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レアアース:世界の産業、市場、見通し

Rare Earths: Global Industry, Markets & Outlook 2018 - 18th Edition

発行 Roskill Information Services 商品コード 223949
出版日 ページ情報 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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本日の銀行送金レート: 1GBP=140.75円で換算しております。
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レアアース:世界の産業、市場、見通し Rare Earths: Global Industry, Markets & Outlook 2018 - 18th Edition
出版日: 2018年12月18日 ページ情報: 英文
概要

当レポートでは、世界のレアアース (希土類) 市場について調査分析し、全体的な生産・消費・貿易動向の見通し (今後10年間分) や、主要資源の埋蔵量と生産工程、各国子女のプロファイル、用途別の詳細な市場動向など、体系的な情報を提供しています。

第1章 エグゼクティブ・サマリー

第2章 レアアースの市場構造:フローチャート

第3章 世界全体の生産動向

第4章 世界全体の消費動向

  • レアアース消費量:エンドユース産業別
  • レアアース消費量:元素別
  • レアアースの市場規模

第5章 市場バランス

第6章 国際貿易

  • 中国の輸出割当量 (過去10年間分)
  • 鉱石・濃縮物
    • 中国以外の一次レアアースの貿易動向:概略
  • レアアース化合物
    • レアアース化合物 (セリウム以外) の国際貿易動向
    • セリウム化合物の国際貿易動向
  • レアアース金属・合金の貿易額
  • 世界市場の輸出動向
  • 世界市場の輸入動向
  • 中国のレアアース貿易額
  • 国際貿易フローマップ/サマリー

第7章 価格

  • レアアース酸化物の価格

第8章 将来展望

  • 供給量の見通し (2028年まで)
  • 需要量の見通し (2028年まで)
  • 市場バランスの見通し (2028年まで)
  • 価格動向の見通し (2028年まで)

第9章 鉱物資源と埋蔵量

  • レアアース (希土類) 元素
  • レアアース (希土類) 鉱物
    • 炭酸塩
    • リン酸塩
    • ケイ酸塩
    • 酸化物
    • イオン吸着クレー
  • 地質学的環境
    • 一次環境:過アルカリ質、カーボナタイト、鉱脈鉱床
    • 二次環境:イオン吸着クレイ、砂鉱床
  • 資源と埋蔵量
    • レアアース資源と埋蔵量
      • 中国国内の埋蔵量
      • 他の国々の埋蔵量
    • イットリウム資源と埋蔵量

第10章 採掘・処理

  • 処理
    • バストネサイト
    • イオン吸着クレー
    • モナザイト
    • ゼノタイム
    • ユーディアライト (ユージアル石)
    • アパタイト (燐灰石)
    • ロパライト
    • ウラン抽残液
  • 精製・分離
    • 溶剤抽出 (液液抽出)
    • イオン吸着 (液体・固体抽出)
    • 分子識別技術
    • 金属・合金製造
    • メカノケミカル処理

第11章 各国市場のプロファイル

  • オーストラリア
  • オーストリア
  • ベルギー
  • ブラジル
  • カナダ
  • チリ
  • 中国
  • エストニア
  • フランス
  • ドイツ
  • グリーンランド
  • インド
  • 日本
  • カザフスタン
  • ラオス
  • マラウィ
  • マレーシア
  • マダガスカル
  • ナミビア
  • オランダ
  • ノルウェー
  • ロシア
  • スペイン
  • 南アフリカ
  • 韓国
  • スウェーデン
  • 台湾
  • タンザニア
  • トルコ
  • ウガンダ
  • 英国
  • 米国
  • ベトナム

第12章 永久磁石

第13章 触媒

第14章 研磨剤

第15章 電池 (バッテリー)

第16章 冶金

第17章 ガラス

第18章 セラミック

第19章 蛍光体・顔料

第20章 その他の用途

第21章 企業プロファイル

  • Lynas Corporation
  • Northern Minerals
  • Hastings Technology Metals
  • Alkane Resources
  • Arafura Resources
  • Treibacher Industrie
  • CBM
  • Serra Verde
  • Rainbow Rare Earths
  • Commerce Resources
  • Rare Earths Salts
  • Torngat Metals
  • Biolantanidos
  • China Northern Rare Earth Group
  • Chinalco
  • China Southern Rare Earth Group
  • Minmetals Rare Earth Group
  • Guangdong Rare Earth Group
  • Xiamen Tungsten
  • Solvay
  • Greenland Minerals
  • Tanbreez
  • India Rare Earths
  • 豊田通商
  • Summit Atom Rare Earth Company
  • Mkango Resources
  • Yara International
  • REEtec
  • Solikamsk Magnesium Works
  • Three Arc Mining
  • Steenkampskraal Rare Earths
  • Peak Resources
  • MP Materials
  • Neo Performance Materials
  • UCore
  • Thaiduong Group
  • Vietnam Rare Earths JSC
  • Vietnam Rare Earth Company
目次

The rare earths industry is heading for a turbulent period. The looming addition of tariffs on rare earth raw materials and finished products traded between the USA and China and increasingly stringent environmental inspections disrupting mine and refined rare earth supply in China are exacerbating an already tight market for key rare earth elements entering a period of strong growth in demand for rare earth permanent magnets.

