nickel metal, not alloyed, 2013-2019
  • Table 26: Imports of unwrought nickel metal, not alloyed, 2013-2019
  • Table 27: Exports of nickel powders and flakes, 2013-2019
  • Table 28: Imports of nickel powders and flakes, 2013-2019
  • Table 29: Exports of nickel sulphate, 2013-2019
  • Table 30: Imports of nickel sulphate, 2013-2019
  • Table 31: LME-approved nickel brands
  • Table 32: LME-approved warehouse locations
  • Table 33: SHFE-approved nickel brands, March 2020
  • Table 34: SHFE-approved warehouse locations
  • Table 35: Wuxi-approved nickel brands
  • Table 36: LME average nickel cash price, Q1 2012-Q4 2019 (US$/t)
  • Table 37: Primary nickel consumption by application 2013-2029
  • Table 38: Outlook for nickel demand by type and application, 2019-2029
  • Table 39: Primary nickel consumption by country, 2013-2029
  • Table 40: Forecast crude steel production, 2019-2029 (Mt)
  • Table 41: Primary nickel consumption in alloy steels and castings, 2019-2029
  • Table 42: Primary Nickel consumption in non-ferrous alloys, 2019-2029
  • Table 43: Outlook for nickel use in plating, 2019-2029
  • Table 44: Outlook for demand for nickel sulphate, 2019-2029
  • Table 45: Indonesia: Details of nickel sulphate and intermediate projects
  • Table 46: Outlook for intermediate production of nickel, by country, 2019-2029
  • Table 47: Possible and expected available intermediate for external processing, 2020-2029
  • Table 48: Expected and possible available Class I feedstock for external processing, 2020-2029
  • Table 49: Outlook for integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2019-2029
  • Table 50: Outlook for non-integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2019-2029
  • Table 51: Outlook for primary supply, demand and market balance, 2019-2029
  • Table 52: Base case price forecast for LME cash prices: 2019-2029
  • Table 53: World: Base case forecast for aggregated nickel sulphate premia: 2019-2029
  • Table 54: Covid-19 EV scenarios summary tables
  • Table 55: Quick recovery: EV market impact, 2020-2029
  • Table 56: Recession & slow recovery: EV market impact, 2020-2029
  • Table 57: Summary overview of operations of Jinchuan Nickel Salt (crystal)
  • Table 58: Summary overview of operations of Jinchuan Nickel Salt (solution)
  • Table 59: Summary overview of operations of JINCO
  • Table 60: Overview of Obi project
  • Table 61: Summary overview of the Niihama refinery
  • Table 62: Summary overview of the Harima refinery
  • Table 63: Overview of Pomalaa project
  • Table 64: Overview of Guangxi Yinyi
  • Table 65: Overview of GEM
  • Table 66: Overview of operations of Jien Jilin (crystal)
  • Table 67: Overview of operations of Jien Jilin (solution)
  • Table 68: Overview of operations of Jien Xinxiang
  • Table 69: Overview of operations of Jien Chongqing
  • Table 70: Overview of Harjavalta operation
  • Table 71: Summary overview of operations of Umicore Olen
  • Table 72: Summary overview of operations of Jiangmen Chancsun Umicore
  • Table 73: Summary overview of operations of Jiangmen Chancsun Umicore
  • Table 74: Summary overview of operations of Palm International
  • Table 75: Summary overview of operations of Tanaka Chemical
  • Table 76: Summary overview of operations of Seido Chemical
  • Table 77: Summary overview of operations of Nihon Kagaku Sangyo
  • Table 78: Summary overview of operations of JX Nippon
  • Table 79: Summary overview of operations of Kansai Catalyst
  • Table 80: Overview of CoreMax
  • Table 81: Overview of Zenith Chemicals
  • Table 82: Overview of Mechema
  • Table 83: Overview of Tianjin Maolian
  • Table 84: Overview of MCC Ramu New Energy Technology
  • Table 85: Overview of Jiangmen Fangyuan New Energy
  • Table 86: Overview of Hunan Brunp
  • Table 87: Overview of Nickel West sulphate project
  • Table 88: Overview of Terrafame nickel sulphate project
  • Table 89: Overview of PT Halmahera Persada Lygend project
  • Table 90: Overview of PT QMB project
  • Table 91: Overview of Huayou Quzhou project
  • Table 92: Overview of Sunrise project
  • Table 93: Reported resources and reserves for Sunrise project
  • Table 94: Overview of the Sconi project
  • Table 95: Reported resources for Sconi project
  • Table 96: Overview of Wingellina project
