表紙:クロム:2031年までの展望(第17版)
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クロム:2031年までの展望(第17版)

Chromium - Outlook to 2031, 17th Edition

出版日: | 発行: Roskill Information Services | ページ情報: 英文 | 納期: 即日から翌営業日

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クロム:2031年までの展望(第17版)
出版日: 2021年06月22日
発行: Roskill Information Services
ページ情報: 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

クロムは、現在経済的に存在する唯一の鉱物であるクロマイトを原料としています。クロム鉱は、工業用の鋳物や耐火物に直接使用されたり、重クロム酸ナトリウムに変換されて他の化学物質や金属クロムに精製されたりしますが、主な消費は鉄鋼業で使用される合金を製造するフェロクロム炉となっています。クロム消費量の95%以上は冶金用途に起因しており、ステンレス鋼だけで78%を占めています。

COVID-19パンデミックは、クロムのサプライチェーン全体に様々な地域的影響を及ぼしたが、年後半に中国のステンレス鋼生産量が記録的な月次レベルまで回復したことが、回復傾向を後押ししたといえます。2020年のクロム総需要は前年比で6%近く減少したと推定されますが、回復傾向にあることから、2021年の需要は2019年のレベルを上回り、2022年にはCOVID-19以前の動向に戻ると考えられています。需要の回復とコストの上昇により、クロム製品の価格は、1年以上にわたる市場の沈滞と供給過剰を経て、上昇に転じました。

当レポートは、世界のクロム市場について調査しており、市場の動向、価格の見通し・予測、生産および製造コスト、消費、貿易、国および企業別のプロファイルなどの情報を提供しています。

目次

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

  • 市場概要
  • クロム需要
  • フェロクロム
  • クロマイト鉱石と精鉱
  • 特殊グレードのクロマイトおよびニッチ市場
  • クロムの価格と見通し
    • 過去の動向
    • コスト主導の価格と短期予測
    • 中長期的な価格予測

第2章 クロムのフローチャート

第3章 世界の生産

  • クロマイト鉱石と精鉱
    • グレード別のクロマイト供給
    • クロマイト生産能力
    • UG2クロマイト供給
  • 高炭素フェロクロムとチャージクロム
    • グレード別の高炭素フェロクロム生産
    • 高炭素フェロクロム生産能力
  • 中炭素および低炭素のフェロクロム生産
    • 低炭素および中炭素のフェロクロム生産能力
  • クロム化学物質
  • クロム金属

第4章 製造コスト

  • クロム鉱石
    • UG2クロマイトのコスト
    • クロム鉱石の生産コストの動向
  • 高炭素および帯電フェロクロム
    • 高炭素およびチャージフェロクロムの製造コストの動向

第5章 世界の消費

  • クロマイトの消費
  • フェロクロムとスクラップの消費
  • 化学物質の消費
  • クロム金属の消費

第6章 国際貿易

  • クロマイト鉱石と精鉱の取引
    • 2020年の鉱石と精鉱の貿易フロー
    • 中国の港湾在庫
  • フェロクロムの下取り
    • 高炭素フェロクロム&チャージクロム
    • 中炭素および低炭素フェロクロム
    • 2020年のフェロクロム貿易の流れ
  • フェロシリコクロムの取引
    • 2020年のフェロシリコクロムの貿易フロー
  • クロム化学物質の取引
    • 二クロム酸ナトリウム
    • 硫酸クロム
    • 三酸化クロムとクロム酸
    • その他の酸化クロム
  • 金属クロムの取引
    • クロム金属の貿易の流れ

第7章 価格

  • 冶金グレードのクロマイトの価格
    • 特殊グレードの鉱石
  • 高炭素フェロクロムとチャージクロムの価格
  • 中炭素および低炭素フェロクロムの価格
  • クロム化学薬品の価格
  • クロム金属の価格

第8章 展望

  • クロム市場のバランス
  • 需要見通し
  • 供給見通し
    • 一次供給と二次供給
    • フェロクロム供給の見通し
    • クロマイト供給の見通し
  • 価格見通し
    • クロマイト価格の見通し
    • HCFeCrの価格見通し
    • LCFeCr価格予測
    • クロム化学薬品と金属価格の見通し

第9章 背景

  • 発生
  • 埋蔵量と資源
  • クロム鉱石の採掘
    • クロマイトのグレード
  • フェロクロムの処理
    • フェロクロムのグレード
    • 高炭素フェロクロムとチャージクロムの加工
    • 低炭素フェロクロムの処理
  • クロム薬品の処理
    • 二クロム酸ナトリウム
    • その他のクロム酸塩および二クロム酸塩化学物質
    • クロム酸
    • 塩基性硫酸クロム
    • 酸化クロム
  • 金属クロムの処理

第10章 持続可能性

  • 環境、社会、ガバナンス(ESG)
    • 環境
    • ソーシャル
    • ガバナンス
  • 重要な原材料
  • 責任ある調達イニシアチブ
    • 経済協力開発機構(OECD)
    • Global Reporting Initiative
    • Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance
    • Responsible Mining Index
    • Responsible Steel Stewardship Initiative

第11章 国別プロファイル

  • アフガニスタン
  • アルバニア
  • オーストラリア
  • バーレーン
  • ボツワナ
  • ブラジル
  • カナダ
  • 中国
    • フェロクロム
    • クロム化学物質
    • クロム金属
    • ポリシーとフェロクロム生産能力への影響
  • コートジボワール
  • フィンランド
  • フランス
  • ドイツ
  • インド
  • インドネシア
  • イラン
  • イタリア
  • 日本
  • カザフスタン
  • コソボ
  • マダガスカル
  • マレーシア
  • モーリタニア
  • メキシコ
  • ミャンマー
  • ニューカレドニア
  • ナイジェリア
  • オマーン
  • パキスタン
  • パプアニューギニア
  • フィリピン
  • ポーランド
  • ルーマニア
  • ロシア
  • スロバキア
  • 南アフリカ
    • 一次鉱山供給(LG/MG)
    • UG2
    • スペシャリティグレード
    • フェロクロム
    • 化学薬品
    • プロジェクト
    • 電気とEskom
  • スペイン
  • スーダン
  • スウェーデン
  • トルコ
  • アラブ首長国連邦
  • 英国
  • ウルグアイ
  • 米国
  • ベトナム
  • ジンバブエ