China remains the global leader in the production of both mined rare earth products and refined rare earth compounds, with Chinese production accounting for 86% of global refined production in 2017. Six state owned rare earth enterprises dominate rare earth production in China, with China North Rare Earth Group reported to be the largest producer in 2017, predominantly from the Baiyun Obo mine in Baotau, Inner Mongolia. Illegal production in China continues to support the Chinese domestic rare earths industry, as demand outstrips official production quotas. Continued government inspections and greater tracking of material caused illegal Chinese production to fall sharply in 2017, which is expected to extend into 2018.

Rare earth production at operations outside China is forecast to increase significantly in the years to 2028, as existing producers expand production capacity and numerous projects in Australia, Russia, the Americas and Africa are scheduled to be commissioned. The increase in non-Chinese production is expected to significantly reduce China's stranglehold on REE supply, though China is expected to remain the major supplier of REE products to the global market.

Roskill forecasts rare earth demand to increase by 8% in 2018, driven largely by developments in the use of rare earth permanent magnets in automotive and renewable energy generation. The percentage of neodymium demand compared to total rare earth demand has increased from 19% in 2013 to over 23% in 2017. Demand for rare earth permanent magnets is forecast to show strong growth in the years to 2028, which is expected to further distort rare earth demand ratios with neodymium, praseodymium and dysprosium forming a greater proportion of total demand. Lanthanum and cerium have continued to form the majority of rare earth demand by volume, with consumption of these elements estimated to total 84.7kt REO in 2017, compared to around 53kt REO for the remaining rare earth elements. Their use in the catalyst industry is expected to increase as emissions standards in most countries become more stringent, though growth could be impacted by the uptake of electric vehicles and fundamental shifts in the automotive industry.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • Who are the major miners and processors of REEs in China?
  • Where will future sources of rare earths be located?
  • Which market sectors will drive growth?
  • What is the outlook for neodymium in NdFeB magnets?
  • How do I understand the complexities of international trade?

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1. Supply
  • 1.2. Consumption
  • 1.3. Market Balance
  • 1.4. Prices

2. Rare Earth flowchart

3. World production

4. World consumption

  • 4.1. Rare earth consumption by end-use sector
  • 4.2. Rare earth consumption by element
  • 4.3. Value of rare earth market

5. Market balance

6. International trade

  • 6.1. Chinese export quotas (2005-2014)
  • 6.2. Ores and concentrates
    • 6.2.1. Summary of primary rare earth trade outside China
  • 6.3. Compounds of rare earths
    • 6.3.1. Global trade in rare earth compounds other than cerium
      • 6.3.1.1. Global export trends
      • 6.3.1.2. Global import trends
    • 6.3.2. Global trade in cerium compounds
      • 6.3.2.1. Global export trends
      • 6.3.2.2. Global import trends
  • 6.4. Trade in rare earth metals and alloys
  • 6.5. Global exports
  • 6.6. Global imports
  • 6.7. China: Rare earth trade
  • 6.8. World trade flow map and summary

7. Prices

  • 7.1. Rare earth oxide prices

8. Outlook

  • 8.1. Supply outlook to 2028
  • 8.2. Demand outlook to 2028
  • 8.3. Market balance outlook to 2028
  • 8.4. Price outlook to 2028

9. Mineral resources and reserves

  • 9.1. Rare earth elements
  • 9.2. Rare earth minerals
    • 9.2.1. Carbonates
    • 9.2.2. Phosphates
    • 9.2.3. Silicates
    • 9.2.4. Oxides
    • 9.2.5. Ion-adsorption clays
  • 9.3. Geological settings
    • 9.3.1. Primary
      • 9.3.1.1. Peralkaline
      • 9.3.1.2. Carbonatites
      • 9.3.1.3. Vein deposits
    • 9.3.2. Secondary
      • 9.3.2.1. Ion-adsorption clays
      • 9.3.2.2. Placer deposits
  • 9.4. Resources and Reserves
    • 9.4.1. Rare earth resource and reserves
      • 9.4.1.1. China reserves
      • 9.4.1.2. Rest of world reserves
    • 9.4.2. Yttrium resources and reserves

10. Mining and processing

  • 10.1. Processing
    • 10.1.1. Bastnaesite
    • 10.1.2. Ion adsorption clays
    • 10.1.3. Monazite
    • 10.1.4. Xenotime
    • 10.1.5. Eudialyte
    • 10.1.6. Apatite
    • 10.1.7. Loparite
    • 10.1.8. Uranium raffinates
  • 10.2. Refining and separation
    • 10.2.1. Solvent extraction (Liquid-liquid extraction)
    • 10.2.2. Ion adsorption (Liquid-solid extraction)
    • 10.2.3. Molecular Recognition Technology
    • 10.2.4. Metal and alloy manufacture
    • 10.2.5. Mechanochemical processing

11. Country profiles

  • 11.1. Australia
  • 11.2. Austria
  • 11.3. Belgium
  • 11.4. Brazil
  • 11.5. Canada
  • 11.6. Chile
  • 11.7. China
    • 11.7.1. Reserves and resources
    • 11.7.2. Rare earth production
    • 11.7.3. Rare earth mining and separation quota
    • 11.7.4. Consolidation of China's rare earth industry
    • 11.7.5. Rare earth resource tax
    • 11.7.6. Environmental policy and regulation
    • 11.7.7. Commercial stockpile of rare earth products
    • 11.7.8. National stockpile of rare earth products
    • 11.7.9. Illegal production
  • 11.8. Estonia
  • 11.9. France
  • 11.10. Germany
  • 11.11. Greenland
  • 11.12. India
  • 11.13. Japan
  • 11.14. Kazakhstan
  • 11.15. Laos
  • 11.16. Republic of Malawi
  • 11.17. Malaysia
  • 11.18. Madagascar
  • 11.19. Namibia
  • 11.20. Netherlands
  • 11.21. Norway
  • 11.22. Russia
  • 11.23. Spain
  • 11.24. South Africa
  • 11.25. South Korea
  • 11.26. Sweden
  • 11.27. Taiwan
  • 11.28. Tanzania
  • 11.29. Turkey
  • 11.30. Uganda
  • 11.31. UK
  • 11.32. USA
  • 11.33. Vietnam

