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活用されていないスペクトル:無線通信 - 技術、応用、市場

Underutilized Spectrum: Wireless Transmission - Technologies, Applications and Markets

発行 Practel, Inc. 商品コード 440705
出版日 ページ情報 英文 150 Pages
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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活用されていないスペクトル:無線通信 - 技術、応用、市場 Underutilized Spectrum: Wireless Transmission - Technologies, Applications and Markets
出版日: 2017年02月13日 ページ情報: 英文 150 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、光無線通信 (OWC) ・TVホワイトスペース通信 (TVWSC) について調査分析し、技術の詳細、市場の特徴、産業予測など、体系的な情報を提供しています。

第1章 イントロダクション

光無線通信 (OWC)

第2章 LED仕様

  • 概要
  • スペクトル
  • 種類
  • LEDモジュレーション
  • LEDの進化

第3章 可視光通信 (VLC)

  • 概要
  • VLS規格の開発
  • 詳細
  • 企業・組織
  • 市場
  • 5G

第4章 フリースペースファイバー (FSF)

  • 概要
  • 主な特徴
  • 保護
  • 応用
  • FSF通信のメリットと制限:サマリー
  • デザイン問題
  • 顧客
  • FSF市場
  • ベンダー
  • 規格

TVホワイトスペース通信 (TVWSC)

第5章 TVホワイトスペース (TVWS)

  • ホワイトスペース通信:原理
  • 標準化と産業
  • 産業
  • M2M・TVWS

第6章 結論

付録

図表

目次

BRIEF

One of the main issues in the developing of 5G technologies is the limited amount of an available spectrum. The industry is trying to find solutions to resolve this problem.

Among multiple methods to cope with scarcity of available spectrum, two directions seem very promising. They are:

  • Intensification of utilization already occupied spectrum windows
  • Identification and utilization of vacant (or almost vacant) spectrum windows.

This report addresses only the second approach; and particular it concentrates on the following technologies:

  • Optical Wireless Communications (OWC)
    • a) VLC - Visible Light Communication
    • b) FSF - Free Space Fiber
  • TV White Space Communications (TVWSC).

OWC includes VLC and FSF. Both these technologies utilize non-occupied (or more precisely, very lightly occupied) frequency spectrum.

TVWSC became possible after transition of analog TV to digital when a significant portion of previously occupied spectrum has been freed.

OWC is widely recognized as superior to radio frequency (RF) transmission for several use cases. Visible and invisible optical wireless links solve first/last mile connectivity problems, serve for signal distribution inside of premises, and provide secure, jam-free communication. OWC is license-free and can potentially deliver high-speed data rates in the order of tens Gb/s. Its advantages have fostered significant research efforts aimed at utilizing optical wireless communication, e.g. VLC, for high-speed, secure, indoor/outdoor communication under the IEEE 802.15.7 and other standards; as well as FSF for indoor and outdoor communications.

Both technologies are using free space as a communications medium; though they utilize such a medium in different ways and have both similar and specific communications channel properties.

TVWSC is another example how the industry makes the spectrum utilization more efficient. Though this technology, so far, did not receive expected popularity due, mostly, to regulatory barriers, it shows potentials in improvements of the RF spectrum utilization.

The report is analyzing OWC and TVWS technologies specifics, market features and industry expectations how they will contribute in the 5G development. It also analyzes the industries, advanced products and their applications.

The related standards are analyzed in details. Attachments present the survey of resent patents related to TVWS, IEEE802.22 and IEEE 802.11af and IEEE802.15.7.

The report was developed for a wide audience of engineers and managers that are working with advanced communications technologies.

Table of Contents

1.0. Introduction

  • 1.1. 5G Concern
  • 1.2. OWC
    • 1.2.1. Structure
    • 1.2.2. LED as Communications Transmitter
    • 1.2.3. Free Space Fiber
  • 1.3. TVWSC
  • 1.4. Scope
  • 1.5. Research Methodology
  • 1.6. Target Audience

OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

2.0. LED Specifics

  • 2.1. General
  • 2.2. Spectrum
  • 2.3. Types
  • 2.4. LED Modulation
    • 2.4.1. Limitations
  • 2.5. LED Evolution
    • 2.5.1. General
    • 2.5.2. Benefits
    • 2.5.3. Market Characteristics
    • 2.5.4. Factors