第12章 企業プロファイル

  • Afarak
    • 南アフリカ(ビジネスレスキュー中)
    • トルコ
    • ドイツ
  • Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals Plant
  • AMG Superalloys UK
  • Anglo American Platinum
  • Assore
  • CITIC Jinzhou Metal
  • Delachaux (DCX) Chrome
  • Eastern Platinum (Eastplats)
  • Elementis Chromium
  • Fushun Ferroalloy
  • Glencore-Merafe
  • Hubei Zhenhua Chemical
  • Indian Metals and Ferro Alloys (IMFA)
  • Kazchrome (ERG)
  • MidUral Group - Russian Super Alloys (RSAMG)
    • Russian Chrome Chemicals 1915
    • Dirox
    • FW Winter
  • Mintal
  • Novotroitsk Chromium Compounds Plant
  • Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC)
  • Outokumpu
  • Samancor Chrome
    • IFM South Africa(2016年買収)
    • ASA Metals (2017年買収)
    • Hernic(2019買収)
  • Sail Group
  • Sibanye-Stillwater
  • Sichuan Yinhe Chemical
  • Soda Sanayii
    • Kromsan
    • Cromital
  • Tata Steel
  • Tharisa
  • Tsingshan
  • Vishnu Chemicals
  • Xin Ganglian
  • Yildirim Group / Yilmaden Holding
    • Eti Krom
    • Tikhvin Ferroalloy Plant (TFP)
    • Vargön Alloys
    • Voskhod
    • YilKrom

第13章 先制使用の用途における消費

  • ステンレス鋼
    • ステンレス鋼のクロム
    • ステンレス鋼のグレード
    • 最終用途
    • 見掛消費
    • 過去のステンレス鋼の生産
    • ステンレス鋼スクラップ
    • ステンレス鋼の見通し
  • その他の合金鋼および非鉄合金
    • 他の鉄鋼用途でのクロムの消費
    • 炭素鋼
    • 合金エンジニアリング鋼
    • 工具および高速度鋼
    • 高性能合金
    • マイナーな冶金用途
    • 過去の原油生産
    • 原油生産の見通し
  • クロム化学物質
    • 化学物質中のクロムの消費
    • 革のなめし
    • クロームメタル
    • 金属仕上げ
    • 顔料
    • 木材防腐剤
    • クロム化学薬品のマイナーな用途
  • 鋳物砂
    • 鋳造所でのクロムの消費
    • 鋳物砂の種類
    • 世界の鋳物生産の動向
  • 耐火物
    • 耐火物中のクロムの消費
    • 耐火物の種類
    • 耐火物製造の動向
    • タイプ別生産