12. Permanent magnets

  • 12.1. Rare earth consumption in permanent magnets
  • 12.2. Types of permanent magnet
    • 12.2.1. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets
    • 12.2.2. Samarium-cobalt magnets
  • 12.3. Research and development
    • 12.3.1. Off-cuttings scrap (swarf)
    • 12.3.2. Additive manufacturing (3D printing)
  • 12.4. Producers of rare earth magnets
  • 12.5. Applications for NdFeB magnets and outlook
    • 12.5.1. Consumer electronics
    • 12.5.2. Air-conditioning
    • 12.5.3. Wind turbines
    • 12.5.4. Robotics
    • 12.5.5. Automotive and other vehicles
      • 12.5.5.1. Standard automotive electronics
      • 12.5.5.2. Electric bicycles
      • 12.5.5.3. New energy vehicles
      • 12.5.5.4. Electric trains, ships and planes
  • 12.6. Substitution of other magnet technologies
  • 12.7. Trends in permanent magnets
  • 12.8. Outlook for rare earths in permanent magnets

13. Catalysts

  • 13.1. Consumption of rare earths in catalysts
  • 13.2. Catalytic cracking
    • 13.2.1. Trends in crude oil refining
  • 13.3. Auto catalysts
    • 13.3.1. Trends in auto catalysts
  • 13.4. Producers of rare earth catalyst products
  • 13.5. Outlook for rare earths in catalysts

14. Polishing

  • 14.1. Consumption of rare earths in polishing
  • 14.2. Traditional glass polishing
  • 14.3. Electronic components and high precision polishing
  • 14.4. Producers of rare earth polishing powder
  • 14.5. Outlook for rare earths in polishing

15. Batteries

  • 15.1. Consumption of rare earths in NiMH battery alloy
  • 15.2. Applications for NiMH batteries
  • 15.3. Producers of NiMH battery alloy
  • 15.4. Recycling/reuse of rare earths in NiMH battery alloy
  • 15.5. Research and development for rare earths in NiMH batteries
  • 15.6. Trends in NiMH battery production and consumption
  • 15.7. Outlook for rare earths in NiMH batteries

16. Metallurgy

  • 16.1. Consumption of rare earths in metallurgy
  • 16.2. Steel additives
    • 16.2.1. Trends in crude steel production
  • 16.3. Iron additives
    • 16.3.1. Trends in global castings production
  • 16.4. Other metallurgical applications
  • 16.5. Outlook for rare earths in metallurgy

17. Glass

  • 17.1. Consumption of rare earths in glass
  • 17.2. Display screens
  • 17.3. Optical glass
    • 17.3.1. La-series glass
    • 17.3.2. Optical fibre amplifiers
  • 17.4. Other glass applications
  • 17.5. Outlook for rare earths in glass additives

18. Ceramics

  • 18.1. Consumption of rare earths in advanced ceramics and refractories
  • 18.2. Yttria-stabilised zirconia
    • 18.2.1. Types of stabilised zirconia
      • 18.2.1.1. Fully stabilised zirconia (FSZ)
      • 18.2.1.2. Partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ)
      • 18.2.1.3. Transformation toughened zirconia (TTZ)
      • 18.2.1.4. Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP)
    • 18.2.2. Production of stabilised zirconia
      • 18.2.2.1. Fused zirconia
      • 18.2.2.2. Chemical zirconia
      • 18.2.2.3. Producers of zirconia
    • 18.2.3. Applications for yttria-stabilised zirconia
  • 18.3. Silicon nitride
    • 18.3.1. Production of silicon nitride
      • 18.3.1.1. Hot pressed silicon nitride
      • 18.3.1.2. Sintered silicon nitride
    • 18.3.2. Ceramic hybrid bearing applications for silicon nitride
  • 18.4. SiAlON ceramics
    • 18.4.1. Production of SiAlON ceramics
    • 18.4.2. Applications for SiAlON ceramics
  • 18.5. Ceramic capacitors
  • 18.6. Refractories and crucibles
  • 18.7. Outlook for rare earths in advanced ceramics

19. Phosphors and pigments

  • 19.1. Consumption of rare earths in phosphors and pigments
    • 19.1.1. Consumption of rare earths in phosphors
      • 19.1.1.1. Trends in phosphors
    • 19.1.2. Consumption of rare earths in pigments
  • 19.2. Applications for rare earth phosphors
    • 19.2.1. General lighting
    • 19.2.2. LCD backlighting
    • 19.2.3. X-ray and medical phosphors
    • 19.2.4. Rare earth phosphors for other applications
  • 19.3. Producers of rare earths phosphors and co-precipitates
  • 19.4. Recycling of rare earths from fluorescent lamps
  • 19.5. Outlook for rare earths in phosphors and pigments

