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天然・人造黒鉛:世界の産業・市場と将来展望

Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Outlook to 2028, 12th Edition

発行 Roskill Information Services 商品コード 243527
出版日 ページ情報 英文 586 Pages
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天然・人造黒鉛:世界の産業・市場と将来展望 Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Outlook to 2028, 12th Edition
出版日: 2019年07月12日 ページ情報: 英文 586 Pages
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当サービスは、12か月の購読サービスとなっており、世界における天然および人造黒鉛市場の製造、消費、貿易および価格動向を調査し、主要黒鉛メーカーのプロファイルなどとともにお届けします。

購読サービスの内容

  • 分析レポートと今後10年間の予測
  • レポートへのオンラインアクセス (5ユーザーまで使用可能)
  • 天然・人造黒鉛市場動向の四半期アップデート
  • レポートの内容に関するアナリストへの問い合せ
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レポートの内容

  • 第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー
  • 第2章 主な産業動向
  • 第3章 世界における天然・人造黒鉛の製造および消費
  • 第4章 国別の天然・人造黒鉛の製造および貿易動向
  • 第5章 主要黒鉛生産業者のプロファイル
  • 第6章 天然・人造黒鉛の用途
  • 第7章 天然・人造黒鉛の需要と供給の予測
  • 第8章 天然・人造黒鉛の過去および今後の価格動向
目次

Graphite prices remain high as supply-side shortages combine with growing battery and electrode demand.

High flake graphite prices spur new development outside of China

Despite some downwards re-adjustment towards the end of 2018, graphite prices remain high, with February prices for 94-97%C fine, medium and large size flake still 17%, 24%, and 31% above September 2017 prices - at a time just before prices began to rise from their lowest point. Prices increased through late 2017 and again in early 2018 as rising demand for flake graphite from the lithium-ion battery industry coincided with Chinese environmental inspections and temporary processing plant closures.

Higher prices through 2018 have encouraged further development of flake graphite projects outside of China. During Q4 2018 and early 2019, at least three projects have completed feasibility studies and another updated its existing feasibility study. Several others have completed prefeasibility studies, scoping studies, or resource updates. Meanwhile, Syrah Resources is one step closer to downstream production outside of China, having installed 5ktpy of milling equipment at its Louisiana battery Anode Material (BAM) plant and produced its first un-purified product in December 2018.

For now, China remains the centre of the graphite industry

There is robust growth in demand for spherical graphite, the intermediate product processed from flake graphite for use in lithium-ion battery anodes. Commercial-scale production has so far been limited to China, however, because of high production costs and the use of strong acids and other reagents. A number of companies outside China are trying to develop a non-Chinese spherical graphite supply chain, perhaps using more-environmentally-sound methods, but have yet to prove competitive with China at a commercial scale.

China continues to dominate graphite production and demand. Almost all stages of the lithium-ion battery manufacturing chain are focussed on China and China is by far the largest and most rapidly growing market for lithium-ion batteries.

Both synthetic and natural graphite compete for use in lithium-ion battery anodes, along with an increasing amount of needle coke and other existing carbon materials. Demand for raw material graphite in battery applications is forecast to grow by 17-23%py over the decade between 2017 and 2027.

China looks to Africa for new supply as its battery market grows

China has begun to increase its imports of flake graphite, receiving an estimated 60.3kt in 2018 compared to just 5.5kt in 2017. Increases have come mainly from Africa, where the Chinese government is encouraging trade by means of zero tariffs on imported goods. China began to import large amounts of graphite for the first time in early 2018, accepting material from Syrah Resources' Balama operation in Mozambique, which came on-line in late 2017. Mozambique accounted for around 93% of all Chinese imports in 2018

Africa provides a potential source of low-cost production as China's own mining costs continue to rise with increasing labour, energy, and environmental costs. China has a recent history of investing in Africa in other mining sectors and is investing heavily in infrastructure projects across the continent.

Synthetic graphite electrode price escalation

High synthetic graphite prices in 2018 were the result of a perfect storm of conditions in China. Firstly, environmental plant closures in the raw material coal needle coke industry hampered the production of graphite electrodes. At the same time, consumption of graphite electrodes in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) began to rise as the Chinese government took steps to halt production of poor quality induction furnace steel. Graphite electrode prices began to increase dramatically from the middle of 2017 before falling and rising again quickly in late 2017/early 2018. Prices subsequently fell through much of 2018 but, by February 2019, were still more than 200% higher than they were in early-2017.

Prices could strengthen again going forward as demand for electrodes ramps up from the Chinese EAF industry. China began switching much of its steel production to EAF from 2017 and is expected to increase the rate of this change as more end-of-life steel becomes available. Currently, less than 10% of Chinese crude steel is produced in EAFs, but this could grow to 25% or more over the next decade. Meanwhile, the availability of needle coke continues to hamper the supply-side of the electrode industry. New needle coke production is being brought on-line but ramp-up is a slow process. At the same time, demand for needle coke is growing in lithium-ion battery anodes, diverting some of the material otherwise used in electrodes. As of 2020, stricter marine pollution (MARPOL) regulations could also impact the supply of petroleum-based needle coke with increasing demand for low-sulphur fuels traditionally used in petroleum-based needle coke production.

Roskill's Natural and Synthetic Graphite: Global Industry, Markets and Outlook to 2028 report will be published in June 2019 and details natural and synthetic graphite production, consumption and market trends.

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Supply
  • 1.2 Trade
  • 1.3 Consumption
  • 1.4 Prices

2. Graphite flowchart

3. Natural graphite: World production review

  • 3.1 Structure of the natural graphite industry
  • 3.2 Recycling
  • 3.3 Forecast supply for natural graphite to 2028

4. Synthetic graphite: World production review

  • 4.1 Forecast supply of synthetic graphite to 2028

5. Natural and synthetic graphite: World consumption review

  • 5.1 Consumption of natural graphite
  • 5.2 Consumption of synthetic graphite

6. Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite to 2028

  • 6.1 Forecast demand for natural graphite
  • 6.2 Forecast demand for synthetic graphite

7. International trade in natural graphite

  • 7.1 Total exports of natural graphite
    • 7.1.1 Exports of natural graphite by type
    • 7.1.1.1 Flake graphite
    • 7.1.1.2 Amorphous graphite
    • 7.1.2 Exports of natural graphite from China
  • 7.2 Total imports of natural graphite
    • 7.2.1 Imports of natural graphite by type
      • 7.2.1.1 Flake graphite
      • 7.2.1.2 Amorphous graphite

8. International trade in synthetic graphite

  • 8.1 Anti-dumping duties
  • 8.2 Exports of synthetic graphite
    • 8.2.1 Impact of export controls on synthetic graphite trade
    • 8.2.2 Trade flows of synthetic graphite from major exporting countries
  • 8.3 Imports of synthetic graphite
    • 8.3.1 Trade flows of synthetic graphite from major importing countries