第14章 マクロ経済の見通し

図表

List of Tables

  • Table 1: World: Mine production of chromium ores and concentrates, 2015-2021
  • Table 2: World: Chromium ores and concentrates capacity, 2021
  • Table 3: World: High-carbon FeCr and charge chrome production, 2015-2021
  • Table 4: World: Ferrochrome capacity, 2021
  • Table 5: World: Ferrochrome capacity utilisation, 2020
  • Table 6: World: MLC FeCr production, 2015-2021
  • Table 7: World: MLC FeCr capacity, 2021
  • Table 8: World: Chromium chemicals production, 2015-2021
  • Table 9: World: Chromium chemicals capacity estimates, 2021
  • Table 10: World: Chromium metal production, 2015-2021
  • Table 11: World: Chromium metal capacity estimates, 2021
  • Table 12: Exchange rate developments in major chromium ore and ferrochrome producing countries, 2013-2021
  • Table 13: World: Consumption of chromium units, 2015-2021
  • Table 14: World: Consumption of chromium in steel alloys by type, 2015-2021
  • Table 15: World: Consumption of chromium chemicals by region and application, 2015-2021
  • Table 16: World: Apparent consumption of chrome metal, 2015-2020
  • Table 17: World: Exports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2015-2020
  • Table 18: World: Imports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2015-2020
  • Table 19: World: Exports of HC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Table 20: World: Imports of HC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Table 21: World: Exports of MLC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Table 22: World: Imports of MLC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Table 23: World: Exports of FeSiCr, 2015-2020
  • Table 24: World: Imports of ferro-silicon chromium, 2015-2020
  • Table 25: World: Exports of sodium dichromate, 2015-2020
  • Table 26: World: Imports of sodium dichromate, 2015-2020
  • Table 27: World: Exports of chromium trioxide, 2015-2020
  • Table 28: World: Imports of chromium trioxide, 2015-2020
  • Table 29: World: Exports of other chromium oxides, 2015-2020
  • Table 30: World: Imports of other chromium oxides, 2015-2020
  • Table 31: Exports of chromium metal, 2015-2020
  • Table 32: Imports of chromium metal, 2015-2020
  • Table 33: Quarterly Turkish lump and South African concentrate prices, Q1 2015-Q2 2021, CIF China
  • Table 34: Quarterly speciality-grade concentrate prices, Q1 2015-Q2 2021, FOB South Africa
  • Table 35: Quarterly HC FeCr prices, Q1 2015-Q2 2021
  • Table 36: Chromium market balance, 2015-2021
  • Table 37: World: Chromium demand outlook, 2021-2031
  • Table 38: World: Potential additional ferrochrome capacity to 2031
  • Table 39: World: Potential additional ore capacity to 2031
  • Table 40: Forecast average annual South African rand to US dollar exchange rate, 2021-2031
  • Table 41: Roskill's price forecasting methodology
  • Table 42: Chromite price forecast, 2021-2031
  • Table 43: Speciality-grade Chrome ores price forecast, 2021-2031
  • Table 44: Ferrochrome price forecasts, 2021-2031
  • Table 45: Sodium dichromate and chrome metal price forecasts, 2021-2031
  • Table 46: Physical properties of chromium
  • Table 47: Traditional classification of chrome ores
  • Table 48: Physical properties of chromium
  • Table 49: World: Resources of chromite
  • Table 50: USGS: Reserves of chromite
  • Table 51: Composition of typical chromite
  • Table 52: Comparison of typical UG2 and LG6 chromite concentrate composition
  • Table 53: Typical specifications for refractory-grade chromite
  • Table 54: Typical specifications for foundry-grade chromite
  • Table 55: Typical specifications for chemical-grade chromite
  • Table 56: Chromium to carbon ratio of steel alloys and ferrochrome
  • Table 57: Standard specifications for chromium ferroalloys
  • Table 58: Composition of charge chrome versus HC FeCr
  • Table 59: Typical ferrochrome compositions using various chrome ore feedstocks
  • Table 60: Chromium recovery and energy consumption for different furnaces
  • Table 61: Outotec: Technical specifications for chromite sintering furnaces
  • Table 62: Outotec: Sintering technology installed
  • Table 63: Comparison of reductant and ore consumption by process
  • Table 64: Formulae, molecular weights and chromium contents of selected chemicals
  • Table 65: Kromsan: Properties of anhydrous sodium dichromate
  • Table 66: Vishnu Chemicals: Properties of potassium dichromate
  • Table 67: Kromsan: Properties of chromic acid
  • Table 68: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals: Composition of chromium sulphate
  • Table 69: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals: Composition of metallurgical-grade chrome oxide
  • Table 70: LSM: Specifications for aluminothermic chromium metal
  • Table 71: Polema: Specifications for electrolytic chromium metal
  • Table 72: Chromium chemical industry and pollution comparison, 2011
  • Table 73: Chromium recovery and energy consumption for different furnaces
  • Table 74: Chromite production vs Human Freedom Index
  • Table 75: Chromite production vs Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Table 76: Chromite production vs World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index
  • Table 77: Critical raw materials identified by key Government bodies
  • Table 78: Responsible sourcing initiatives and policies, 2021
  • Table 79: OECD Due Diligence Guidance for minerals - 5-Step Framework for Upstream and Downstream Supply Chains
  • Table 80: Afghanistan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 81: Afghanistan: Details of operations
  • Table 82: Albania: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 83: Albania: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 84: Australia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 85: Australia: Details of operations and projects
  • Table 86: Bahrain: Details of project
  • Table 87: Botswana: Details of project
  • Table 88: Brazil: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 89: Brazil: Details of operations
  • Table 90: Canada: Classified chromium resources in Ring of Fire
  • Table 91: Canada: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 92: Canada: Details of projects
  • Table 93: China: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 94: China: List of HC FeCr producers and capacities, 2021
  • Table 95: China: List of HC FeCr projects, 2021
  • Table 96: China: List of major MLC FeCr producers, 2021
  • Table 97 : China: List of major chromium chemicals producers, 2021
  • Table 98: China: List of major chromium metal producers and capacities, 2021
  • Table 99: Côte d'Ivoire: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 100: Finland: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 101: Finland: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 102: France: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 103: France: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 104: Germany: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 105: Germany: Details of operations
  • Table 106: India: Reserves and resources of chromium ore by state, 2015
  • Table 107: India: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 108: India: Details of chromite operations
  • Table 109: India: Details of ferrochrome, chemicals and metal operations
  • Table 110: India: Details of projects
  • Table 111: Indonesia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 112: Indonesia: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 113: Iran: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 114: Iran: Details of operations
  • Table 115: Iran: Small-scale chromite producers
  • Table 116: Iran: Details of projects
  • Table 117: Italy: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 118: Italy: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 119: Japan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 120: Japan: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 121: Kazakhstan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 122: Kazakhstan: Details of operations
  • Table 123: Madagascar: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 124: Madagascar: Details of operations
  • Table 125: Mexico: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 126: Mexico: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 127: Oman: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 128: Oman: Details of operations
  • Table 129: Oman: Details of projects
  • Table 130: Pakistan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 131: Pakistan: Details of projects & operations
  • Table 132: Papua New Guinea: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 133: Philippines: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 134: Philippines: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 135: Poland: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 136: Poland: Details of operations
  • Table 137: Romania: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 138: Romania: Details of operations
  • Table 139: Details of Russia's main chromium deposits.
  • Table 140: Russia: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 141: Russia: Details of operations
  • Table 142: Russia: Details of projects
  • Table 143: South Africa: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 144: South Africa: Details of primary LG and MG chromite operations and projects
  • Table 145: South Africa: Details of UG2 chromite recovery plants
  • Table 146: South Africa: Details of speciality-grade processing plants
  • Table 147: South Africa: Details of ferrochrome operations
  • Table 148: South Africa: Details of chromium chemicals operations
  • Table 149: South Africa: Details of projects
  • Table 150: Spain: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 151: Spain: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 152: Sudan: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 153: Sudan: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 154: Sweden: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 155: Sweden: Details of operations
  • Table 156: Turkey: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 157: Turkey: Details of main operations
  • Table 158: UAE: Details of projects
  • Table 159: UAE: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 160: UAE: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 161: UK: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 162: UK: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 163: Uruguay: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 164: Uruguay: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 165: USA: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 166: USA: Details of projects and operations
  • Table 167: Vietnam: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 168: Vietnam: Details of operations
  • Table 169: Zimbabwe: Summary statistics, 2015-2020
  • Table 170: Zimbabwe: Details of ore operations and projects
  • Table 171: Zimbabwe: Details of ferrochrome operations and projects
  • Table 172: List of company profiles and product capacity
  • Table 173: Afarak
  • Table 174: Afarak: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 175: Afarak: South African resources and reserves (excluding Zeerust)
  • Table 176: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals Plant
  • Table 177: Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals Plant: Overview of capacities
  • Table 178: AMG Superalloys UK
  • Table 179: AMG: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 180: Amplats
  • Table 181: Amplats: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 182: Assore
  • Table 183: Assore: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 184: CITIC Jinzhou Metal
  • Table 185: CITIC Jinzhou Metal: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 186: DCX
  • Table 187: Eastern Platinum (Eastplats)
  • Table 188: Elementis Chromium
  • Table 189: Fushun Ferroalloy
  • Table 190: Fushun Ferroalloy: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 191: Glencore (79.5%)
  • Table 192: Merafe (20.5%)
  • Table 193: Glencore-Merafe: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 194: Hubei Zhenhua Chemical
  • Table 195: Hubei Zhenhua Chemical: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 196: Hubei Zhenhua Chemical: Production capacity breakdown by product
  • Table 197: IFMA
  • Table 198: IFMA: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 199: Kazchrome
  • Table 200: Kazchrome: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 201: Kazchrome: Chromium resources and reserves
  • Table 202: MidUral
  • Table 203: MidUral: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 204: Mintal
  • Table 205: Comparison operating statistics of new and old plant
  • Table 206: Mintal: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 207: Novotroitsk
  • Table 208: Odisha Mining Corporation
  • Table 209: Odisha Mining Corporation: Overview of mining leases, March 2020
  • Table 210: Outokumpu
  • Table 211: Outokumpu: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 212: Outokumpu: Kemi mine resources and reserves
  • Table 213: Outokumpu: Tornio production capacity for chromite
  • Table 214: Samancor Chrome
  • Table 215: Samancor: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 216: Sail Group
  • Table 217: Sail Group: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 218: Black Chrome (Sail Group): Resources
  • Table 219: Rooderand (Sail Group): Resources
  • Table 220: Sibanye-Stillwater
  • Table 221: Details of Sibanye Stillwater UG2 wash plants.
  • Table 222: Sichuan Yinhe Chemical
  • Table 223: Yinhe Chemical: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 224: Soda Sanayii
  • Table 225: Soda Sanayii: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 226: Kromsan
  • Table 227: Kromsan: Product capacity
  • Table 228: Cromital
  • Table 229: Tata Steel
  • Table 230: Tata Steel: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 231: Tharisa
  • Table 232: Tharisa: Resources and reserves, end-2020
  • Table 233: Tharisa: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 234: Tsingshan
  • Table 235: Tsingshan: Summary overview of operations and projects
  • Table 236: Vishnu Chemicals
  • Table 237: Xin Ganglian
  • Table 238: Xin Ganglian: Summary overview of operations and projects
  • Table 239: Yilmaden Holding (Yildirim Group)
  • Table 240: Yildirim Group: Summary overview of chromium operations
  • Table 241: Eti Krom: Summary overview of operations
  • Table 242: Effects of alloying elements on stainless steel properties
  • Table 243: Composition of widely used stainless steels
  • Table 244: Typical chromium and carbon content of ferrochrome and steels products
  • Table 245: Composition of typical carbon steel
  • Table 246: Alloying elements and their effects
  • Table 247: Composition of selected full alloy steels containing chromium
  • Table 248: HSLA linepipe steel produced by US Steel
  • Table 249: Applications for HSLA steels in automobiles
  • Table 250: Properties of high-strength and advanced high-strength steels used in automobiles
  • Table 251: Composition of typical structural steels
  • Table 252: Comparison of properties of carbon steels and tool steels
  • Table 253: World: Leading producers of tool steels
  • Table 254: Selection of plastic mould steels containing chromium
  • Table 255: Types of cold work tool steels
  • Table 256: Compositions of cold work tool and die steels containing chromium
  • Table 257: Compositions of chromium-bearing hot work tool/die steels
  • Table 258: Composition of high-speed steels containing chromium
  • Table 259: Elements and their function in HPA
  • Table 260: World leading producers of superalloys
  • Table 261: Composition of typical single-crystal nickel-based superalloys
  • Table 262: World: Leading manufacturers of aircraft engines
  • Table 263: Nominal composition of three leading nickel-based superalloy
  • Table 264: Applications for chromium sputtering targets
  • Table 265: Consumption of chromium chemicals by application, 2010-2020
  • Table 266: Forecast: Consumption of chromium chemicals by application, 2021-2030
  • Table 267: Foundry-grade chromium demand, 2010-2020
  • Table 268: Composition of plugging sands in steel works
  • Table 269: Comparison of foundry sand properties
  • Table 270: Properties of chromite foundry sands
  • Table 271: Main applications for castings by type
  • Table 272: Production of castings by type, 2014-2020
  • Table 273: Consumption of chromium in refractories, 2010-2020
  • Table 274: Properties of mag-chrome bricks produced by Sinosteel Refractories
  • Table 275: Saint-Gobain SEFPRO: Sintered high chromium oxide products
  • Table 276: World: Average unit refractory consumption by industry, 2018
  • Table 277: World: Average refractory replacement rates, 2018
  • Table 278: Japan: Production of refractories by type, 2010-2020
  • Table 279: Base Case Forecast GDP for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 280: Base Case Forecast GDP growth rates for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 281: Base Case Forecast GDP per capita for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 282: Forecast population for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 283: Forecast inflation for top-30 economies and regions, 2020-2031
  • Table 284: Forecast exchange rates and energy prices, 2020-2031