20. Other rare earth applications

  • 20.1. Fertilisers
  • 20.2. Textiles
  • 20.3. Water treatment
  • 20.4. Lasers
    • 20.4.1. Industrial applications for rare-earth-doped lasers
    • 20.4.2. Medical applications for rare-earth-doped lasers
    • 20.4.3. Fusion reactor applications for rare-earth-doped lasers
  • 20.5. Nuclear Reactors
    • 20.5.1. Neutron absorbers in nuclear reactors
  • 20.6. Nuclear batteries
  • 20.7. Radiography
  • 20.8. Magnetic refrigeration
  • 20.9. Superconductors
  • 20.10. Magnetostrictive alloys
  • 20.11. Jewellery
  • 20.12. Electron microscopes
  • 20.13. Microwave applications
  • 20.14. Self-cleaning ovens
  • 20.15. Medical uses
  • 20.16. Cement additives
  • 20.17. Geology/Geochemistry
  • 20.18. Paints/coating additives
  • 20.19. PVC stabilizers
  • 20.20. Outlook for rare earths in other applications

21. Company profiles

  • 21.1. Lynas Corporation
    • 21.1.1. Mt Weld
    • 21.1.2. Lynas Advanced Materials Plant
  • 21.2. Northern Minerals
    • 21.2.1. Browns Range
    • 21.2.2. John Galt
    • 21.2.3. Boulder Ridge
  • 21.3. Hastings Technology Metals
    • 21.3.1. Yangibana
    • 21.3.2. Brockman
  • 21.4. Alkane Resources
  • 21.5. Arafura Resources
  • 21.6. Treibacher Industrie
  • 21.7. CBMM
    • 21.7.1. Araxá
  • 21.8. Serra Verde
  • 21.9. Rainbow Rare Earths
  • 21.10. Commerce Resources
  • 21.11. Rare Earths Salts
  • 21.12. Torngat Metals
  • 21.13. Biolantanidos
  • 21.14. China Northern Rare Earth Group
    • 21.14.1. Mining
    • 21.14.2. Processing
  • 21.15. Chinalco
    • 21.15.1. China Rare Earth (Chinalco Rare Earth Group)
    • 21.15.2. Chinalco Rare Earths (Jiangsu)
    • 21.15.3. Chinalco Rare Earths (Guangxi)
    • 21.15.4. Chinalco Rare Earths (Sichuan)
    • 21.15.5. Chinalco Rare Earths (Shandong)
    • 21.15.6. Chinalco Shangdong Inove strong Magnet Material
  • 21.16. China Southern Rare Earth Group
  • 21.17. Minmetals Rare Earth Group
  • 21.18. Guangdong Rare Earth Group
  • 21.19. Xiamen Tungsten
  • 21.20. Solvay
  • 21.21. Greenland Minerals
  • 21.22. Tanbreez
  • 21.23. India Rare Earths
    • 21.23.1. MoPP (Monazite Processing) plant
    • 21.23.2. Aluva plant
  • 21.24. Toyota Tsusho
    • 21.24.1. Toyota Tsusho Material Inc.
  • 21.25. Summit Atom Rare Earth Company
  • 21.26. Mkango Resources
  • 21.27. Yara International
  • 21.28. REEtec
  • 21.29. Solikamsk Magnesium Works
  • 21.30. Three Arc Mining
  • 21.31. Steenkampskraal Rare Earths
  • 21.32. Peak Resources
  • 21.33. MP Materials
  • 21.34. Neo Performance Materials
    • 21.34.1. Silmet plant
    • 21.34.2. Zibo and Jiangyin plants
    • 21.34.3. Tianjin and Korat plants
  • 21.35. UCore
    • 21.35.1. Bokan-Dotson Ridge
  • 21.36. Thaiduong Group
  • 21.37. Vietnam Rare Earths JSC
  • 21.38. Vietnam Rare Earth Company