3.0. Visible Light Communications

  • 3.1. General
    • 3.1.1. Drivers
    • 3.1.2. Industry Activity
      • 3.1.2.1. UC-Light Center
      • 3.1.2.2. Li-Fi Consortium
    • 3.1.3. Free Space Fiber and VLC - Summary
  • 3.2. VLC Standards Development
    • 3.2.1. IEEE 802.15.7
      • 3.2.1.1. Considerations
      • 3.2.1.2. Project
        • 3.2.1.2.1. Coexistence
        • 3.2.1.2.2. Essence
        • 3.2.1.2.3. Base
        • 3.2.1.2.4. Use Cases
        • 3.2.1.2.5. Physical Layer
          • 3.2.1.2.5.1. General
          • 3.2.1.2.5.2. Responsibilities
          • 3.2.1.2.5.3. Types
          • 3.2.1.2.5.4. Error Protection
          • 3.2.1.2.5.5. Rates
          • 3.2.1.2.5.6. Frequency Plan
          • 3.2.1.2.5.7. PHY Services
          • 3.2.1.2.5.8. Regulations
        • 3.2.1.2.6. MAC Layer
          • 3.2.1.2.6.1. Topologies
          • 3.2.1.2.6.2. Responsibilities
          • 3.2.1.2.6.3. Functionalities
        • 3.2.1.2.7. Security
    • 3.2.2. Jeita (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
      • 3.2.2.1. JEITA CP-1221
      • 3.2.2.2. JEITA CP-1222
      • 3.2.2.3. JEITA CP-1223(2013)
    • 3.2.3. Visible Light Communications Consortium (VLCC)
      • 3.2.3.1. General
  • 3.3. Details
    • 3.3.1. Communications Channel
    • 3.3.2. Transmitter
    • 3.3.3. Receiver
      • 3.3.3.1. Image Sensors
    • 3.3.4. Major Characteristics
      • 3.3.4.1. General
      • 3.3.4.2. Modulation
      • 3.3.4.3. VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary
      • 3.3.4.4. Limiting Factors
    • 3.3.5. Applications: Summary
      • 3.3.5.1. ITS
      • 3.3.5.2. Optical Wireless LAN
      • 3.3.5.3. Medical
      • 3.3.5.4. Localization
      • 3.3.5.5. City Wide Wireless Network
      • 3.3.5.6. Summary
  • 3.4. Companies and Organizations
    • Axrtek
    • Casio
    • Firefly
    • Fraunhofer IPMS
    • LVX
    • LightBee
    • Nakagawa Laboratories
    • NEC
    • Oledcomm
    • Outstanding Technology
    • PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
    • Qualcomm
    • Renesas
    • SmartSignals
    • Supreme Architecture
    • TCL/Sunpartner
    • Tamura
  • 3.5. Market
  • 3.6. 5G View
    • 3.6.1. Attocell
    • 3.6.2. Cell Structures

4.0. Free Space Fiber

  • 4.1. General
  • 4.2. Major Characteristics
  • 4.3. Protection
  • 4.4. Applications
    • 4.4.1. Major Use Cases
    • 4.4.2. Requirements
    • 4.4.3. Inter-satellite Links
    • 4.4.4. Intra-building Communications
    • 4.4.5. Inter-building Communications
  • 4.5. FSF Communications Benefits and Limitations: Summary
    • 4.5.1. Weather Factor
    • 4.5.2. Building Swaying
  • 4.6. Design Issues
  • 4.7. Customers
  • 4.8. FSF Market
    • 4.8.1. General
    • 4.8.2. Market Drivers
      • 4.8.2.1. Market Segments
    • 4.8.3. Competition
      • 4.8.3.1. Fiber Optics Systems
      • 4.8.3.2. Microwave
      • 4.8.3.3. PONs
    • 4.8.4. Forecast
      • 4.8.4.1. General
      • 4.8.4.2. Model Assumptions
      • 4.8.4.3. Structure
      • 4.8.4.4. Market Estimate
  • 4.9. Vendors
    • AOptix (partially acquired by Anova in 2016)
    • CableFree
    • Canon USA
    • CBL
    • Dailianxu Engineering Company
    • fSONA
    • GeoDesy (acquired by Trimble in 2014)
    • Guilin
    • LightPointe
    • PAV
    • Plaintree
    • RedLine
    • Space Photonics
  • 4.10. Standards
    • 4.10.1. ITU G.640
    • 4.10.2. ITU-R P.1814-2007
    • 4.10.3. ARIB STD-T50(OPTICAL WIRELESS LAN SYSTEM) v4-2009