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: World: Chromium consumption by application, 2010-2031
  • Figure 2: World: Chromium consumption by region, 2010-2031
  • Figure 3: Production of HC ferrochrome and charge chrome, by country, 2000-2024
  • Figure 4: Outlook: Ferrochrome supply-demand balance, 2019-2031
  • Figure 5: Chromite production by country, 2000-2024
  • Figure 6: Outlook: Chromite supply-demand balance, 2019-2031
  • Figure 7: Primary and third-party1 speciality-grade chromite supply, 2010-2031
  • Figure 8: World: Chromium consumption in non-steel applications, 2010-2031
  • Figure 9: Index prices of chromite, HC ferrochrome, and stainless steel
  • Figure 10: Quarterly SA primary 42-44% Cr2O3 cost, price and outlook, 2015-2023
  • Figure 11: Quarterly China FeCr cost, tender and outlook, 2015-2023
  • Figure 12: Quarterly European Benchmark price and outlook with SA plant costs, 2015-2023
  • Figure 13: Outlook: Annual chromite and FeCr prices, 2010-2031
  • Figure 14: Flowchart for the chromium supply chain
  • Figure 15: World: Historical production of chromite, 2000-2021
  • Figure 16: Chromite ores and concentrates production by country, 2020
  • Figure 17: Ore production by country
  • Figure 18: Chromium supply by chromite concentrate grade, 2010-2021
  • Figure 19: South African chromium ore supply by product.
  • Figure 20: Traded metallurgical-grade chromite used in speciality applications, 2010-2021
  • Figure 21: Technically recoverable chromite from UG2 platinum tailings, 2000-2021
  • Figure 22: South Africa: Production of chromite from primary and UG2 sources, 2000-2021
  • Figure 23: World: Historical production of high-carbon FeCr & charge chrome, 2000-2021
  • Figure 24: High-carbon FeCr production by country, 2020
  • Figure 25: Charge chrome versus HC ferrochrome production, 2010-2021
  • Figure 26: Top-12 HC FeCr and charge chrome production capacity by company, 2021
  • Figure 27: MLC FeCr production, 2010-2021
  • Figure 28: World: Production of MLC FeCr, 2010-2021
  • Figure 29: Production of MLC FeCr, by country, 2020
  • Figure 30: World: Production of chromium chemicals by country, 2010-2021
  • Figure 31: Production of chromium chemicals by country, 2020
  • Figure 32: World: Production of chromium metal by country, 2010-2021
  • Figure 33: Global average total cash costs for chromium ore production, 2019-2021
  • Figure 34: Major chromite ore producer total cash costs, 2021
  • Figure 35: World: Global chromite capacity total cash cost curve by region, 2021
  • Figure 36: World: Value in use adjusted global chromite capacity total cash cost curve by region, 2021
  • Figure 37: World: Non-integrated chromite capacity total cash cost curve by region, 2021
  • Figure 38: Average total cash costs for UG2 chromite with PGM by-product credits, 2019-2021
  • Figure 39: Segmented global average chromite total cash cost by component, global seaborne supply, 2019-2021
  • Figure 40: Global average chromite total cash cost by component, global seaborne supply, 2010-2021
  • Figure 41: Global average chromite total cash costs by component, global seaborne supply, 2010-2021
  • Figure 42: Global average chromium ore cash production for seaborne supply, 2010-2021
  • Figure 43: Oil prices (Brent Crude), Jan 2010-May 2021
  • Figure 44: Baltic Dry Shipping Index, Jan 2010-May 2021
  • Figure 45: World: Global cash cost curve for HC & charge FeCr, 2021
  • Figure 46: World: HC and charge FeCr ex-plant cash costs by region and component, 2021
  • Figure 47: HC & charge FeCr cash costs by component, global average, 2015-2021
  • Figure 48: HC & charge FeCr cash costs by component, global average, 2015-2021
  • Figure 49: Average electricity tariffs for ferroalloy producers, 2006-2021
  • Figure 50: Average spot prices for metallurgical coke, Jan 2012-Jun 2021
  • Figure 51: World: Chromium demand and primary chromium consumption, 2000-2021
  • Figure 52: World: Chromium consumption by application, 2010-2021
  • Figure 53: World: Chromium consumption by region, 2010-2021
  • Figure 54: Chromite concentrate production by ore grade type, 2020
  • Figure 55: World: Chromite demand by intermediate product, 2010-2021
  • Figure 56: Chemical-grade chromite market, 2010-2020
  • Figure 57: Foundry-grade chromite market, 2010-2020
  • Figure 58: World: Consumption of ferrochrome in steel alloys, 2010-2021
  • Figure 59: Ferrochrome versus scrap consumption in steel alloys, 2010-2021
  • Figure 60: World: Consumption of ferrochrome in stainless steel by country/region, 2010-2021
  • Figure 61: Consumption of chromium chemicals by application, 2010-2021
  • Figure 62: World: Consumption of chromium chemicals by region, 2010-2021
  • Figure 63: World: Apparent Consumption of chromium metal, 2010-2020
  • Figure 64: World: Exports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2015-2020
  • Figure 65: World: Imports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2015-2020
  • Figure 66: World ex-China: Imports of chromite ores and concentrates, 2015-2020
  • Figure 67: World: Trade flows of metallurgical-grade concentrates, 2020
  • Figure 68: Ex-China: Trade flows of speciality-grade concentrates, 2020
  • Figure 69: China: Port stocks of chromite, Sep 2018-May 2020
  • Figure 70: Exports of HC versus MLC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 71: HC versus MLC FeCr exports, 2020
  • Figure 72: World: Exports of HC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 73: Rest of World: Exports of HC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 74: World: Imports of HC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 75: World: Exports of MLC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 76: World: Imports of MLC FeCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 77: World: Trade flows of HC FeCr, 2020
  • Figure 78: Trade flows of MLC FeCr, 2020
  • Figure 79: World: Exports of FeSiCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 80: World: Imports of FeSiCr, 2015-2020
  • Figure 81: World: Trade flows of FeSiCr, 2020
  • Figure 82: World: Exports of sodium dichromate, 2015-2020
  • Figure 83: World: Imports of sodium dichromate, 2015-2020
  • Figure 84: World: Trade flows of sodium dichromate, 2020
  • Figure 85: World: Exports of chromium trioxide, 2015-2020
  • Figure 86: World: Imports of chromium trioxide, 2015-2020
  • Figure 87: World: Trade flows of chromium trioxide, 2020
  • Figure 88: World: Exports of other chromium oxides, 2015-2020
  • Figure 89: World: Imports of other chromium oxides, 2015-2020
  • Figure 90: World: Trade flows of other chromium oxides, 2020
  • Figure 91: World: Exports of chromium metal, 2015-2020
  • Figure 92: World: Imports of chromium metal, 2015-2020
  • Figure 93: World: Trade flows of chromium metal, 2020
  • Figure 94: Index prices of chromite, HC FeCr, and stainless steel
  • Figure 95: Monthly prices for chromite ores and concentrates, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 96: South African primary LG, MG versus secondary UG2 chromite prices, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 97: Average Turkish lump (40%) and South African concentrate (44%) prices, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 98: Monthly prices of speciality chromite concentrate, Jan 2015-Apr 2021, FOB South Africa