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Consumption of rare earths by end-use segment, 2013-2028
  • Table 2: World production of rare earths by region, 2011-2018
  • Table 3: World production of rare earths by element, 2011-2018
  • Table 4: World: Estimated rare earths markets by region, 2018
  • Table 5: Estimated total value of the rare earths market, 2010-2018
  • Table 6: Historical supply demand balance by element, 2010-2018
  • Table 7: China: Imports of RE ores and concentrates, 2010-Q2 2018
  • Table 8: Exports of mislabelled rare earth concentrates, 2010-Q2 2018
  • Table 9: France: Solvay rare earth processing plant, 2010-Q2 2018
  • Table 10: Estonia: Silmet rare earth processing plant, 2010-Q2 2018
  • Table 11: Russian and Kazakhstan exports of rare earth compounds, 2010-Q2 2018
  • Table 12: World: Exports of rare earth compounds other than cerium, 2010-2018
  • Table 13: World: Imports of rare earth compounds other than cerium, 2010-2018
  • Table 14: World: Exports of cerium compounds, 2010-2018
  • Table 15: World: Imports of cerium compounds by country, 2010-2018
  • Table 16: World: Exports of rare earth metals (including scandium), 2010-2018
  • Table 17: Vietnam: Imports of RE compounds and exports of RE metals, 2010-2018
  • Table 18: World: Imports of rare earth metals (including scandium), 2010-2018
  • Table 19: China: Quarterly exports of rare earths by type, Q2 2016-Q1 2018
  • Table 20: China: Export of lanthanum oxides and carbonates, 2010-2018
  • Table 21: China: Exports of cerium compounds by country, 2010-2018
  • Table 22: Significant historical events that have affected rare earth prices
  • Table 23: Annual average China FOB price of rare earth oxides, 2010-2018
  • Table 24: Quarterly China FOB price of rare earth oxides, 2013-2018
  • Table 25: Forecast rare earth supply by producer, 2018-2028
  • Table 26: Rare earth supply by element, 2018-2028
  • Table 27: World: Estimated rare earths markets by region, 2028
  • Table 28: Forecast supply-demand balance for lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium and
  • neodymium, 2018-2028
  • Table 29: Forecast supply-demand balance for samarium, europium and gadolinium,
  • 2018-2028
  • Table 30: Forecast supply-demand balance for heavy rare earth elements, 2018-2028
  • Table 31: China: Forecast annual average FOB price of rare earth oxides, 2018-2028
  • Table 32: Formulae of major minerals containing rare earths
  • Table 33: Rare earth content of major source minerals
  • Table 34: World: Reserves of rare earths (excluding yttrium) 2018
  • Table 35: Reported mineral resource and reserve estimates at operations and projects in
  • development by country, Oct 2018
  • Table 36: Reported resource and reserves at non-Chinese rare earth operations and projects,
  • Oct 2018
  • Table 37: Estimated world reserves of yttrium, 2018
  • Table 38: Australia: Summary statistics, 2009-2018
  • Table 39: Australia: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 40: Australia: Rare earth resources and reserves at selected projects, 2018
  • Table 41: Austria: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 42: Belgium: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 43: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 44: Brazil: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 45: Canada: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 46: Canada: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 47: Canadian mineral resource data,2018
  • Table 48: Chile: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 49: China: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 50: China: Reserves reported by six main rare earth groups, 2017
  • Table 51: China: Rare earth distribution for major ores
  • Table 52: China: Six RE Groups: mining and separation capacity, 2018
  • Table 53: China: Quota, capacity and output of the six SOE groups, 2018
  • Table 54: China: Rare earth mining quota, 2014-2018
  • Table 55: Rare earth separation and mining quota allocation, 2016-2018
  • Table 56: China: Consolidating areas by the six enterprises
  • Table 57: China: Resource tax rates by production area, 2015
  • Table 58: China: Evolution of resource tax rates
  • Table 59: Introduction of Chinese environmental legislation and amendments since 2015
  • Table 60: China: Rare earth commercial stockpile in 2016/17
  • Table 61: China: SRB stockpiling activity in 2016/17
  • Table 62: Estonia: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 63: Estonia: Overview of operations
  • Table 64: Estonia: Compounds produced at Molycorp Silmet facilities
  • Table 65: France: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 66: Major rare earth bearing autocatalyst washcoat products, 2018
  • Table 67: Germany: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 68: Greenland: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 69: Greenland mineral resource data,2018
  • Table 70: India: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 71: India: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 72: Japan: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 73: Japan: Imports of rare earth compounds from China, 2013-2018
  • Table 74: Companies licenced to manufacture Hitachi patented NdFeB magnet products,
  • 2016
  • Table 75: Nippon Yttrium: Co-precipitate rare earth products
  • Table 76: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 77: Kazakhstan: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 78: Malawi: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 79: Malaysia: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 80: Malaysia: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 81: Madagascar: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 82: Namibia: Overview of projects
  • Table 83: Netherlands: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 84: Norway: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 85: Russia: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 86: Russia: Overview of operations
  • Table 87: Spain: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 88: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 89: South Africa: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 90: Korea, South: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 91: Sweden: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 92: Sweden: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 93: Taiwan: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 94: Tanzania: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 95: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 96: Turkey: Overview of selected projects
  • Table 97: UK: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 98: USA: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 99: USA: Imports of rare earth products from China, 2012-2018
  • Table 100: USA mineral resource data,2018
  • Table 101: USA: Overview of operations and selected projects
  • Table 102: Vietnam: Summary statistics, 2012-2018
  • Table 103: Summary of rare earth reserves and resources in Vietnam, 2016
  • Table 104: Comparison of magnet strength, operating temperature and coercivity