9. Prices of natural graphite

  • 9.1 Historical trends in prices of natural graphite
  • 9.2 Published prices for basic graphite products
    • 9.2.1 Flake graphite
      • 9.2.1.1 Chinese spot prices
    • 9.2.2 Amorphous graphite
  • 9.3 Prices for heavily processed flake products
  • 9.4 Average values from global trade
    • 9.4.1 Flake graphite
    • 9.4.2 Amorphous graphite
  • 9.5 Average value of shipments on major trade routes
    • 9.5.1 Average value of China exports
      • 9.5.1.1 Flake graphite
      • 9.5.1.2 Amorphous graphite
    • 9.5.2 Average value of imports into China
    • 9.5.3 Average value of imports into Japan
  • 9.6 Natural graphite price forecast
    • 9.6.1 Basic graphite products
    • 9.6.2 Processed products

10. Prices of synthetic graphite

  • 10.1 Historical trends in prices of synthetic graphite
  • 10.2 Published prices for synthetic graphite products
  • 10.3 Average values from global trade
  • 10.4 Average value of shipments on major trade routes
    • 10.4.1 Average value of exports from China
    • 10.4.2 Average value of imports to the USA
  • 10.5 Synthetic graphite price forecast

11. Geology and resources of natural graphite

  • 11.1 Geology of natural graphite deposits
  • 11.2 Reserves and resources of natural graphite

12. Mining and processing of natural graphite

  • 12.1 High-purity natural graphite
  • 12.2 Micronised natural graphite
  • 12.3 Spherical natural graphite
  • 12.4 Expandable/expanded graphite
  • 12.5 Graphene and graphite nanoflakes

13. Manufacture of synthetic graphite

  • 13.1 Supply of needle coke
    • 13.1.1 Petroleum-based needle coke
    • 13.1.2 Coal-based needle coke
  • 13.2 Producers of needle coke

14. World production and processing of graphite by country

  • 14.1 Australia
    • 14.1.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.2 Austria
    • 14.2.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.2.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.3 Brazil
    • 14.3.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.3.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.4 Canada
    • 14.4.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.4.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.5 China
    • 14.5.1 Production of natural graphite
    • 14.5.2 Production of natural flake graphite
      • 14.5.2.1 Heilongjiang
      • 14.5.2.2 Shandong
      • 14.5.2.3 Inner Mongolia
      • 14.5.2.4 Hubei
      • 14.5.2.5 Trends in natural flake graphite environmental closures
      • 14.5.2.6 Trends in natural flake graphite consolidation
    • 14.5.3 Production of natural amorphous graphite
      • 14.5.3.1 Hunan
      • 14.5.3.2 Jilin
    • 14.5.4 Production of synthetic graphite
    • 14.5.5 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.5.6 Exports of natural graphite
    • 14.5.7 Imports of natural graphite
    • 14.5.8 China: Price of natural graphite
    • 14.5.9 Graphite operations and projects
      • 14.5.9.1 Natural flake graphite producers
      • 14.5.9.2 Natural amorphous graphite producers
      • 14.5.9.3 Synthetic graphite producers
  • 14.6 Czech Republic
    • 14.6.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.6.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.7 Finland
  • 14.8 France
    • 14.8.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.9 Germany
    • 14.9.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.10 Ghana
  • 14.11 Guinea, Republic of
  • 14.12 India
    • 14.12.1 Production of natural graphite
      • 14.12.1.1 Processing of natural graphite
    • 14.12.2 Production of synthetic graphite
    • 14.12.3 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.12.4 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.13 Italy
    • 14.13.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.14 Japan
    • 14.14.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.15 Korea, North
    • 14.15.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.16 Korea, South
    • 14.16.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.17 Madagascar
    • 14.17.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.17.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.18 Malawi
    • 14.18.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.19 Malaysia
  • 14.20 Mexico
    • 14.20.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.20.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.21 Mozambique
    • 14.21.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.21.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.22 Namibia
    • 14.22.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.23 Netherlands
  • 14.24 Norway
    • 14.24.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.24.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.25 Pakistan
  • 14.26 Poland
    • 14.26.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.27 Russia
    • 14.27.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.27.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.28 Spain
    • 14.28.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.29 South Africa
  • 14.30 Sri Lanka
    • 14.30.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.30.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.31 Sweden
    • 14.31.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.32 Switzerland
  • 14.33 Tanzania
    • 14.33.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.33.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.34 Turkey
    • 14.34.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.34.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.35 Ukraine
    • 14.35.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.35.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.36 United Kingdom
    • 14.36.1 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.37 USA
    • 14.37.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
    • 14.37.2 Graphite operations and projects
  • 14.38 Uzbekistan
  • 14.39 Vietnam
    • 14.39.1 Natural graphite resources and reserves
  • 14.40 Zimbabwe
    • 14.40.1 Graphite operations and projects

15. End uses for natural and synthetic graphite

  • 15.1 Specifications for natural and synthetic graphite by end use
  • 15.2 Competition between natural and synthetic graphite

16. Electrodes

  • 16.1 Consumption of graphite in synthetic graphite electrodes for EAFs
    • 16.1.1 Electrodes: Outlook to 2028
  • 16.2 Producers of synthetic graphite electrodes
  • 16.3 Synthetic graphite electrode manufacturing processes
  • 16.4 Trends in electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production
    • 16.4.1 Producers of crude steel
  • 16.5 Trends in ferroalloy production

17. Refractories

  • 17.1 Consumption of graphite in refractories
    • 17.1.1 Refractories: Outlook to 2028
  • 17.2 Types of refractories
    • 17.2.1 Magnesia-carbon refractories
    • 17.2.2 Alumina-carbon refractories
    • 17.2.3 Alumina-magnesia-carbon refractories
    • 17.2.4 Silicon carbide-graphite refractories
    • 17.2.5 Graphite blocks
    • 17.2.6 Graphite freeze linings
    • 17.2.7 Crucibles
  • 17.3 Producers of graphite refractories
  • 17.4 Trends in refractories production
    • 17.4.1 Production by region
    • 17.4.2 Production by type
    • 17.4.3 Outlook to 2028
  • 17.5 Consumption of refractories by end use
    • 17.5.1 Use of refractories in the ferrous metals industry
      • 17.5.1.1 Production of crude steel
      • 17.5.1.2 Production of steel by process
      • 17.5.1.3 Refractory consumption in basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs)
      • 17.5.1.4 Refractory consumption in electric arc furnaces (EAFs)
      • 17.5.1.5 Refractory consumption in secondary refining
      • 17.5.1.6 Refractory consumption in continuous casting (concast)
    • 17.5.2 Use of refractories in the non-metallic minerals industry
    • 17.5.3 Use of refractories in the non-ferrous metals industry
      • 17.5.3.1 Production of non-ferrous metals