  • Table 97: Reported resources and reserves for Wingellina project
  • Table 98: Overview of GME's NiWest project
  • Table 99: Reported resources and reserves for GME's NiWest project
  • Table 100: Overview of Goongarrie project
  • Table 101: Reported resources and reserves for Goongarrie project
  • Table 102: Overview of the Rayong project
  • Table 103: Overview of Fujian Evergreen Project
  • Table 104: Overview of Hubei Centre Power Tech Project
  • Table 105: Overview of Hunan CNGR project (Guizhou)
  • Table 106: Overview of Huanan CNGR project (Hunan)
  • Table 107: Overview of Jiana Energy project (Guangdong)
  • Table 108: Overview of Jiana Energy project (Hunan)
  • Table 109: Overview of Jiangxi Longxi Project
  • Table 110: Overview of Jinchi Energy Project (expansion)
  • Table 111: Overview of Meishan Shunying Project (expansion)
  • Table 112: Overview of Skelleftea project (metal conversion plant)
  • Table 113: Overview of Skelleftea project (recycling plant)
  • Table 114: Overview of Townsville project
  • Table 115: Overview of Thakadu Battery Materials project
  • Table 116: Overview of Zhejiang New Times Zhongneng Recycling Project
  • Table 117: Use of nickel in batteries by form, 2013-2019
  • Table 118: Use of nickel sulphate in Li-ion batteries by market, 2013-2019
  • Table 119: Market structure evolution, 2010--2019
  • Table 120: Market concentration comparison, 2010--2019
  • Table 121: Nickel use in NiMH batteries by form
  • Table 122: Use of nickel in NiMH batteries by market, 2013-2019
  • Table 123: Nickel use in NiCd batteries by form
  • Table 124: Use of nickel in NiCd batteries by market, 2013-2019
  • Table 125: Producers of NiMH batteries, 2019
  • Table 126: Producers of NiCd batteries, 2019
  • Table 127: Producers of nickel hydroxide, 2019
  • Table 128: ESS outlook by electro-chemical technology 2019-2029
  • Table 129: World: Outlook for rechargeable battery consumption by type and sector, end use basis, 2019-2029
  • Table 130: World: Forecast nickel consumption in batteries, first use basis, 2019-2029
  • Table 131: World: Base, upside and downside scenarios for nickel in batteries, 2019-2029
  • Table 132: Primary nickel use in plating, 2013-2019
  • Table 133: Detailed breakdown of nickel use in nickel plating by end application
  • Table 134: Outlook for nickel use in plating, 2019-2029
  • Table 135: Outlook for nickel sulphate use in other chemical applications, 2019-2029
  • Table 136: Automotive market sales summary (unit sales)
  • Table 137: Announced national/local targets
  • Table 138: Nickel mine production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Table 139: Nickel mine production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Table 140: Nickel mine production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index
  • Table 141: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 142: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2019
  • Table 143: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 144: Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 145: Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 146: Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 147: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 148: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2019-2030
  • Table 149: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2019-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Consumption of nickel sulphate by application, 2013-2019
  • Figure 2: Consumption of nickel sulphate by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 3: Primary nickel consumption by application, 2019
  • Figure 4: Production of nickel sulphate by feedstock, 2013-2019
  • Figure 5: Nickel sulphate production, by type, 2013-2019
  • Figure 6: Nickel sulphate production, by country, 2013-2019
  • Figure 7: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from mine to refining), 2010 and 2019
  • Figure 8: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from refining to battery precursor manufacturing), 2010 and 2019
  • Figure 9: Major trade flows of MHP and MSP, 2019
  • Figure 10: Major trade flows of nickel sulphate by origin and destination, 2019