  • Table 105: Summary comparison of permanent magnet types
  • Table 106: Sintered vs. bonded NdFeB permanent magnets
  • Table 107: China: Top-10 NdFeB magnet manufacturers, 2018 (tpy)
  • Table 108: China: Producers of SmCo permanent magnets, 2018
  • Table 109: Rest of World: Rare earth permanent magnet and magnet alloy producers (2018)
  • Table 110: Generator systems for wind turbines
  • Table 111: Japan: Permanent magnet motors by Toshiba used in trains (2016)
  • Table 112: Announced national/local targets
  • Table 113: World: Demand for refinery products, 2014-2040
  • Table 114: The function of rare earths in auto catalysts
  • Table 115: EU: Emission standards for passenger vehicles
  • Table 116: EU passenger vehicle CO2 emissions targets, 1998-2030
  • Table 117: USA & California emission standards for ICE passenger cars (g/km): values given
  • for cars at 50k miles (5 years) & cars at 100k miles (10 years)
  • Table 118: USA: Projected fleet-wide CO2 & fuel economy compliance levels, 2018-2025
  • Table 119: China: Implementation dates of emission standards for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 120: Japanese emissions standards for diesel passenger cars
  • Table 121: World (excluding China): Major oil refining catalyst producers, 2016
  • Table 122: World (excluding China): Major auto catalyst producers
  • Table 123: China: Catalyst producers, 2017
  • Table 124: World: Rare earth polishing powder producers, 2018
  • Table 125: Typical metal hydride system compositions for use in NiMH batteries
  • Table 126: World: Major producers of NiMH alloy
  • Table 127: World: Production of castings by country and type, 2016 (kt)
  • Table 128: Main applications for castings by type
  • Table 129: Selected applications for rare earths in the advanced ceramics industry
  • Table 130: Properties of zirconia ceramics
  • Table 131: World: Producers of zirconia by company and country
  • Table 132: Typical rare earths used in phosphors by end-use
  • Table 133: Consumption of HREE in fluorescent lamps vs LEDs
  • Table 134: Typical composition of tri-colour fluorescent phosphors
  • Table 135: Typical composition of LED phosphors
  • Table 136: Typical compositions of rare earth phosphors in displays
  • Table 137: World: Major producers of rare earth phosphors
  • Table 138: Summary of other rare earth applications
  • Table 139: Key information: Lynas Corporation
  • Table 140: Lynas: Annual production from LAMP 2014-2018
  • Table 141: Key information: Northern Minerals
  • Table 142: Browns Range: Resources and reserves
  • Table 143: Key information: Hastings Technology Metals
  • Table 144: Yanibana: Resources and reserves
  • Table 145: Key information: Alkane Resources
  • Table 146: Dubbo Zirconia: Resources and reserves
  • Table 147: Dubbo Zirconia project REE processing output
  • Table 148: Key information: Arafura Resources
  • Table 149: Nolans: Mineral resources, November 2018
  • Table 150: Arafura scheduled production capacity by product, November 2018
  • Table 151: Treibacher AG rare earth element product list, 2018
  • Table 152: Key Information: Treibacher AG
  • Table 153: Key Information: CBMM
  • Table 154: Key Information: Mineração Serra Verde
  • Table 155: Serra Verde: resources and reserves
  • Table 156: Key Information: Rainbow Rare Earths
  • Table 157: Rainbow RE: Gakara project operational data, Q1 2018-Q3 2018
  • Table 158: Key Information: Commerce Resources
  • Table 159: Ashram: Resources and reserves
  • Table 160: Key Information: Rare Earth Salts
  • Table 161: Planned output from Rare Earth Salts (3,500tpy REO) facility
  • Table 162: Key Information: Torngat Metals
  • Table 163: Key Information: Biolantanidos
  • Table 164: CNRE: Mining quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 165: CNRE: Separation quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 166: CNRE: Separation plants and their capacity, 2017
  • Table 167: CNRE: Subsidiaries and operations producing downstream RE products and
  • services, 2018
  • Table 168: Chinalco Rare Earth Group: Mining activity 2018
  • Table 169: Chinalco Rare Earth Group: Mining quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 170: Chinalco Rare Earth Group: Separation plants, 2018
  • Table 171: Chinalco Rare Earth Group: Separation quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 172: CSREG: Mining assets in 2018
  • Table 173: CSREG: Mining quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 174: CSREG: Separating plants in 2017
  • Table 175: CSREG: Separation quota and annual production, 2014-2017
  • Table 176: Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Mining assets in 2018
  • Table 177: China Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Mining quota and annual production,
  • 2014-2018
  • Table 178: China Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Separating plants in 2017
  • Table 179: China Minmetals Rare Earth Group: Separation quota and annual production,
  • 2014-2018
  • Table 180: GREG: Mining assets in 2018
  • Table 181: GREG: Mining quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 182: GREG: Separating plants, 2017
  • Table 183: GREG: Production of rare earth concentrate, oxides and metals 2017
  • Table 184: GREG: Separation quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 185: Xiamen Tungsten: Mining Assets in 2018
  • Table 186: Xiamen Tungsten: Mining quota and annual production, 2014-2018
  • Table 187: Separation quota and production 2014-2018
  • Table 188: Key Information: Solvay
  • Table 189: Key Information: Greenland Minerals and Energy
  • Table 190: Kvanefjeld: Resources and reserves
  • Table 191: Key Information: Tanbreez
  • Table 192: Key Information: Greenland Minerals and Energy
  • Table 193: Key Information: Toyota Tsusho Material
  • Table 194: Key Information: Mkango Resources
  • Table 195: Songwe: Resources and reserves
  • Table 196: Key Information: Yara International
  • Table 197: Key Information: Yara International
  • Table 198: Key Information: Solikamsk Magnesium Works
  • Table 199: Key Information: Three Arc Mining
  • Table 200: Key Information: Steenkampskraal Ltd.
  • Table 201: Steenkampskraal: Resources and reserves
  • Table 202: Key Information: Peak Resources
  • Table 203: Ngualla: Resources and reserves
  • Table 204: MP Materials: Mountain Pass
  • Table 205: Mountain Pass: Resources and reserves
  • Table 206: Production from Mountain Pass, 2014-2018
  • Table 207: Key information: Neo Performance Materials
  • Table 208: Neo Performance Materials: Sales from business segments, 2016-2018
  • Table 209: Key information: Neo Performance Materials
  • Table 210: Key information: Zibo plant
  • Table 211: Key information: Jiangyin plant
  • Table 212: Key information: Molycorp Magnequench (Tianjin)
  • Table 213: Key information: Molycorp Magnequench (Korat)
  • Table 214: Key information: Ucore Rare Metals
  • Table 215: Bokan-Dotson Ridge: Resources and reserves
  • Table 216: Key information: Thaiduong Group
  • Table 217: Key information: Vietnam Rare Earths JSC
  • Table 218: Vietnam Rare Earth JSC product list, 2017
  • Table 219: Key information: Vietnam Rare Earth Co.