  • Figure 99: Monthly premiums of speciality chromite concentrates, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 100: China: Monthly HC FeCr tender price, Jan 2015-May 2021, including VAT
  • Figure 101: Quarterly HC FeCr prices, Q1 2015-Q2 2021
  • Figure 102: China destination: Monthly HC FeCr prices, Jan 2018-Apr 2021
  • Figure 103: China: Monthly LC FeCr tender price, Mar 2019-Apr 2021, including VAT
  • Figure 104: China: Prices for MLC FeCr, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 105: European versus China destination: Prices for LC FeCr, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 106: ULC and MLC FeCr prices, China, Oct 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 107: Three-month moving average export prices of chromium chemicals, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 108: Cost of chemical-grade ore in sodium dichromate, Q1 2015-Q2 2021
  • Figure 109: Prices for aluminothermic chromium metal, min. 99% Cr, Jan 2015-Apr 2021
  • Figure 110: Cost of chromium oxide in aluminothermic chromium metal, Q1 2015-Q2 2021
  • Figure 111: Chromium market balance, 2010-2021
  • Figure 112: Forecast chromium demand and GDP growth, 2019-2031
  • Figure 113: World: Chromium demand outlook by region, 2019-2031
  • Figure 114: Chromium demand outlook by application, 2019-2031
  • Figure 115: Consumption outlook of chromium in other applications, 2019-2031
  • Figure 116: Stainless steel: Primary and secondary chromium consumption, 2000-2031
  • Figure 117: Ferrochrome market balance, 2010-2021
  • Figure 118: Ferrochrome supply-demand balance outlook, 2019-2031
  • Figure 119: Chromite supply versus demand, 2010-2021
  • Figure 120: Chromite supply-demand balance outlook, 2019-2031
  • Figure 121: Forecast UG2 chromite supply with higher recovery, 2019-2031
  • Figure 122: Quarterly SA primary 42-44% Cr2O3 cost, price and outlook, 2015-2023
  • Figure 123: Outlook: SA primary 42-44% Cr2O3 concentrates, 2010-2031
  • Figure 124: Outlook: Annual ore and concentrate prices, 2019-2031
  • Figure 125: Ore price forecast scenarios, 2019-2031
  • Figure 126: Quarterly China FeCr cost, tender and outlook, 2015-2023
  • Figure 127: Quarterly European Benchmark price and outlook with SA plant costs, 2015-2023
  • Figure 128: European spot price against Benchmark and FeCr tender, 2010-2023
  • Figure 129: Outlook: High-carbon FeCr tender price, 2010-2031
  • Figure 130: HC FeCr tender price scenarios, 2019-2031
  • Figure 131: Outlook: HC FeCr Benchmark price, 2010-2031
  • Figure 132: HC FeCr Benchmark price scenarios, 2019-2031
  • Figure 133: Outlook: China LC FeCr, 0.1% C, 2010-2031
  • Figure 134: Outlook: Annual sodium dichromate and chromium metal prices, 2010-2031
  • Figure 135: Ferrochrome production technologies
  • Figure 136: Selected technical comparisons by process
  • Figure 137: Flow chart for the production of sodium chromate and dichromate
  • Figure 138: UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • Figure 139: Roskill's ESG framework
  • Figure 140: Criticality matrix
  • Figure 141: European CRM list 2020
  • Figure 142: China: HC FeCr production by region
  • Figure 143: China: HC FeCr production by province
  • Figure 144: China: HC FeCr production and steel tender price
  • Figure 145: China's industrial GHG emissions, 2019
  • Figure 146: China: Capacities of HC FeCr by furnace size and province, March 2021
  • Figure 147: China: The number of furnaces of HC FeCr by furnace size and province, March 2021
  • Figure 148: China: HC FeCr capacity by region and province, March 2021
  • Figure 149: China: The number of furnaces of HC FeCr by region and province, March 2021
  • Figure 150: South Africa: Average electricity tariffs, 2008-2022
  • Figure 151: Outokumpu: Flowsheet for chromium and stainless steel production
  • Figure 152: Consumption of chromium in stainless steel, 2000-2030
  • Figure 153: World: Consumption of chromium in stainless steel by country, 2000-2030
  • Figure 154: Typical silicon content of ferrochrome grades
  • Figure 155: Consumption of chromium in stainless steel by type, 2000-2030
  • Figure 156: World: Consumption of primary FeCr in stainless steel by country, 2000-2030
  • Figure 157: Estimated end-use of stainless by sector, 2020
  • Figure 158: World: Stainless steel apparent consumption, 2000-2021
  • Figure 159: Chinese stainless steel: net exports and crude production, Q1 2016-Q1 2021
  • Figure 160: World: Stainless steel per capita consumption, 2020
  • Figure 161: World: Crude stainless steel production by region, 2001-2021
  • Figure 162: Crude stainless steel production by series, 2001-2021
  • Figure 163: Internal & external stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 164: World: Stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 165: World: Internal stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 166: World: External stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 167: World: External stainless scrap availability, 2010-2020
  • Figure 168: External stainless steel scrap consumption by grade, 2010-2020
  • Figure 169: World: External austenitic stainless steel scrap consumption, 2010-2020
  • Figure 170: World: External austenitic stainless steel scrap ratio, 2010-2020
  • Figure 171: Five-year external austenitic stainless steel scrap ratio
  • Figure 172: Forecast long run world GDP growth scenarios, 2019-2031
  • Figure 173: World: Stainless steel per capita consumption, 2020-2030
  • Figure 174: World: Stainless steel apparent consumption, 2020-2030
  • Figure 175: World: Forecast crude stainless steel production, 2020-2030
  • Figure 176: Forecast crude stainless steel production by grade, 2020-2030
  • Figure 177: Scrap consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 178: External scrap consumption forecast, 2019-2030
  • Figure 179: Consumption of chromium in other steels products
  • Figure 180: Consumption and forecast of chromium in alloys steels, 2000-2030
  • Figure 181: Elemental effects of metals in HPA
  • Figure 182: Production of superalloy by type, 2020
  • Figure 183: Material composition of a Boeing 787
  • Figure 184: Material composition of an aircraft engine
  • Figure 185: Historical (2000-2020) and projected (2021-2030) jet airplane deliveries
  • Figure 186: World gas turbine orders, 2000-2020
  • Figure 187: World: Global crude steel production, 2010-2020
  • Figure 188: World: Forecast global crude steel production, 2020-2030
  • Figure 189: End uses of chromium chemicals, 2020
  • Figure 190: World: Consumption of chromium in chemicals production by region, 2020
  • Figure 191: Metallurgical-grade chromite demand in chemicals, 2010-2020
  • Figure 192: Consumption of chromium chemicals by application, 2010-2030
  • Figure 193: Leather products by type and end-use, 2015
  • Figure 194: Foundry-grade chromite consumption and forecast against production of castings, 2010-2030
  • Figure 195: World: Foundry-grade demand by region, 2020
  • Figure 196: Foundry-grade market balance, 2010-2020
  • Figure 197: Forecast castings by type, 2020-2030
  • Figure 198: Consumption trends of chromium in refractories, 2010-2030
  • Figure 199: World: Estimated production of refractories by country/region and crude steel output, historical 2010-2020 and forecast 2021-2030
目次