18. Batteries

  • 18.1 Consumption of graphite in batteries
    • 18.1.1 Batteries: Outlook to 2028
  • 18.2 Types of batteries
    • 18.2.1 Primary batteries
    • 18.2.2 Rechargeable (secondary) batteries
  • 18.3 Trends in global battery markets
  • 18.4 Use of graphite in lithium-ion batteries
    • 18.4.1 Lithium-ion battery anode materials
      • 18.4.1.1 Trends in automotive anode materials
    • 18.4.2 Consumption of graphite in lithium-ion batteries
      • 18.4.2.1 Outlook to 2028
      • 18.4.3 Production and trade in spherical graphite
    • 18.4.4 Producers of lithium-ion anode materials
      • 18.4.4.1 Chinese producers
      • 18.4.4.2 Japanese producers
      • 18.4.4.3 Korean producers
      • 18.4.4.4 Rest of world producers
  • 18.5 Production of lithium-ion batteries
    • 18.5.1 Production of small-sized lithium-ion cells
    • 18.5.2 Production of large-sized lithium-ion cells
      • 18.5.2.1 Gigafactories: a new manufacturing paradigm
  • 18.6 Markets for lithium-ion batteries
    • 18.6.1 End-use of lithium-ion batteries by application
      • 18.6.1.1 Competing technologies
      • 18.6.1.2 Lithium-ion batteries in portable electronics
      • 18.6.1.3 Lithium-ion batteries in power applications
      • 18.6.1.4 Lithium-ion batteries in motive applications
      • 18.6.1.5 Lithium-ion batteries in ESS
      • 18.6.1.6 Lithium-ion batteries in automotive uses
    • 18.6.2 End-use of lithium-ion batteries by region
      • 18.6.2.1 Lithium-ion batteries in portable electronics by region
      • 18.6.2.2 Lithium-ion batteries in power applications by region
      • 18.6.2.3 Lithium-ion batteries in motive applications by region
      • 18.6.2.4 Lithium-ion batteries in ESS by region
      • 18.6.2.5 Lithium-ion batteries in automotive by region
    • 18.6.3 Use of lithium-ion batteries in the value chain
  • 18.7 Outlook for demand for rechargeable batteries
    • 18.7.1 Outlook for lithium-ion battery market development
      • 18.7.1.1 Outlook for automotive applications
      • 18.7.1.2 Outlook for portable electronics applications
      • 18.7.1.3 Outlook for power applications
      • 18.7.1.4 Outlook for motive applications
      • 18.7.1.5 Outlook for ESS applications
  • 18.8 Outlook for lithium-ion battery anode manufacturing
  • 18.9 Use of graphite in other types of battery
    • 18.9.1 Primary alkaline batteries
      • 18.9.1.1 Consumption of graphite in primary alkaline batteries
    • 18.9.2 Lead-acid batteries
      • 18.9.2.1 Consumption of graphite in lead-acid batteries
    • 18.9.3 Others
    • 18.9.4 Battery technologies under development
      • 18.9.4.1 Vanadium redox batteries
      • 18.9.4.2 Supercapacitors

19. Recarburising

  • 19.1 Consumption of graphite in recarburising
    • 19.1.1 Recarburising: Outlook to 2028
  • 19.2 Producers of graphite or graphite-containing recarburisers
  • 19.3 Trends for carbon additives in steel
  • 19.4 Trends in cast iron production

20. Lubricants

  • 20.1 Consumption of graphite in lubricants
    • 20.1.1 Lubricants: Outlook to 2028
  • 20.2 Types of graphite lubricant
  • 20.3 Trends in lubricant production
    • 20.3.1 Forging lubricants
    • 20.3.2 Greases
    • 20.3.3 Plant/equipment lubrication

21. Foundries

  • 21.1 Consumption of graphite in foundries
    • 21.1.1 Foundries: Outlook to 2028
  • 21.2 Uses for graphite in foundries
    • 21.2.1 Facing sand
    • 21.2.2 Mould wash
    • 21.2.3 Graphite permanent moulding
  • 21.3 Trends in global castings production
    • 21.3.1 Castings production by region
    • 21.3.2 Castings production by type
    • 21.3.2.1 Future trends in aluminium castings

22. Friction materials

  • 22.1 Consumption of graphite in friction materials
    • 22.1.1 Friction materials: Outlook to 2028
  • 22.2 Trends in motor vehicle production

23. Graphite shapes

  • 23.1 Consumption of graphite in graphite shapes
    • 23.1.1 Graphite shapes: Outlook to 2028
  • 23.2 Types of graphite shapes
  • 23.3 Carbon brushes
  • 23.4 End uses for graphite shapes
    • 23.4.1 Aerospace
    • 23.4.2 Solar photovoltaic electricity
    • 23.4.3 Chemical processing
    • 23.4.4 Bearings
    • 23.4.5 Extrusion and furnace parts
    • 23.4.6 Glass production
  • 23.5 Producers of graphite shapes

24. Other applications

  • 24.1 Flexible graphite
  • 24.2 Flame retardants
  • 24.3 Conductive polymers and rubbers
    • 24.3.1 Consumption of graphite in conductive polymers and rubbers
      • 24.3.1.1 Conductive Polymers and rubbers: Outlook to 2028
    • 24.3.2 Production of conductive polymers and rubbers
  • 24.4 Powder metallurgy
    • 24.4.1 Consumption of graphite in powder metallurgy
      • 24.4.1.1 Powder metallurgy: Outlook to 2028
    • 24.4.2 Trends in powder metallurgy production
      • 24.4.2.1 Production of cemented carbides
  • 24.5 Nuclear applications
    • 24.5.1 Consumption of graphite in nuclear applications
      • 24.5.1.1 Nuclear applications: Outlook to 2028
    • 24.5.2 Trends in nuclear energy
      • 24.5.2.1 Past and present reactor designs
      • 24.5.2.2 Future reactor designs
  • 24.6 Pencils
  • 24.7 Fuel cells
    • 24.7.1 Consumption of graphite in fuel cells
      • 24.7.1.1 Fuel cells: Outlook to 2028
    • 24.7.2 Types of fuel cell
      • 24.7.2.1 PEMFCs
    • 24.7.3 Trends in fuel cell consumption
  • 24.8 Carbon-graphite foam
  • 24.9 Paint
  • 24.10 Synthetic diamonds