  • Figure 11: China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate originated from China over nickel metal, 2013-2019
  • Figure 12: Ex-China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate originated from major producing countries over nickel metal, 2013-2019
  • Figure 13: World: Aggregated nickel sulphate premia, over nickel metal, 2013-2019
  • Figure 14: Nickel sulphate demand by application, 2013-2029
  • Figure 15: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by sector, 2013-2029
  • Figure 16: Available intermediate for non-integrated nickel sulphate production, by type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 17: Scenarios for Class I availability for nickel sulphate production based on stainless steel, 2019-2029
  • Figure 18: Outlook for feedstock availability, by feedstock type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 19: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by type, 2013-2029
  • Figure 20: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate, 2013-2029
  • Figure 21: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstock, 2013-2029
  • Figure 22: Nickel sulphate incentive premium at different capital rates, US$/t nickel contained
  • Figure 23: COVID-19: Chinese GDP growth scenarios, 2015-2024
  • Figure 24: COVID-19: Global GDP growth scenarios, 2015-2024
  • Figure 25: Covid-19: EV sales scenarios for 2020
  • Figure 26: Covid-19: Short-term impact scenarios on battery capacity, 2020
  • Figure 27: Recession & slow recovery: EV market impact, 2019-2029
  • Figure 28: Long-term impact scenarios on battery capacity, 2020-2029
  • Figure 29: Nickel sulphate flowchart, 2019
  • Figure 30: Production of nickel by first product produced, 2013-2019
  • Figure 31: Production of nickel intermediates by country, 2013-2019
  • Figure 32: Refined nickel production by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 33: Refined nickel production by type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 34: Production of nickel sulphate by feedstock, 2013-2019
  • Figure 35: Nickel sulphate producers using MHP as main feedstock, 2019
  • Figure 36: Nickel sulphate producers using Class I nickel as main feedstock, 2019
  • Figure 37: Nickel sulphate production from recycled material, 2013-2019
  • Figure 38: Nickel sulphate producers using recycled material (non-battery) as main feedstock, 2019
  • Figure 39: Nickel sulphate producers using recycled material (battery) as main feedstock, 2019
  • Figure 40: Nickel sulphate production, by country, 2013-2019
  • Figure 41: Nickel sulphate production, by type, 2013-2019
  • Figure 42: Production of nickel sulphate by country and type of production, 2019
  • Figure 43: Production of nickel sulphate by integrated producers, 2013-2019
  • Figure 44: Production of nickel sulphate by external processors and recyclers, 2013-2019
  • Figure 45: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from mine to refining), 2010 and 2019
  • Figure 46: Nickel sulphate supply chain integration, 2010 and 2019 (number of operations)
  • Figure 47: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from refining to battery precursor manufacturing), 2010 and 2019
  • Figure 48: Nickel sulphate production by integration (from refining to battery precursor manufacturing), 2010 and 2019, number of operations
  • Figure 49: Integration landscape in Li-ion battery value chain for top ten nickel sulphate producers, 2019
  • Figure 50: Cost curve for nickel sulphate producers by cost item, 2019
  • Figure 51: Cost curve for nickel sulphate by producer integration, 2019
  • Figure 52: Cost curve for nickel sulphate by feedstock type, 2019
  • Figure 53: Breakdown of nickel sulphate production costs, 2019
  • Figure 54: Refined LME nickel price
  • Figure 55: Brent crude oil price, coal price and natural gas price, 2014-2019
  • Figure 56: Comparison of industrial electricity and natural gas costs within key nickel sulphate producing countries and provinces in 2019, Global average=100
  • Figure 57: Comparison of labour costs within key nickel sulphate producing countries and provinces within China in 2019, Global average=100
  • Figure 58: Key reagent prices in China, Jan-15=100
  • Figure 59: US$ exchange rates of major refined nickel sulphate producing countries, Jan-15=100