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Outlook

Chromium is sourced from the mineral chromite, its only currently economic occurrence. Chromite is used directly in industrial foundry and refractory sands or converted into sodium dichromate for further refinement into other chemicals and chromium metal, but the main consumption is in ferrochrome furnaces to produce an alloy used by the steel industry. Over 95% of chromium consumption is attributable to metallurgical applications, with stainless steel alone representing 78% of consumption. Ferrochrome is the intermediate chromium-iron alloy used in the steel industry. Most of the ferrochrome production is in the form of high-carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome, of which 80-90% is consumed directly in stainless steel.

The COVID-19 pandemic saw varying regional impacts across the chromium supply chain, but the recovery trend has been underpinned by recovering stainless steel output in China over the second half of the year to record monthly levels. Total chromium demand is estimated to have declined nearly 6% y-o-y in 2020, but recovery trends place 2021 demand back above 2019 levels and returning to pre-COVID-19 trends by 2022. With recovering demand and rising costs, the prices for chromium products have turned to an uptick after more than a year of subdued and oversupplied markets.

After several years of 5-10%py growth in demand, prior to 2020 driven by stainless steel production, the chromium market is forecast to quickly rebound back above 2019 levels and move into a period of more modest demand growth of 2-3%py from 2022. With thorough analysis of supply, costs, demand, trade, and prices, complete with historical trends and detailed ten-year forecasts, Roskill offers you your comprehensive chromium report.

Roskill experts will answer your questions:

  • What has been the impact of UG2 chromite on the sector and how will this develop in the future?
  • How would an export tax on South African ores impact the industry?
  • How will China's ferrochrome industry develop over the 14th Five-Year plan?
  • What are the key issues related to sustainability and ESG in the chrome supply chain?
  • Which factors drive prices for chromium products and how will prices fare to 2031?