25. Company profiles

  • 25.1 Natural and synthetic graphite producers
    • 25.1.1 AMG Graphite Týn
    • 25.1.2 AMG Mining
    • 25.1.3 Asbury Carbons
    • 25.1.4 Aoyu Graphite Group
    • 25.1.5 Bass Metals
    • 25.1.6 Bogala Graphite Lanka
    • 25.1.7 Chenbei Mining Industry
    • 25.1.8 Chenzhou Haixin Graphite & Carbon
    • 25.1.9 Chenzhou Xianglu Graphite Processing Plant
    • 25.1.10 CIMM Group
    • 25.1.11 Dandong Xinxing Carbon
    • 25.1.12 Eagle Graphite
    • 25.1.13 Energoprom (EPM) Group
    • 25.1.14 Établissements Gallois
    • 25.1.15 Fangda Carbon New Material
    • 25.1.16 GK Ancuabe
    • 25.1.17 Grafitbergbau Kaisersberg
    • 25.1.18 Grafitos Mexicanos de Asbury
    • 25.1.19 Graphite India
    • 25.1.20 GrafTech International
    • 25.1.21 HEG
    • 25.1.22 Heilongjiang Pride New Material
    • 25.1.23 Heilongjiang Xinyuan Carbon
    • 25.1.24 Imerys Graphite & Carbon
    • 25.1.25 Inner Mongolia Rising New Energy Material Company
    • 25.1.26 Jilin Graphite Industry
    • 25.1.27 Jilin Carbon
    • 25.1.28 Jixi Changyuan Mining
    • 25.1.29 Jixi Jinyu Graphite
    • 25.1.30 Jixi Pucheng Graphite
    • 25.1.31 Kahatagaha Graphite Lanka
    • 25.1.32 KS Mines
    • 25.1.33 Kaifeng Carbon
    • 25.1.34 Karabacak Madencilik Sanayi ve Diş Ticaret Turizm
    • 25.1.35 Krasnoyarsk Graphite
    • 25.1.36 Leading Edge Materials
    • 25.1.37 Luobei County Yunshan Graphite Mining
    • 25.1.38 Luobei Fuda Graphite
    • 25.1.39 Luobei South Sea Graphite
    • 25.1.40 Extrativa Metalquímica
    • 25.1.41 Morgan Advanced Materials
    • 25.1.42 Nantong Yangzi Carbon
    • 25.1.43 Nacional de Grafite
    • 25.1.44 New Energy Metals
    • 25.1.45 Nippon Carbon
    • 25.1.46 Poco Graphite
    • 25.1.47 Qingdao Haida Graphite
    • 25.1.48 Qingdao Heilong Graphite
    • 25.1.49 Qingdao Hensen Graphite
    • 25.1.50 Qingdao Jinhui Graphite
    • 25.1.51 Qingdao Tiansheng Graphite
    • 25.1.52 Qingdao Xinghe Graphite
    • 25.1.53 Quantum Graphite
    • 25.1.54 RS Mines
    • 25.1.55 Sakura Graphite
    • 25.1.56 SEC Carbon
    • 25.1.57 SGL Group - The Carbon Company
    • 25.1.58 Showa Denko Carbon
    • 25.1.59 Sichuan Shida Carbon Group
    • 25.1.60 Sinosteel Engineering & Technology
    • 25.1.61 Skaland Graphite
    • 25.1.62 South Graphite
    • 25.1.63 Superior Graphite
    • 25.1.64 Syrah Resources
    • 25.1.65 Tamil Nadu Minerals
    • 25.1.66 Tirupati Group
    • 25.1.67 Tokai Carbon
    • 25.1.68 TP Mineral Industries
    • 25.1.69 Uralgraphite
    • 25.1.70 Xing He Muzi Carbon
    • 25.1.71 Xuzhou Jianglong Carbon
    • 25.1.72 Yixiang Graphite Group
    • 25.1.73 Zavalyevskiy Graphite
    • 25.1.74 Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation
  • 25.2 Potential natural graphite producers
    • 25.2.1 Battery Minerals
    • 25.2.2 Black Rock Mining
    • 25.2.3 Canada Carbon
    • 25.2.4 Dalgrafit
    • 25.2.5 Elcora Advanced Materials
    • 25.2.6 Focus Graphite
    • 25.2.7 Graphex Mining
    • 25.2.8 Hexagon Resources
    • 25.2.9 Kibaran Resources
    • 25.2.10 Lincoln Minerals
    • 25.2.11 Magnis Energy Technologies
    • 25.2.12 Mason Graphite
    • 25.2.13 Mineral Resources
    • 25.2.14 Next Graphite
    • 25.2.15 Next Source Materials
    • 25.2.16 Northern Graphite
    • 25.2.17 Nouveau Monde Graphite
    • 25.2.18 Renascor Resources
    • 25.2.19 Sovereign Minerals
    • 25.2.20 Talga Resources
    • 25.2.21 Triton Minerals
    • 25.2.22 Volt Resources
    • 25.2.23 Walkabout Resources
    • 25.2.24 Westwater Resources
    • 25.2.25 Zen Graphene Solutions