  • Figure 60: Nickel mining projects ranked by capital intensity
  • Figure 61: Nickel project incentive price required to deliver a 20% IRR
  • Figure 62: Nickel sulphate incentive premium at different capital rates, US$/t nickel contained
  • Figure 63: Primary nickel consumption by application, 2019
  • Figure 64: Consumption of nickel sulphate by application, 2013-2019
  • Figure 65: Consumption of nickel sulphate by region, 2013-2019
  • Figure 66: Li-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2013-2019
  • Figure 67: Major trade flows of nickel matte, 2019
  • Figure 68: Major trade flows of MHP and MSP, 2019
  • Figure 69: Major exports of nickel powders and flakes by origin and destination, 2019
  • Figure 70: Major trade flows of nickel sulphate by origin and destination, 2019
  • Figure 71: Taiwan: Exports of nickel sulphate by destination, 2013-2019
  • Figure 72: Belgium: Exports of nickel sulphate by destination, 2013-2019
  • Figure 73: Finland: Exports of nickel sulphate by destination, 2013-2019
  • Figure 74: LME stocks and cancelled warrants, Jan 2013-Apr 2020
  • Figure 75: LME stocks by type, Jan 2014-Apr 2020
  • Figure 76: SHFE nickel stocks, Apr 2015-Apr 2019
  • Figure 77: LME nickel cash price, Jan 2000-Apr 2020)
  • Figure 78: LME nickel cash-3M contango/backwardation, Jan 2019-Apr 2020
  • Figure 79: Indicative nickel payability for tradeable MHP and MSP, 2013-2019
  • Figure 80: Indicative nickel payability and volume for MHP and MSP imports from China, 2013-2019
  • Figure 81: Indicative nickel payability and volume for MSP imports from Japan, 2013-2019
  • Figure 82: China: Asian Metal battery grade nickel sulphate premia over nickel metal, Apr 2012--Apr 2020
  • Figure 83: China: Asian Metal electroplating grade nickel sulphate premia over nickel metal, Apr 2012--Apr 2020
  • Figure 84: China: Shanghai Metals Market nickel sulphate premia over nickel metal, Jan 2020--Apr 2020
  • Figure 85: China: Asian Metal nickel sulphate premia and nickel metal prices, Apr 2012--Apr 2020
  • Figure 86: China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate originated from China over nickel metal, 2013-2019
  • Figure 87: Ex-China: Indicative premia for nickel sulphate originated from major producing countries over nickel metal, 2013-2019
  • Figure 88: World: Aggregated and regional premia for nickel sulphate, over nickel metal, 2013-2019
  • Figure 89: World: Aggregated nickel sulphate premia, over nickel metal, 2013-2019
  • Figure 90: Primary nickel consumption, 2013-2029
  • Figure 91: Primary nickel consumption by type and application, 2013-2029
  • Figure 92: Primary nickel consumption by type, 2013-2029
  • Figure 93: Primary nickel consumption by country, 2019-2029
  • Figure 94: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by battery type, 2013-2029
  • Figure 95: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by sector, 2013-2029
  • Figure 96: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by source, 2013-2029
  • Figure 97: Class I nickel consumption, 2010-2019
  • Figure 98: Breakdown of nickel use in stainless steel, by type, 2019
  • Figure 99: Class I use in stainless steel, Class II supply and nickel price, 2010-2019
  • Figure 100: Class I availability for nickel sulphate, at 10% and 5% stainless steel loading rate
  • Figure 101: Scenarios for the reliance of stainless steel on Class I nickel, 2019-2029
  • Figure 102: Outlook for primary use of nickel in stainless steel, by class of nickel, 2010-2029
  • Figure 103: Forecast deliveries of civilian jet aircraft, 2019-2029
  • Figure 104: Forecast deliveries of jet engines, 2019-2029
  • Figure 105: Forecast power generation by source, 2019-2029
  • Figure 106: Nickel sulphate demand by application, 2013-2029
  • Figure 107: Indonesia: mine, intermediate and refined production, 2010-2019
  • Figure 108: Indonesia: Exports of nickel ores and concentrates, Q1 2010-Q4 2019
  • Figure 109: Indonesia: Forecast production of hydrometallurgical intermediates and nickel matte, 2020-2029
  • Figure 110: Expected intermediate production by country, 2019-2029
  • Figure 111: Expected intermediate production by product, 2019-2029