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World map of rare earth deposits
  • Figure 2: Global historical and forecast production of rare earth elements by region, 2005-2028
  • Figure 3: World: Rare earths demand by application, 2018
  • Figure 4: World: Rare earths demand by region, 2010-2028
  • Figure 5: Proportional consumption of rare earth elements, 2010-2018 (supply/demand)
  • Figure 6: Proportional consumption of rare earth elements, 2018-2028 (supply/demand)
  • Figure 7: Quarterly China rare earth oxide prices, Q1 2013-Q4 2018
  • Figure 8: China: Forecast nominal annual FOB prices of praseodymium, neodymium and NdPr oxides, 2018-2028
  • Figure 9: World map of rare earth deposits, production and trade flow
  • Figure 10: Rare earths flowchart, 2018
  • Figure 11: World production of rare earths, 1985-2018
  • Figure 12: World mine production of rare earths, 2008-2018
  • Figure 13: World production of rare earths by operations, Chinese province, 2018
  • Figure 14: Historical rare earth demand by region, 2000-2018
  • Figure 15: World: Year-on-year growth in rare earth consumption, 2011-2018
  • Figure 16: Estimated rare earths consumption by end-use, 2018
  • Figure 17: Historical rare earth consumption by application, 2010-2018
  • Figure 18: World: Year-on-year growth in rare earth consumption by application, 2010-2018
  • Figure 19: Estimated rare earths composition by end-use, 2018
  • Figure 20: World: Rare earths consumption by element, 2010-2018
  • Figure 21: Estimated rare earths consumption value by end-use, 2018
  • Figure 22: Estimated rare earths consumption value by element, 2018
  • Figure 23: Global supply and demand of rare earth elements, 2005-2018
  • Figure 24: Proportional consumption of rare earth elements, 2010-2018 (supply/demand)
  • Figure 25: China: Total exports of rare earths with export quota, 2005-2018
  • Figure 26: Ex-China primary rare earth production entering trade, 2010-2018
  • Figure 27: World: Exports of cerium compounds by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 28: Unit value of cerium compounds by country, 2009-2018
  • Figure 29: Japan: Imports of cerium compounds by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 30: USA: Imports of cerium compounds by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 31: Rare earths world map and trade flow, 2017
  • Figure 32: Quarterly China rare earth oxide prices, Q1 2013-Q4 2018
  • Figure 33: Forecast world supply of rare earths, 2018-2028
  • Figure 34: Global rare earth production and y-on-y change, 2018-2028
  • Figure 35: Forecast rare earth growth by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 36: World: Forecast rare earth demand by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 37: Forecast rare earth growth by application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 38: Forecast demand for rare earths by application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 39: Forecast rare earths consumption by element, 2018-2028
  • Figure 40: World: Estimated rare earths consumption value by element, 2028
  • Figure 41: World: Estimated rare earths consumption value by end-use, 2028
  • Figure 42: Global supply, demand and market balance forecast, 2018-2028
  • Figure 43: Forecast proportional consumption of rare earth elements, 2018-2028 (supply/demand)
  • Figure 44: China: Forecast nominal annual FOB prices of praseodymium, neodymium and NdPr oxides, 2018-2028
  • Figure 45: China: Forecast nominal annual FOB prices of lanthanum and cerium oxides, 2018-2028
  • Figure 46: China: Forecast nominal annual FOB prices of europium, terbium and dysprosium oxides, 2018-2028
  • Figure 47: China: Reserves of rare earths by Group, 2017
  • Figure 48: Baiyun Obo simplified rare earth processing sheet for bastnaesite ore
  • Figure 49: Pond and pile method flowsheet for South Chinese ion adsorption clay
  • Figure 50: Generalised flowsheet for monazite recovery from heavy mineral sands
  • Figure 51 method: Ion adsorption: Simplified diagram of the displacement chromatography
  • Figure 52: China: Quarterly exports of rare earth compounds, excluding cerium compounds, by major trade partner, Q1 2016-Q3 2018
  • Figure 53: Estimated historical illegal production in China by major production region, 2007-2018
  • Figure 54: Quarterly volume and unit value of Chinese imports of rare earth compounds from Myanmar, Q1 2014-Q1 2018
  • Figure 55: Imports of cerium compounds, 2012-2018
  • Figure 56: Imports of other rare earth compounds, 2012-2018
  • Figure 57: Imports of rare earth metals and alloys, 2012-2018
  • Figure 58: Capabilities of Shin-Etsu rare earth facilities in manufacturing rare earth magnets
  • Figure 59: Malaysia: Exports of rare earth compounds, 2012-2018
  • Figure 60: Rare earth consumption in NdFeB and SmCo, 2010-2018
  • Figure 61: Rare earths consumption in NdFeB and SmCo by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 62: Rare earth consumption in magnets by element, 2010-2018
  • Figure 63: Development of permanent magnet strength
  • Figure 64: Market share of permanent magnet production by type, 2018
  • Figure 65: Simplified recycling flow sheet for rare earth permanent magnets
  • Figure 66: Uptake of metal AM machines, 2010-2017 (units sold)
  • Figure 67: World: Applications for NdFeB permanent magnets, 2018
  • Figure 68: World: Historic consumption of NdFeB by application, 2005-2018
  • Figure 69: World: Quarterly shipments of HDDs, Q4 2010-Q2 2018
  • Figure 70: Mobile phone, smartphone and tablet shipments, 2010-2018
  • Figure 71: World: Demand for air-conditioning units by country, 2010-2017
  • Figure 72: Forecast cumulative increase in wind power capacity by region, 2010-2022
  • Figure 73: World: New wind turbine capacity installations, 2017
  • Figure 74: World: Cumulative offshore wind power capacity by country, 2011-2017