26. Macro economic outlook

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Estimated production of natural graphite by country and graphite type, 2008-2018
  • Table 2: World: Details of major natural graphite operations, 2018
  • Table 3: World: Forecast supply of natural graphite (base, low and high case scenarios), 2018, 2023 and
  • Table 4: World: Forecast production of natural graphite by region, 2018-2028
  • Table 5: World: Details of graphite development projects, 2018
  • Table 6: World: Details of downstream graphite product development projects, 2018
  • Table 7: World: Estimated synthetic graphite supply by region, 2008-2018
  • Table 8: Principal producers of synthetic graphite by main product, 2018
  • Table 9: World: Forecast supply of synthetic graphite (base, low and high case scenarios), 2018, 2023 and
  • Table 10: World: Forecast synthetic graphite production by region, 2018-2028
  • Table 11: World: Estimated consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by application, 2008-2018
  • Table 12: World: Estimated consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by region and application, 2018
  • Table 13: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by application, 2008-2018
  • Table 14: World: Estimated total natural graphite consumption by region and application, 2018
  • Table 15: World: Estimated flake graphite consumption by region and application, 2018
  • Table 16: World: Estimated synthetic graphite consumption by application, 2008-2018
  • Table 17: World: Estimated synthetic graphite consumption by region and application, 2018
  • Table 18: World: Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite (base, low and high case scenarios), 2018, 2023 and
  • Table 19: World: Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite by application, 2018-2028
  • Table 20: World: Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite by region and application, 2028
  • Table 21: World: Forecast demand for natural graphite by application, 2018-2028
  • Table 22: World: Forecast demand for natural graphite by region and application, 2028
  • Table 23: World: Forecast demand for flake graphite by region and application, 2028
  • Table 24: World: Forecast demand for synthetic graphite by application, 2018-2028
  • Table 25: World: Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite by region and application, 2028
  • Table 26: World: Total trade in natural graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Table 27: World: Exports of natural flake graphite by region and country, 2008-2018
  • Table 28: World: Major trade flows of natural flake graphite1,2 exports, 2018
  • Table 29: World: Exports of natural amorphous graphite by region and country 2008-2018
  • Table 30: World: Major trade flows of natural amorphous graphite exports, 2018
  • Table 31: China: Exports of natural graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Table 32: China: Exports of natural graphite by country, 2008-2018
  • Table 33: World: Imports of natural flake graphite by region and country, 2008-2018
  • Table 34: World: Major trade flows of natural flake graphite imports, 2018
  • Table 35: World: Imports of natural amorphous graphite by region and country, 2008-2018
  • Table 36: World: Major trade flows of natural amorphous graphite imports, 2018
  • Table 37: Synthetic graphite trade categories 82
  • Table 38: World: Trade in synthetic graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Table 39: World: Trade in electrodes of a kind used for furnaces, 2008-2018
  • Table 40: World: Exports of artificial graphite by region and country, 2008-2018
  • Table 41: World: Exports of electrodes of a kind used for furnaces by region and country, 2008-2018
  • Table 42: World: Major trade flows of artificial graphite exports, 2018
  • Table 43: World: Major trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes and similar pastes for furnace lining exports, 2018
  • Table 44: World: Major trade flows of preparations based on graphite exports, 2018
  • Table 45: World: Major trade flows of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite exports, 2018
  • Table 46: World: Major trade flows of electrodes exports, 2018
  • Table 47: World: Imports of artificial graphite by region and country, 2008-2018
  • Table 48: World: Imports of electrodes of a kind used for furnaces by region and country, 2008-2018
  • Table 49: World: Major trade flows of artificial graphite imports, 2018
  • Table 50: World: Major trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes and similar pastes for furnace lining imports, 2018
  • Table 51: World: Major trade flows of preparations based on graphite imports, 2018
  • Table 52: World: Major trade flows of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite imports, 2018
  • Table 53: World: Major trade flows of electrode imports, 2018
  • Table 54: China: Average monthly price of natural flake graphite, ex-works, 2018
  • Table 55: China: Average value of spherical graphite trade, 2012-2019
  • Table 56: China: Average value of exports of natural graphite, 2008-2018
  • Table 57: China: Average value of imports of natural graphite, 2008-2018
  • Table 58: Forecast price (nominal) of natural flake graphite, 2018-2028
  • Table 59: Forecast price (real) of natural flake graphite, 2018-2028
  • Table 60: China: Average value of spheroidised synthetic graphite exports, 2013-2019
  • Table 61: USA: Quantity and value of graphite electrode imports for consumption, by country, 2016-2018
  • Table 62: Typical chemical composition of natural amorphous, flake and lump graphite
  • Table 63: Ash content and analysis in natural graphite
  • Table 64: World: Reserves of natural graphite, 2018
  • Table 65: Location of major natural graphite deposits, by type
  • Table 66: World: Particle size and carbon content of commercial graphite production
  • Table 67: Applications for high-purity natural graphite and alternatives
  • Table 68: Applications for expandable/expanded graphite
  • Table 69: Producers and potential producers of natural graphite involved in the graphene industry
  • Table 70: Potential applications for graphene
  • Table 71: World: Needle coke producing companies, 2018
  • Table 72: Australia: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 73: Australia: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 74: Austria: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 75: Brazil: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 76: Brazil: Details of graphite operations, 2014-2018
  • Table 77: Brazil: Details of graphite projects, 2019
  • Table 78: Canada: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 79: Canada: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 80: Canada: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 81: China: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 82: China: Minimum capacity and yield regulations, (since December 2012)
  • Table 83: China: Flake graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 84: China: Natural amorphous graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 85: China: Synthetic graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 86: China: Graphite resources by province
  • Table 87: China: Exports of natural graphite by export district, 2014-2018
  • Table 88: China: Exports of natural graphite by type and country, 2011-2018
  • Table 89: China: Top ten exporters of natural flake graphite, selected months
  • Table 90: China: Average monthly price of natural flake graphite, ex-works, 2018
  • Table 91: China: Details of natural flake graphite operations, 2018
  • Table 92: China: Details of natural amorphous graphite operations, 2018
  • Table 93: China: Details of synthetic graphite operations, 2018
  • Table 94: Czech Republic: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 95: Czech Republic: Deposits of natural graphite by type, 2017
  • Table 96: Czech Republic: Reserves of natural graphite, 2010-2017
  • Table 97: Germany: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 98: Germany: Details of graphite operations 2019
  • Table 99: India: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 100: India: Relative size of operating mines, 2015/16-2016/17
  • Table 101: India: Production of graphite by sector, state and district, 2013/14-2016/17
  • Table 102: India: Synthetic graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 103: India: Reserves/resources of graphite by state and grade, April 2015