  • Figure 112: Forecast availability of intermediate for non-integrated nickel sulphate production versus total nickel intermediate supply, 2019-2029
  • Figure 113: Expected available intermediate for non-integrated nickel sulphate production, by type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 114: Outlook for production of Class I nickel, 2019-2029
  • Figure 115: Revisited: Scenarios for the reliance of stainless steel on Class I nickel, 2019-2029
  • Figure 116: Revisited: Scenarios for Class I availability for nickel sulphate production, 2019-2029
  • Figure 117: Forecast availability for Class I nickel used in nickel sulphate production, 2019-2029
  • Figure 118: Outlook for end-of-life (EOL) nickel-containing cathode, by chemistry and application, 2019-2029
  • Figure 119: Outlook for nickel in EOL batteries, by battery type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 120: Outlook for nickel recovered from EOL batteries and recovery rate, by battery type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 121: Outlook for nickel consumption in plating, non-ferrous alloys and other chemical applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 122: Outlook for availability of non-battery scraps and recovery rate, 2010-2029
  • Figure 123: Outlook for feedstock availability, by feedstock type, 2019-2029
  • Figure 124: Outlook for feedstock availability, primary versus secondary, 2019-2029
  • Figure 125: Outlook for integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2013-2029
  • Figure 126: Outlook for non-integrated production of nickel sulphate, 2013-2029
  • Figure 127: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by type, 2013-2029
  • Figure 128: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by country, 2013-2029
  • Figure 129: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by feedstock, 2013-2029
  • Figure 130: Outlook for nickel sulphate production by source, 2020-2029
  • Figure 131: Market balance for primary nickel, 2013-2019
  • Figure 132: Outlook for primary nickel market balance, 2019-2029
  • Figure 133: World: Supply and demand outlook for nickel sulphate and forecast feedstock availability, 2013-2029
  • Figure 134: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate, 2013-2029
  • Figure 135: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstock, 2013-2029
  • Figure 136: Incentive LME prices by type of operation
  • Figure 137: Probabilistic price outlook for nickel, 2019-2029
  • Figure 138: Nickel sulphate incentive premium at different capital rates, US$/t nickel contained
  • Figure 139: Cost curve for nickel sulphate by feedstock type, 2019
  • Figure 140: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate feedstock, 2013-2029
  • Figure 141: Baseline outlook for market balance for nickel sulphate, 2013-2029
  • Figure 142: COVID-19: Chinese GDP growth scenarios, 2015-2024
  • Figure 143: COVID-19: Global GDP growth scenarios, 2015-2024
  • Figure 144: Outlook for nickel sulphate demand, 2019-2029
  • Figure 145: Outlook for nickel use in batteries, 2019-2029
  • Figure 146: Global passenger car sales, 2006-2019
  • Figure 147: Covid-19: EV sales scenarios for 2020
  • Figure 148: Impact on EV sales of 1-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 149: Impact on EV sales of 2-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 150: Impact on EV sales of 4-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 151: Impact on EV sales of 6-month lockdown (unit sales)
  • Figure 152: Short-term impact scenarios on battery capacity , 2020
  • Figure 153: Quick recovery: GDP & automotive market impact, 2005-2029
  • Figure 154: Quick recovery: EV market impact, 2019-2029
  • Figure 155: Recession & slow recovery: GDP & automotive market impact, 2005-2029
  • Figure 156: Recession & slow recovery: EV market impact, 2019-2029
  • Figure 157: Long-term impact scenarios on battery capacity , 2020-2029
  • Figure 158: Output of nickel sulphate and cathode by JNMC, 2010-2019
  • Figure 159: SMM's flow of 'battery to battery' recycling process from secondary lithium-ion batteries
  • Figure 160: SMM's value chain
  • Figure 161: Output of nickel sulphate by Sumitomo Metal Mining, 2010-2019
  • Figure 162: Production process of nickel sulphate at the Niihama refinery