  • Figure 75: Magnet applications in vehicles, ferrite (grey) vs. NdFeB (blue)
  • Figure 76: World: Production of motor vehicles, 2010-2018
  • Figure 77: World: Forecast production of e-bikes, 2016-2025
  • Figure 78: Toyota HEV sales, 2005-2017
  • Figure 79: Electrified vehicle sales by region, 2005-2018
  • Figure 80: Electric vehicle sales by type, 2005-2018
  • Figure 81: Motor technology use in NEVs, 2018
  • Figure 82: Forecast electric vehicle sales by region, 2018-2028 (million units sold)
  • Figure 83: Forecast consumption of rare earths in magnets by region, 2018-2030
  • Figure 84: Forecast consumption of rare earths in magnets by element, 2018-2028
  • Figure 85: Rare earth consumption in catalysts 2018
  • Figure 86: Rare earth consumption in catalysts by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 87: Rare earth consumption in catalysts by type, 2010-2018
  • Figure 88: Crude oil distillation of top 10 catalytic cracking capacity countries, 2018
  • Figure 89: US: FCC and CHC capacities, 2010-2018
  • Figure 90: World: Monthly oil production by country, 2010-2018
  • Figure 91: Global oil demand outlook by sector, 2017-2025
  • Figure 92: USA: Monthly crude oil production by source, January 2010-September 2018
  • Figure 93: North America: Weekly drill rig count by type, January 2010-September 2018
  • Figure 94: World: Outlook of conventional and tight oil production, 2017-2023
  • Figure 95: World: Production of HEV and ICE motor vehicles, 2005-2018
  • Figure 96: Forecast production of HEV and ICE motor vehicles, 2018-2028
  • Figure 97: Forecast REO use in catalyst applications, 2018-2028
  • Figure 98: Forecast consumption of rare earths in catalysts by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 99: World: Consumption of rare earths in polishing by element, 2018
  • Figure 100: World: Consumption of rare earths in polishing by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 101: World: Forecast demand for cerium by end-use application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 102: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in polishing by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 103: Rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries 2018
  • Figure 104: Rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries by sector, 2010-2018
  • Figure 105: Battery type used in HEV models, 2018
  • Figure 106: Rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 107: World: Demand for NiMH batteries by application, 2010-2018
  • Figure 108: World: Toyota hybrid electric vehicle sales by battery type, 2000-2017
  • Figure 109: World: Estimated production of rechargeable batteries, 2010-2023
  • Figure 110: Japan: Sales of secondary batteries by type, 2013-2018
  • Figure 111: World: Forecast HEV battery market share, 2017-2028
  • Figure 112: Forecast NiMH battery production by application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 113: Rare earth consumption in NiMH batteries by application, 2018-2028
  • Figure 114: Consumption of rare earths in metallurgy, 2018
  • Figure 115: Consumption of rare earths in metallurgy, by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 116: World: Production of crude steel 2010-2028
  • Figure 117: World: Production of castings by type, 2007-2017
  • Figure 118: World: Regional production of castings, 2007-2017
  • Figure 119: Forecast demand for rare earths in metallurgy, by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 120: World: Consumption of rare earths in glass by element, 2018
  • Figure 121: World: Consumption of rare earths in glass by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 122: World: Consumption of rare earths in glass by element, 2010-2018
  • Figure 123: World: Shipments of 3C electronics, 2010-2018
  • Figure 124: Annual television shipments, 2010-2018
  • Figure 125: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in glass by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 126: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in glass by element, 2018-2028
  • Figure 127: World: Consumption of rare earths in ceramics by element, 2018
  • Figure 128: World: Consumption of rare earths in ceramics by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 129: World: Consumption of rare earths in ceramics by element, 2010-2018
  • Figure 130: World: Estimated production of zirconia, 2010-2018
  • Figure 131: Forecast demand for rare earths in ceramics, by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 132: World: Consumption of rare earths in phosphors and pigments by element, 2018
  • Figure 133: World: Consumption of rare earths in phosphors and pigments by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 134: World: Consumption of rare earths in phosphors and pigments by element, 2010-2018
  • Figure 135: World: Shipments of lamps by type, 2010-2018
  • Figure 136: World: Production of ceramic tiles, 2010-2018
  • Figure 137: LED systems used to produce white light
  • Figure 138: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in phosphors and pigments by element, 2017-2027
  • Figure 139: World: Forecast demand for rare earths in phosphors and pigments, 2017-2027
  • Figure 140: World: Consumption of rare earths in other applications, 2018
  • Figure 141: Consumption of rare earths in other applications, by region, 2010-2018
  • Figure 142: Forecast demand for rare earths in other applications, by region, 2018-2028
  • Figure 143: Lynas: Annual production from LAMP 2014-2018
  • Figure 144: Malaysian exports of RE compounds by major trade routes, 2014-2018*
  • Figure 145: CBMM: Araxá rare earth production, 2013-2018
  • Figure 146: SMW: Production of rare earth carbonate, 2008-2018
  • Figure 147: Estonian quarterly RE compound imports by origin, Q1 2014- Q3 2018
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