  • Table 104: India: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 105: Japan: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 106: Japan: Synthetic graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 107: Japan: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 108: North Korea: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 109: South Korea: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 110: Madagascar: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 111: Madagascar: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 112: Madagascar: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 113: Malawi: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 114: Mexico: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 115: Mexico: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 116: Mexico: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 117: Mozambique: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 118: Mozambique: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 119: Mozambique: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 120: Namibia: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 121: Norway: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 122: Pakistan: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 123: Poland: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 124: Russia: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 125: Russia: Synthetic graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 126: Russia: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 127: Sri Lanka: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 128: Sri Lanka: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 129: Sri Lanka: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 130: Sweden: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 131: Sweden: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 132: Tanzania: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 133: Turkey: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 134: Ukraine: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 135: USA: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 136: USA: Synthetic graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 137: USA: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 138: USA: Details of graphite development projects, 2019
  • Table 139: Uzbekistan: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 140: Vietnam: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 141: Vietnam: Summary of major graphite deposits
  • Table 142: Zimbabwe: Natural graphite summary statistics, 2011-2018
  • Table 143: Major applications of primary and secondary natural and synthetic graphite
  • Table 144: Typical characteristics of synthetic and natural graphite
  • Table 145: Natural graphite specifications by end use
  • Table 146: Physical properties of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces
  • Table 147: World: Electrode production capacity by company, 2018
  • Table 148: World: Details of major electrode operations, 2018
  • Table 149: World: Forecast consumption of EAF graphite electrodes and needle coke compared to EAF steel output, 2008-2028
  • Table 150: World: Production of EAF steel by principal steel-producing countries, 2008-2018
  • Table 151: Crude steel production by principal steelmakers, 2016-2018
  • Table 152: Imerys Graphite & Carbon: Specifications of natural flake graphite used in refractories
  • Table 153: World: Identified producers of magnesia/alumina-carbon brick, 2018
  • Table 154: World: Estimated production of refractories by country/region, 2008-2018
  • Table 155: Japan: Production of refractories by type, 2008-2018
  • Table 156: World: Production of crude steel by region/country, 2008-2018
  • Table 157: World: Production of crude steel by process divided by region, 2018
  • Table 158: World: Regional steel production carried out by continuous casting, 2007-2017
  • Table 159: World: Consumption of raw graphite in batteries by type, 2008, 2013 and
  • Table 160: Battery applications: Graphite requirements
  • Table 161: Asbury Carbons: Specification of carbon products for batteries
  • Table 162: Imerys Graphite & Carbon: Use of graphite in mobile energy applications
  • Table 163: World: Forecast consumption of raw graphite in batteries by type, 2018, 2023 and
  • Table 164: World: Forecast rechargeable battery market, selected years
  • Table 165: Japan: Production of primary batteries by type, 2008-2018
  • Table 166: Japan: Production of small rechargeable batteries, 2008-2018
  • Table 167: World: Consumption of processed graphite in anode material by type, 2008, 2013 and
  • Table 168: World: Forecast consumption of processed graphite in anode material by type, 2018, 2023 and
  • Table 169: China: Major producers of spherical graphite, 2018
  • Table 170: China: Exports of spherical graphite, 2011-2018
  • Table 171: China: Imports of spherical graphite, 2011-2018
  • Table 172: China: Ave rage value of spherical graphite exports and imports, 2011-2018
  • Table 173: China: Anode production capacity by manufacturer, February 2019
  • Table 174: Main Japanese producers of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, 2018
  • Table 175: Main Korean producers of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, 2018
  • Table 176: Main rest of world producers of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, 2018
  • Table 177: Market concentration comparison (2010-2018) 367
  • Table 178: Average plant capacity by country, 2018 & 2030
  • Table 179: Top 20 largest lithium-ion battery cell plants in 2018
  • Table 180: World: Lithium-ion consumption in the energy storage market, 2018
  • Table 181: Lithium-ion-based portable electronics capacity by country/region, 2018
  • Table 182: Lithium-ion power capacity by country/region, 2018
  • Table 183: Lithium-ion battery grid-ESS deployed capacity (MWh) by region, 2018
  • Table 184: Lithium-ion automotive battery use (passenger & commercial) by region, 2018
  • Table 185: World: Lithium-ion battery manufacturing, production and demand. Large and small-sized cells, 2010-2018
  • Table 186: World: Lithium-ion battery manufacturing, production and demand. Small-sized cells, 2010-2018
  • Table 187: World: Lithium-ion battery manufacturing, production and demand. Large-sized cells, 2010-2018
  • Table 188: Typical analysis of graphite and other carbonaceous material used in recarburisers
  • Table 189: Role of graphite and competitive carbon additives in steel production
  • Table 190: Choice of recarburisers in cast iron production
  • Table 191: Asbury Carbons: Details of lubricants containing graphite
  • Table 192: Lubricants sectors and main applications
  • Table 193: World: Production of forgings, 2016
  • Table 194: World: Production of castings by country and type, 2017
  • Table 195: Main applications for castings by type
  • Table 196: Common types of brake pad for cars and trucks
  • Table 197: World: Estimated unit consumption of graphite in brake linings of new motor vehicles, 2008-2018
  • Table 198: Imerys Graphite & Carbon: Typical graphite and carbon products for use in friction materials
  • Table 199: Superior Graphite: Typical graphite and carbon products for use in friction materials
  • Table 200: World: Estimated production of motor vehicles, 2013 to 2018
  • Table 201: Examples of applications for graphite in the glass industry
  • Table 202: Major flexible graphite manufacturers, 2018
  • Table 203: Conventional fillers for thermally conductive polymers/rubbers
  • Table 204: Graphite applications in powder metallurgy and hard metals markets
  • Table 205: Examples of nuclear graphite properties
  • Table 206: New nuclear power plants under construction, April 2019
  • Table 207: Overview of generation I to IV nuclear reactors
  • Table 208: Nuclear reactors in commercial operation, end-2016
  • Table 209: Advanced (Generation III and III+) nuclear power reactors, May 2019
  • Table 210: High temperature nuclear reactor development and status, 2017
  • Table 211: Asbury Carbons: Graphite products for use in fuel cells
  • Table 212: Popular fuel cell designs
  • Table 213: Annual shipments of fuel cells by application, region and type, 2009-2017
  • Table 214: Applications for fuel cells
  • Table 215: World and USA: Production of industrial diamonds, 2009-2015
  • Table 216: AMG Mining: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 217: Asbury Carbons: Subsidiaries and operations producing graphite products, 2019
  • Table 218: Eagle Graphite: Planned increases to graphite production, 2015-2019
  • Table 219: Fangda Carbon New Material: Subsidiaries and operations producing graphite products, 2019
  • Table 220: Graphite India: Details of manufacturing facilities, 2019
  • Table 221: GrafTech International: Sales by segment, 2014-2017
  • Table 222: GrafTech International: Location of manufacturing facilities, 2019
  • Table 223: Imerys Graphite & Carbon: Details of graphite manufacturing facilities
  • Table 224: Imerys Graphite & Carbon: Major brands based on graphite
  • Table 225: Nacional de Grafite: Details of graphite operations, 2012-2016
  • Table 226: Nacional de Grafite: Products and their uses
  • Table 227: Qingdao Hensen Graphite: Product list and capacity, 2019
  • Table 228: SGL Group: Sales by business unit, 2015 to 2018
  • Table 229: SGL Group: Details of graphite manufacturing facilities, 2019
  • Table 230: Superior Graphite: Details of manufacturing facilities, 2019
  • Table 231: Superior Graphite: Major brands based on graphite and carbon
  • Table 232: Tirupati Carbons & Chemicals: Details of graphite operations, 2019
  • Table 233: Zavalyevsky: Product list
  • Table 234: Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 235: Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 236: Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 237: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2018-2030
  • Table 238: Forecast urbanisation rate, 2018-2030
  • Table 239: Forecast median age, 2018-2030
  • Table 240: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2018-2030