Table of Contents

1. Executive summary

  • 1.1 Market overview
  • 1.2 Chromium demand
  • 1.3 Ferrochrome
  • 1.4 Chromite ores and concentrates
  • 1.5 Speciality-grade chromite and niche markets
  • 1.6 Chromium prices and outlook
    • 1.6.1 Historical trends
    • 1.6.2 Cost-driven prices and short-term forecasts
    • 1.6.3 Medium- and long-term price forecast

2. Chromium flowchart

3. World production

  • 3.1 Chromite ores and concentrates
    • 3.1.1 Chromite supply by grade
    • 3.1.2 Chromite capacity
    • 3.1.3 UG2 chromite supply
  • 3.2 High-carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome
    • 3.2.1 High-carbon ferrochrome production by grade
    • 3.2.2 High-carbon ferrochrome capacity
  • 3.3 Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome production
    • 3.3.1 Low- and medium-carbon ferrochrome capacity
  • 3.4 Chromium chemicals
  • 3.5 Chromium metal

4. Production costs

  • 4.1 Chromium ore
    • 4.1.1 UG2 chromite costs
    • 4.1.2 Trends in chromium ore production costs
      • 4.1.2.1 Mine costs
      • 4.1.2.2 Trucking and railing costs
      • 4.1.2.3 Shipping costs
      • 4.1.2.4 Royalties and export taxes
  • 4.2 High-carbon & charge ferrochrome
    • 4.2.1 Trends in high-carbon & charge ferrochrome production costs
      • 4.2.1.1 Chromium ore costs
      • 4.2.1.2 Electricity costs
      • 4.2.1.3 Reductant costs
      • 4.2.1.4 Labour costs

5. World consumption

  • 5.1 Consumption of chromite
  • 5.2 Consumption of ferrochrome and scrap
  • 5.3 Consumption of chemicals
  • 5.4 Consumption of chrome metal

6. International trade

  • 6.1 Trade in chromite ores and concentrates
    • 6.1.1 Ore and concentrate trade flows in 2020
    • 6.1.2 China port stocks
  • 6.2 Trade in ferrochrome
    • 6.2.1 High-carbon ferrochrome & charge chrome
    • 6.2.2 Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome
    • 6.2.3 Ferrochrome trade flows in 2020
  • 6.3 Trade in ferrosilicochromium
    • 6.3.1 Ferrosilicochromium trade flows in 2020
  • 6.4 Trade in chromium chemicals
    • 6.4.1 Sodium dichromate
    • 6.4.2 Chromium sulphate
    • 6.4.3 Chromium trioxide & chromic acid
    • 6.4.4 Other chromium oxides
  • 6.5 Trade in chromium metal
    • 6.5.1 Chromium metal trade flows

7. Prices

  • 7.1 Prices for metallurgical-grade chromite
    • 7.1.1 Speciality-grade ores
  • 7.2 Prices for high-carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome
  • 7.3 Prices for medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome
  • 7.4 Prices for chromium chemicals
  • 7.5 Prices for chromium metal

8. Outlook

  • 8.1 Chromium market balance
  • 8.2 Demand outlook
  • 8.3 Supply outlook
    • 8.3.1 Primary versus secondary supply
    • 8.3.2 Outlook for ferrochrome supply
      • 8.3.2.1 Potential ferrochrome projects
    • 8.3.3 Outlook for chromite supply
      • 8.3.3.1 Listed chromite projects
      • 8.3.3.2 UG2 supply scenarios
  • 8.4 Price outlook
    • 8.4.1 Chromite price outlook
      • 8.4.1.1 Turkish and UG2 ore price forecasts
      • 8.4.1.2 Speciality-grade chromite
      • 8.4.1.3 Scenario analysis of 42-44% Cr2O3 ore prices
    • 8.4.2 HC FeCr price outlook
      • 8.4.2.1 Long-term China tender price forecast to 2031 and scenarios
      • 8.4.2.2 Long-term Benchmark price forecast to 2031 and scenarios
    • 8.4.3 LC FeCr price forecast
    • 8.4.4 Chromium chemicals & metal price outlook

9. Background

  • 9.1 Occurrence
  • 9.2 Reserves and resources
  • 9.3 Mining of chrome ore
    • 9.3.1 Grades of chromite
  • 9.4 Processing of ferrochrome
    • 9.4.1 Grades of ferrochrome
    • 9.4.2 Processing of high-carbon ferrochrome and charge chrome
      • 9.4.2.1 Technologies to reduce energy consumptions and costs
    • 9.4.3 Processing of low-carbon ferrochrome
  • 9.5 Processing of chromium chemicals
    • 9.5.1 Sodium dichromate
    • 9.5.2 Other chromates and dichromate chemicals
    • 9.5.3 Chromic acid
    • 9.5.4 Basic chromium sulphate
    • 9.5.5 Chrome oxide
  • 9.6 Processing of chromium metal

10. Sustainability

  • 10.1 Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)
    • 10.1.1 Environmental
      • 10.1.1.1 Environmental pollution
      • 10.1.1.2 Energy consumption and emissions
      • 10.1.1.3 'Green Steel'
      • 10.1.1.4 IMO shipping regulations
      • 10.1.1.5 Biodiversity and land use
    • 10.1.2 Social
      • 10.1.2.1 Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM)
      • 10.1.2.2 Human rights
    • 10.1.3 Governance
      • 10.1.3.1 Corruption
      • 10.1.3.2 Ease of Doing Business (EoDB)
  • 10.2 Critical raw materials
  • 10.3 Responsible sourcing initiatives
    • 10.3.1 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
    • 10.3.2 Global Reporting Initiative
    • 10.3.3 Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance
    • 10.3.4 Responsible Mining Index
    • 10.3.5 Responsible Steel Stewardship Initiative

11. Country profiles

  • 11.1 Afghanistan
  • 11.1 Albania
  • 11.2 Australia
  • 11.3 Bahrain
  • 11.4 Botswana
  • 11.5 Brazil
  • 11.6 Canada
  • 11.7 China
    • 11.7.1 Ferrochrome
    • 11.7.2 Chromium chemicals
    • 11.7.3 Chromium metal
    • 11.7.4 Policy and impacts on ferrochrome capacity
  • 11.8 Cote d'Ivoire
  • 11.9 Finland
  • 11.10 France
  • 11.11 Germany
  • 11.12 India
  • 11.13 Indonesia
  • 11.14 Iran
  • 11.15 Italy
  • 11.16 Japan
  • 11.17 Kazakhstan
  • 11.18 Kosovo
  • 11.19 Madagascar
  • 11.20 Malaysia
  • 11.21 Mauritania
  • 11.22 Mexico
  • 11.23 Myanmar
  • 11.24 New Caledonia
  • 11.25 Nigeria
  • 11.26 Oman
  • 11.27 Pakistan
  • 11.28 Papua New Guinea
  • 11.29 Philippines
  • 11.30 Poland
  • 11.31 Romania
  • 11.32 Russia
  • 11.33 Slovakia
  • 11.34 South Africa
    • 11.34.1 Primary mine supply (LG/MG)
    • 11.34.2 UG2
    • 11.34.3 Speciality-grade
    • 11.34.4 Ferrochrome
    • 11.34.5 Chemicals
    • 11.34.6 Projects
    • 11.34.7 Electricity and Eskom
  • 11.35 Spain
  • 11.36 Sudan
  • 11.37 Sweden
  • 11.38 Turkey
  • 11.39 UAE
  • 11.40 UK
  • 11.41 Uruguay
  • 11.42 USA
  • 11.43 Vietnam
  • 11.44 Zimbabwe