TVWS COMMUNICATIONS

5.0. TV White Spaces

  • 5.1. White Spaces Communications - Principles
    • 5.1.1. Definition
    • 5.1.2. Rational
    • 5.1.3. Ecosystem and Use Cases
  • 5.2. Standardization and Industry
    • 5.2.1. Broadband Internet Wireless Access
      • 5.2.1.1. WS Alliance
        • 5.2.1.1.1. Wi-FAR
        • 5.2.1.1.2. WSAConnect
      • 5.2.1.2. Wireless Innovation Forum (WIF)-WS
        • 5.2.1.2.1. General
        • 5.2.1.2.2. Contributions
    • 5.2.2. WS-related IEEE Standards
      • 5.2.2.1. IEEE 802.11af - 2013
        • 5.2.2.1.1. General: Expectations-Wi-Fi on Steroids
        • 5.2.2.1.2. Differences
        • 5.2.2.1.3. Benefits
        • 5.2.2.1.4. Specifics
        • 5.2.2.1.5. Building Blocks
        • 5.2.2.1.6. PHY
        • 5.2.2.1.7. Summary
      • 5.2.2.2. IEEE 802.22-2011
        • 5.2.2.2.1. General
        • 5.2.2.2.2. WG 802.22 and FCC
        • 5.2.2.2.3. Mechanism
        • 5.2.2.2.4. Physical Layer-Major Characteristics
          • 5.2.2.2.4.1. Frames
        • 5.2.2.2.5. Cognitive Functions and MAC
        • 5.2.2.2.6. MAC Features
        • 5.2.2.2.7. Summary-IEEE802.22
  • 5.3. Industry
    • Adaptrum
    • Aviacomm
    • Carlson Wireless
    • KTS
    • Redline Communications
    • Saankhya Labs Pvt. Ltd
  • 5.4. M2M and TVWS
    • 5.4.1. Weightless Technologies
    • 5.4.2. Weightless SIG
    • 5.4.3. Weightless-W
      • 5.4.3.1. Weightless-W Specifics
      • 5.4.3.2. Changes

6.0. Conclusions

ATTACHMENT I: WS-related Patents

ATTACHMENT II: 802.22-related Patents

ATTACHMENT III: 802.11af-related Patents

ATTACHMENT IV: 802.15.7-related Patents

List of Figures:

  • Figure 1: OWC Illustration
  • Figure 2: LED Structure
  • Figure 3: LED Spectrum
  • Figure 4: White LED Properties Illustration
  • Figure 5: Estimate: Lighting LED Market - U.S. ($B)
  • Figure 6: Estimate: Lighting LED Market - U.S. (Bil. Units Shipped)
  • Figure 7: LED Price Factor
  • Figure 8: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources
  • Figure 9: Characteristics
  • Figure 10: Topologies
  • Figure 11: Illustration-VLC Channel
  • Figure 12: VLC Market Categories
  • Figure 13: Estimate: VLC Market-Global ($B)
  • Figure 14: VLC Market Geography (2017)
  • Figure 15: Simplified FSF Device Diagram
  • Figure 16: FSF Market Segments
  • Figure 17: Estimate: FSF Market Value ($M)
  • Figure 18: FSF Market Geography

List of Tables:

  • Table 1: VLC and FSF
  • Table 2: Wavelengths (nm)
  • Table 3: Properties - Laser vs. LED
  • Table 4: Light Sources Characteristics
  • Table 5: Use Cases
  • Table 6: Devices and Characteristics
  • Table 7: Frequency Plan
  • Table 8: VLC/RF Properties
  • Table 9: VL, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
  • Table 10: Locations Technologies-VLC Place
  • Table 11: TVWS Regulations
  • Table 12: IEEE WS-related Standards
  • Table 13: 802.22-Major Characteristics
  • Table 14: Iceni Characteristics
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