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: China and ROW: Historical and forecast production of synthetic graphite compared with EAF steel output, 2008-2028
  • Figure 2: World: Forecast scenarios for raw graphite consumption and lithium-ion battery market, 2018-2028
  • Figure 3: China and ROW: Historical and forecast production of graphite compared with crude steel output, 2008-2028
  • Figure 4: China: Exports of natural graphite by type, 2002-2018
  • Figure 5: World: Consumption of graphite by application, 2018 and 2028
  • Figure 6: Graphite flowchart
  • Figure 7: World: Estimated production of natural graphite by type, 2018
  • Figure 8: World: Estimated production of natural graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 9: World: Year-on-year change in production of natural graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 10: World: Estimated production of natural graphite by region, 2008-2018
  • Figure 11: World: Forecast production of natural graphite by type, 2018-2028
  • Figure 12: World: Forecast year-on-year change in production of natural graphite by type, 2018-2028
  • Figure 13: World: Forecast production of natural graphite by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 14: World: Estimated synthetic graphite supply by region, 2008-2018
  • Figure 15: World: Estimated synthetic graphite production by region, 2018
  • Figure 16: World: Forecast synthetic graphite production by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 17: World: Forecast synthetic graphite production by region, 2028
  • Figure 18: World: Consumption of graphite by major applications, 2018
  • Figure 19: World: Estimated growth in consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by application, 2008-2018
  • Figure 20: World: Estimated consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by region, 2018
  • Figure 21: World: Forecast consumption of graphite by major application, 2028
  • Figure 22: World: Forecast growth in demand for natural and synthetic graphite by application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 23: World: Trade balance of total natural graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 24: World: Total exports of natural graphite by country 2008-2018
  • Figure 25: World: Exports of natural graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 26: World: Exports of natural flake graphite by country 2018
  • Figure 27: World: Major trade flows of natural flake graphite exports 2018
  • Figure 28: World: Exports of natural amorphous graphite by country, 2018
  • Figure 29: World: Major trade flows of natural amorphous graphite exports, 2018
  • Figure 30: China: Exports of natural graphite by type, 2002-2018
  • Figure 31: World: Total imports of natural graphite by country 2008-2018
  • Figure 32: World: Trade balance of synthetic graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 33: World: Trade balance of electrodes of a kind used for furnaces, 2008-2018
  • Figure 34: World: Exports of synthetic graphite by type and of electrodes of a kind used for furnaces, 2008-2018
  • Figure 35: World: Exports of artificial graphite by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 36: World: Exports of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes and furnace linings by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 37: World: Exports of preparations based on synthetic graphite by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 38: World: Exports of colloidal or semi-colloidal synthetic graphite by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 39: World: Exports of electrodes of a kind used for furnaces by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 40: World: Imports of synthetic graphite by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 41: World: Imports of artificial graphite by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 42: World: Imports of electrodes of a kind used for furnaces by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 43: World: Average value of natural graphite exports by type, from major producing countries, 2008-2018
  • Figure 44: Europe: Average price of natural graphite by type, 2008-2019
  • Figure 45: Europe: Average price of large size flake natural graphite by grade, 2008-2019
  • Figure 46: Europe: Average price of medium size flake natural graphite by grade, 2008-2019
  • Figure 47: Europe: Average price of fine size flake natural graphite by grade, 2008-2018
  • Figure 48: Average price of amorphous natural graphite, 2008-2019
  • Figure 49: Average value of natural flake graphite exports by major exporters, 2008-2018
  • Figure 50: Average value of natural amorphous graphite exports, 2008-2018
  • Figure 51: China: Average value of exports of natural graphite products by type, 2000-2018
  • Figure 52: China: Average value of exports of natural flake graphite to major destination countries, 2008-2018
  • Figure 53: China: Average value of exports of natural flake graphite powder to major destination countries, 2008-2018
  • Figure 54: China: Average value of exports of spherical graphite to major destination countries, 2009-2018
  • Figure 55: China: Average value of exports of spherical graphite and flake graphite to Japan and South Korea, 2013-2018
  • Figure 56: China: Quantity and average value of amorphous graphite exports, 2008-2018
  • Figure 57: Japan: Average value of imports of natural graphite from China by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 58: Forecast price (real) of large size flake natural graphite by grade, 2008-2028
  • Figure 59: Forecast prices (real) of medium size flake natural graphite by grade, 2008-2028
  • Figure 60: Forecast price (real) of fine size flake natural graphite by grade, 2008-2028
  • Figure 61: Average prices of graphite electrodes, 2015-2019
  • Figure 62: Average value of exports of artificial graphite, by major exporters, 2008-2018
  • Figure 63: Average value of exports of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite, by major exporters, 2008-2018
  • Figure 64: Average value of exports of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes and similar pastes for furnace linings, by major exporters, 2008-2018
  • Figure 65: Average value of exports of preparations based on graphite by major exporters, 2008-2018
  • Figure 66: Average value of exports of electrodes of a kind used for furnaces, by major exporters, 2008-2018
  • Figure 67: China: Quantity and average value of electrode exports, 2008-2018
  • Figure 68: China: Quantity and average value of artificial graphite exports, 2008-2018
  • Figure 69: China: Average value of selected synthetic graphite exports by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 70: USA: Quantity and average value of graphite electrodes imports, 2008-2018
  • Figure 71: USA: Average value of graphite electrode imports, by main country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 72: Natural graphite manufacturing process
  • Figure 73: Flake graphite and the processed product, spherical graphite
  • Figure 74: Synthetic graphite from needle coke - manufacturing process
  • Figure 75: World: Exports of calcined petroleum coke from major destinations and average value of global exports, 2008-2018
  • Figure 76: World: Exports of coal tar pitch from major destinations and average value of global exports, 2008-2018
  • Figure 77: Brazil: Historical and forecast production of flake graphite compared with production of crude steel, 2008-2028
  • Figure 78: Brazil: Exports of natural graphite by country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 79: China: Historical and forecast production of total graphite compared with production of crude steel, 2008-2028
  • Figure 80: China: Year-on-year change in natural graphite production, 2008-2018
  • Figure 81: China: Production and exports of natural flake graphite, 2008-2018
  • Figure 82: China: Production and exports of natural amorphous graphite, 2008-2018
  • Figure 83: China: Production and exports of synthetic graphite, 2008-2018
  • Figure 84: China: Exports of natural graphite by country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 85: China: Quarterly exports of natural graphite by type, 2014-2018
  • Figure 86: China: Imports of natural graphite by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 87: China: Average value of quarterly exports of natural flake and amorphous graphite, Q1 2010-Q1 2019
  • Figure 88: China: Average value of quarterly exports of natural flake graphite by type, Q1 2010-Q1 2019
  • Figure 89: China: Average value of exports of basic flake graphite grades by major countries of destination, 2008-2018
  • Figure 90: Sri Lanka: Exports of natural graphite by country, 2008-2018
  • Figure 91: China: Exports of electrodes for use in furnaces, 2017-2019
  • Figure 92: World: Consumption of graphite in electrodes and production of EAF steel, 2008-2018
  • Figure 93: World: Forecast consumption of graphite in electrodes and production of EAF steel, 2018-2028
  • Figure 94: World: Comparison of electrode1 capacity and production, 2008-2018
  • Figure 95: World: Estimated division of electrode production capacity by region, 2018