  • Figure 163: Flow of SMM's recycling process for battery materials in Niihama
  • Figure 164: Production process of nickel sulphate at the Harima refinery
  • Figure 165: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Guangxi Yinyi, 2015-2019
  • Figure 166: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by GEM, 2014-2019
  • Figure 167: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Jien, 2010-2019
  • Figure 168: Estimated production of nickel sulphate by Nornickel Harjavalta, 2010-2019
  • Figure 169: Nornickel diagram of operations
  • Figure 170: Battery materials circular economy
  • Figure 171: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Umicore, 2010-2019
  • Figure 172: Flowsheet for Umicore's integrated metals smelter and refinery
  • Figure 173: Umicore battery recycling flowsheet
  • Figure 174: Japanese imports of nickel powder, briquette and carbonyl from major producing countries, 2010-2019
  • Figure 175: Estimated output of nickel sulphate, by Japanese producers, 2010-2019
  • Figure 176: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by CoreMax, 2010-2019
  • Figure 177: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Zenith, 2010-2019
  • Figure 178: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by METC, 2010-2019
  • Figure 179: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Maolian, 2010-2019
  • Figure 180: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by MCC, 2017-2019
  • Figure 181: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Fangyuan, 2010-2019
  • Figure 182: Estimated capacity and production of nickel sulphate by Brunp, 2010-2019
  • Figure 183: Output of nickel metal by the Nickel West Kwinana refinery, 2010-2019
  • Figure 184: Nickel mine output by Talvivaara/Terrafame, 2011-2019
  • Figure 185: GEM's vision to build a complete value chain for battery grade nickel
  • Figure 186: Simplified value chain for Li-ion batteries
  • Figure 187: Gravimetric Energy density at cathode level, 2019
  • Figure 188: Comparison of gravimetric energy density by battery chemistry
  • Figure 189: Material composition by cathode chemistry
  • Figure 190: World: Historic lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2019
  • Figure 191: Market share of Li-ion large-sized cell manufacturers, 2010-2019
  • Figure 192: Market shares of large-sized battery producers, 2010 vs 2019
  • Figure 193: World: Market share of cathode manufacturers, all materials, 2019
  • Figure 194: Li-ion cathode consumption by type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 195: World: Market share of NCM cathode manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 196: World: Market share of NCA cathode manufacturers, 2019
  • Figure 197: World: Market for rechargeable batteries, 2010-2019
  • Figure 198: World: Li-ion, NiMH and NiCd battery use by market, 2010-2019
  • Figure 199: Battery chemistries share in portable electronics, 2010--2019
  • Figure 200: Portable electronics sales, 2010-2019
  • Figure 201: Portable electronics sales, 2010-2019
  • Figure 202: Battery chemistries share in power devices, 2010-2019
  • Figure 203: Power devices sales, 2010-2019
  • Figure 204: Power applications sales, 2010-2019
  • Figure 205: Battery chemistries share in motive applications, 2010-2019
  • Figure 206: Sales in motive applications, 2010-2019
  • Figure 207: Motive applications sales, 2010-2019
  • Figure 208: Grid-ESS new installations by electro-chemical technology
  • Figure 209: Off-grid ESS new installations by electro-chemical technology, 2010-2019
  • Figure 210: Market size of electro-chemical ESS, annual new capacity, 2010-2019
  • Figure 211: Share of cathode chemistries in Li-ion batteries, 2010-2019
  • Figure 212: Nickel use in rechargeable batteries by battery type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 213: Nickel use in rechargeable batteries by application, 2010-2019
  • Figure 214: Nickel use in rechargeable batteries by form, 2010-2019
  • Figure 215: Forecast portable electronics, 2019-2029
  • Figure 216: Forecast power devices, 2019-2029
  • Figure 217: Forecast motive applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 218: ESS electro-chemical technology outlook. Grid and Off-grid, 2019-2029