12. Company profiles

  • 12.1 Afarak
    • 12.1.1 South Africa (in business rescue)
    • 12.1.2 Turkey
    • 12.1.3 Germany
  • 12.2 Aktyubinsk Chromium Chemicals Plant
  • 12.3 AMG Superalloys UK
  • 12.4 Anglo American Platinum
  • 12.5 Assore
  • 12.6 CITIC Jinzhou Metal
  • 12.7 Delachaux (DCX) Chrome
  • 12.8 Eastern Platinum (Eastplats)
  • 12.9 Elementis Chromium
  • 12.10 Fushun Ferroalloy
  • 12.11 Glencore-Merafe
  • 12.12 Hubei Zhenhua Chemical
  • 12.13 Indian Metals and Ferro Alloys (IMFA)
  • 12.14 Kazchrome (ERG)
  • 12.15 MidUral Group - Russian Super Alloys (RSAMG)
    • 12.15.1 Russian Chrome Chemicals 1915
    • 12.15.2 Dirox
    • 12.15.3 FW Winter
  • 12.16 Mintal
  • 12.17 Novotroitsk Chromium Compounds Plant
  • 12.18 Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC)
  • 12.19 Outokumpu
  • 12.20 Samancor Chrome
    • 12.20.1 IFM South Africa (2016 acquisition)
    • 12.20.2 ASA Metals (2017 acquisition)
    • 12.20.3 Hernic (2019 acquisition)
  • 12.21 Sail Group
  • 12.22 Sibanye-Stillwater
  • 12.23 Sichuan Yinhe Chemical
  • 12.24 Soda Sanayii
    • 12.24.1 Kromsan
    • 12.24.2 Cromital
  • 12.25 Tata Steel
  • 12.26 Tharisa
  • 12.27 Tsingshan
  • 12.28 Vishnu Chemicals
  • 12.29 Xin Ganglian
  • 12.30 Yildirim Group / Yilmaden Holding
    • 12.30.1 Eti Krom
    • 12.30.2 Tikhvin Ferroalloy Plant (TFP)
    • 12.30.3 Vargön Alloys
    • 12.30.4 Voskhod
    • 12.30.5 YilKrom

13. Consumption in first-use applications

  • 13.1 Stainless steel
    • 13.1.1 Chromium in stainless steel
      • 13.1.1.1 Impact of scrap use on ferrochrome grades consumed
      • 13.1.1.2 Primary chromium (FeCr) consumption in stainless
    • 13.1.2 Grades of stainless steel
    • 13.1.3 End-use applications
    • 13.1.4 Apparent consumption
      • 13.1.4.1 Stainless steel per capita consumption
      • 13.1.4.2 2021: COVID-19 recovery to record levels
    • 13.1.5 Historical stainless steel production
      • 13.1.5.1 Production by grade
      • 13.1.5.2 2021: COVID-19 recovery to record levels
    • 13.1.6 Stainless steel scrap
      • 13.1.6.1 Stainless steel scrap consumption
      • 13.1.6.2 Internal stainless steel scrap consumption
      • 13.1.6.3 External stainless steel scrap consumption
      • 13.1.6.4 External stainless steel scrap consumption by grade
    • 13.1.7 Outlook for stainless steel
      • 13.1.7.1 Macroeconomic outlook
      • 13.1.7.2 Stainless steel demand outlook
      • 13.1.7.3 Stainless steel production outlook
      • 13.1.7.4 Outlook for stainless steel scrap
  • 13.2 Other alloy steels and non-ferrous alloys
    • 13.2.1 Consumption of chromium in other steel applications
    • 13.2.2 Carbon steels
      • 13.2.2.1 Types of carbon steels
    • 13.2.3 Alloy engineering steels
      • 13.2.3.1 Full alloy steels
      • 13.2.3.2 HSLA steels
    • 13.2.4 Tool and high-speed steels
      • 13.2.4.1 Plastic mould steels
      • 13.2.4.2 Cold work tool steels
      • 13.2.4.3 Hot work tool steels
      • 13.2.4.4 High-speed tool steels
    • 13.2.5 High-performance alloys
      • 13.2.5.1 Definition and composition
      • 13.2.5.2 Production of HPA/superalloys
      • 13.2.5.3 Heat-, wear- and corrosion-resistant alloys
      • 13.2.5.4 Superalloys
      • 13.2.5.5 Markets for HPA
      • 13.2.5.6 Recycling
    • 13.2.6 Minor metallurgical applications
      • 13.2.6.1 Other non-ferrous alloys
      • 13.2.6.2 Thin-film coatings
      • 13.2.6.3 Welding and hard-facing alloys
    • 13.2.7 Historical crude steel production
    • 13.2.8 Outlook for crude steel production
  • 13.3 Chromium chemicals
    • 13.3.1 Consumption of chromium in chemicals
      • 13.3.1.1 Environmental concerns for chromium chemicals
    • 13.3.2 Leather tanning
      • 13.3.2.1 Markets for leather tanning
    • 13.3.3 Chrome metal
    • 13.3.4 Metal finishing
      • 13.3.4.1 Markets for metal finishing
      • 13.3.4.2 Outlook for metal finishing
    • 13.3.5 Pigments
      • 13.3.5.1 Types of chromium pigments
      • 13.3.5.2 Markets for pigments
    • 13.3.6 Wood preservatives
      • 13.3.6.1 Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
      • 13.3.6.2 Alternative wood preservatives
      • 13.3.6.3 Markets for wood preservatives
    • 13.3.7 Minor applications for chromium chemicals
  • 13.4 Foundry sands
    • 13.4.1 Consumption of chromium in foundries
      • 13.4.1.1 Plugging sands/sliding gates in steel work ladles
      • 13.4.1.2 Substitution trends
      • 13.4.1.3 Reclamation trends
    • 13.4.2 Types of foundry sand
      • 13.4.2.1 Properties of chromite foundry sands
    • 13.4.3 Trends in global castings production
      • 13.4.3.1 Additive manufacturing
      • 13.4.3.2 Outlook for castings to 2030
  • 13.5 Refractories
    • 13.5.1 Consumption of chromium in refractories
      • 13.5.1.1 Hexavalent chromium in refractories
    • 13.5.2 Types of refractories
      • 13.5.2.1 Types of refractories containing chromium
    • 13.5.3 Trends in refractories production
    • 13.5.4 Production by type

14. Macroeconomic outlook