  • Figure 96: Comparison of forecast trends in production of all crude steel and EAF steel, 2008-2028
  • Figure 97: World: Forecast EAF steel production by country, 2008-2028
  • Figure 98: World: Output of EAF steel by region, 2018
  • Figure 99: China: Exports and imports of ferrous scrap, 2016-2019
  • Figure 100: China and rest of world: Production of ferroalloys in EAF, 2008-2018
  • Figure 101: World: Production of ferroalloys in EAF, by main types, 2008-2018
  • Figure 102: World: Consumption of graphite in refractories and production of refractories, 2008-2018
  • Figure 103: World: Forecast consumption of graphite in refractories and production of refractories, 2018-2028
  • Figure 104: World: Estimated production of refractories by country/region and global production of crude steel, 2008-2018
  • Figure 105: World: Estimated production of refractories by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 106: World: Forecast production of refractories by country/region and global production of crude steel, 2018-2028
  • Figure 107: World: Estimated consumption of refractories by market, 2018
  • Figure 108: World: Historical and forecast production of crude steel, 1998-2028
  • Figure 109: China: Annual average growth rate in crude steel production over five-year periods, 1993-2028
  • Figure 110: World: Forecast crude steel production by major producing region, 2008, 2018 and
  • Figure 111: World: Production of crude steel by process compared to refractory production, 2008-2018
  • Figure 112: World: Production of refined aluminium, copper, zinc, lead and nickel, 1970-2018
  • Figure 113: China: Production of refined aluminium, zinc and lead, 2008, 2013 and
  • Figure 114: World: Consumption of graphite by type and battery application compared with the market for lithium-ion batteries, 2008-2018
  • Figure 115: World: Forecast consumption of graphite by type and battery application compared with the market for lithium-ion batteries, 2018-2028
  • Figure 116: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries 332
  • Figure 117: Energy density comparison of rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries 333
  • Figure 118: Specific energy (Wh/kg) and energy density (Wh/l) of rechargeable batteries 335
  • Figure 119: World: Market for rechargeable batteries, 2008-2018
  • Figure 120: World: Forecast lithium-ion market, 2008-2028
  • Figure 121: Lithium-ion battery schematic 339
  • Figure 122: Lithium-ion battery materials value chain 340
  • Figure 123: Estimated consumption of active materials in anode manufacture, 2018
  • Figure 124: Carbon-based anode materials performance comparison 342
  • Figure 125: Battery attributes by selected application 342
  • Figure 126: Potential of anode active materials in lithium-ion batteries 343
  • Figure 127: Market share of anode chemistries in all vehicles, 2008-2018
  • Figure 128: Consumption of raw graphite and lithium-ion battery market, 2008-2018
  • Figure 129: Forecast consumption of raw graphite and lithium-ion battery market, 2018-2028
  • Figure 130: Forecast scenarios for raw graphite consumption and lithium-ion battery market, 2018 to 2028
  • Figure 131: China: Quarterly exports and average value of exports for spherical graphite, 2013-2019 (t, US$)
  • Figure 132: China: Average value of spherical graphite and flake graphite exports to Japan and South Korea, 2013-2018
  • Figure 133: World: Market share of anode manufacturers, 2018
  • Figure 134: World: Historic small-sized lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 135: Market shares evolution of lithium-ion small-sized cell manufacturers, 2010-2018
  • Figure 136: Global market shares of small-size cell battery companies by capacity, 2018
  • Figure 137: World: Historic lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 138: World: Lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity installed by country, 2018
  • Figure 139: World: Lithium-ion battery manufacturing capacity by companies' country origin, 2018
  • Figure 140: Market shares evolution of lithium-ion large-sized cell manufacturers (2010-2018)
  • Figure 141: Global market shares of large-size cell battery companies by capacity , 2018
  • Figure 142: Average plant capacity by country, 2018
  • Figure 143: Average plant capacity by country, 2030
  • Figure 144: World: Lithium-ion battery use by market, 2000-2018
  • Figure 145: Competing battery technologies in the portable electronics, 2000-2018
  • Figure 146: Competing battery technologies in power & motive 2000-2018
  • Figure 147: Installed grid electrochemical ESS, excluding off-grid & UPS ESS, 2000-2018
  • Figure 148: World: Lithium-ion battery energy (% of GWh) consumption by portable products, 2018
  • Figure 149: World: Lithium-ion battery energy consumption by portable products, 2017-2018
  • Figure 150: World: Lithium-ion battery energy consumption in power products, 2018
  • Figure 151: World: Lithium-ion battery energy consumption in power products, 2017 and 2018
  • Figure 152: World: Lithium-ion battery energy consumption in motive products, 2018
  • Figure 153: World: Lithium-ion battery energy consumption in motive products, 2017 and 2018
  • Figure 154: World: Share of lithium-ion in electrochemical ESS, 2018
  • Figure 155: World: Outlook for lithium-ion technology by grid/off-grid application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 156: Automotive sales outlook by xEV type, 2015-2030
  • Figure 157: World: Rechargeable battery energy consumption by xEV type, 2015-2028
  • Figure 158: Lithium-ion portable electronics capacity by region, 2018
  • Figure 159:Lithium-ion power capacity by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 160: Lithium-ion electric forklift capacity by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 161: Battery e-scooter / e-bike lithium-ion capacity by country/region, 2018
  • Figure 162: Lithium-ion battery grid-ESS deployed capacity by region, 2018
  • Figure 163: Lithium-ion battery automotive capacity by region, 2018 (passenger & commercial)
  • Figure 164: World: Lithium-ion battery manufacturing, production and demand. Large and small sized cells, 2010-2018
  • Figure 165: World: Forecast market for rechargeable batteries1, 2018-2028
  • Figure 166: World: Lithium-ion battery use by market, 2018-2028
  • Figure 167: Global penetration rate of electric passenger vehicles, 2015-2028
  • Figure 168: Forecast sales of electric vehicles, 2015-2028
  • Figure 169: World: Portable lithium-ion battery use by sub-category, 2018-2028
  • Figure 170: World: Forecast portable lithium-ion battery use by sub-category, 2028
  • Figure 171: World: Forecast power lithium-ion battery use by sub-category, 2018-2028
  • Figure 172: World: Forecast power lithium-ion battery use by sub-category, 2028
  • Figure 173: World: Forecast motive lithium-ion battery use by sub-category, 2018-2028
  • Figure 174: World: Forecast motive lithium-ion battery use by sub-category, 2028
  • Figure 175: World: Forecast ESS lithium-ion battery use by sub-category, 2018-2028
  • Figure 176: Forecast anode material capacity by region 2018 and 2028
  • Figure 177: Forecast anode material capacity by manufacturer, 2018 and 2028
  • Figure 178: World: Consumption of graphite in recarburising, 2008-2018
  • Figure 179: World: Forecast consumption of graphite in recarburising, 2018-2028
  • Figure 180: World: Production of crude steel by process, 2008-2018
  • Figure 181: World: Production of steel by electric arc furnace and oxygen-blown converter, 2008-2018
  • Figure 182: World production of cast iron by type, 2008-2018
  • Figure 183: World: Graphite consumption in lubricants and production of lubricants, 2008-2018
  • Figure 184: World: Forecast graphite consumption in lubricants and production of lubricants, 2018-2028
  • Figure 185: World: Production of forgings, 2013-2018
  • Figure 186: World: Production of grease by region, 2008-2018
  • Figure 187: World: Consumption of graphite in foundries and production of castings, 2008-2018
  • Figure 188: World: Forecast graphite consumption in foundries and global production of castings, 2018-2028
  • Figure 189: World: Production of castings by type and consumption of graphite, 2008-2018
  • Figure 190: World: Regional production of castings, 2008-2018
  • Figure 191: World: Production of ferrous castings by metal, 2008-2018
  • Figure 192: World: Production of non-ferrous castings by metal, 2008-2018
  • Figure 193: World: Graphite consumption in friction materials and global production of motor vehicles, 2008-2018
  • Figure 194: World: Year-on-year change in motor vehicle production and graphite consumption in friction materials, 2008-2018
  • Figure 195: World: Forecast graphite consumption in friction materials and global production of motor vehicles, 2018-2028
  • Figure 196: World: Forecast production of motor vehicles by region, 2008-2028
  • Figure 197: World: Production of motor vehicles by type and region, 2018
  • Figure 198: World: Graphite consumption in graphite shapes, 2008-2018
  • Figure 199: World: Forecast graphite consumption in graphite shapes, 2018-2028
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