  • Figure 219: World: Forecast market for Li-ion batteries by end use, 2019-2029
  • Figure 220: World: Forecast market for rechargeable batteries, end use basis, 2019-2029
  • Figure 221: Share of cathode chemistries, end use basis, 2019-2029
  • Figure 222: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by sector, first use basis, 2019-2029
  • Figure 223: World: Outlook for nickel use in batteries by battery type, first use basis, 2019-2029
  • Figure 224: World: Outlook for nickel use on a first use and end use basis, 2019-2029
  • Figure 225: Nickel use in plating, 2013-2019
  • Figure 226: Breakdown of applications of nickel plating, by process and type, 2019
  • Figure 227: Historical production of passenger and commercial vehicles, 2010-2019
  • Figure 228: Automotive sales by geography, 2019
  • Figure 229: Historical automotive sales, 2010-2019
  • Figure 230: Sales of plug-in electric vehicles. Passenger & Commercial, 2010-2019
  • Figure 231: Sales of battery (BEV) and plug-in (PHEV) electric vehicles, 2010-2019
  • Figure 232: Battery sizes of different types of electric vehicles
  • Figure 233: Electric vehicle sales for plug-in commercial vehicles by type, 2010-2019
  • Figure 234: Market shares of manufacturers of plug-in (BEV + PHEV) vehicles, 2019
  • Figure 235: Market share of cathode chemistries in passenger vehicles, 2010-2019
  • Figure 236: Market share of cathode chemistries in passenger and commercial vehicles, 2010-2019
  • Figure 237: Use of nickel by battery chemistry deployed in EVs, 2010-2019
  • Figure 238: All electrified (BEV, PHEV, HEV, 48V, FCEV) passenger cars scenarios, 2019-2029
  • Figure 239: Plug-in (BEV & PHEV) passenger cars scenarios, 2019-2029
  • Figure 240: Forecast motorisation rates in selected countries, 2010-2029
  • Figure 241: UK example: Cost per kilometre for different driving options, 2025
  • Figure 242: Forecast passenger sales, 2010-2029
  • Figure 243: BEV purchase subsidies, 2019
  • Figure 244: Forecast sales of passenger plug-in electric vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 245: Forecast sales of plug-in passenger cars by region, 2019-2029
  • Figure 246: Outlook for global passenger vehicle electrification, 2019-2029
  • Figure 247: Outlook for electrification by vehicle category, 2010-2029
  • Figure 248: Comparisons in payload, energy density and weight by type of powertrain in long-haul trucks
  • Figure 249: Passenger vehicles: Battery capacity by e-powertrain type & car model
  • Figure 250: Commercial vehicles: Battery capacity by e-powertrain type & car model
  • Figure 251: Forecast weighted average battery capacity by powertrain type, 2010-2029
  • Figure 252: Forecast sales of battery requirements by vehicle category, 2019-2029
  • Figure 253: Forecast cathode materials used in passenger & commercial vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 254: Forecast market share of battery chemistries in passenger vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 255: Forecast market share of cathode chemistries in passenger and commercial vehicles, 2010-2029
  • Figure 256: Cathode technology roadmap of Auto OEMs in passenger cars
  • Figure 257: Forecast intensity of use of selected battery raw materials in automotive applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 258: Forecast use of selected battery raw materials in automotive applications, 2019-2029
  • Figure 259: Scenarios for demand for nickel in automotive batteries on a first-use basis, 2010-2029
  • Figure 260: Outlook for demand for nickel in automotive batteries on a first use and end use basis, 2019-2029
  • Figure 261: Batteries reaching EOL by Li-ion application, 2019-2029
  • Figure 262: Forecast of recycled Li-ion battery materials, 2019-2029
  • Figure 263: Forecast nickel demand in batteries and recycling, 2019-2029
  • Figure 264: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 265: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 266: Primary energy demand and global warming potential for 1kg Ni-in-Class I
  • Figure 267: Primary energy demand and global warming potential for 1kg Ni-in-FeNi
  • Figure 268: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 269: European CRM list 2017