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5G技術の利用事例としての無人走行車:市場・標準化・技術

Intelligent Car - 5G Use Case: Markets, Standardization, Technologies

発行 PracTel, Inc. 商品コード 373366
出版日 ページ情報 英文 184 Pages
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5G技術の利用事例としての無人走行車:市場・標準化・技術 Intelligent Car - 5G Use Case: Markets, Standardization, Technologies
出版日: 2019年11月14日 ページ情報: 英文 184 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、5G通信の利用事例としての無人走行車の市場を調査し、ITSの発展状況、構成技術、サブシステム、整備中の標準規格、5G技術の発展と関連各社の取り組み、利用事例、無人走行車の開発状況、自動車・技術・通信各社の取り組み、関連法規制と標準化の動向などをまとめています。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 ITS:完全化への道程

  • レスポンス
  • 構造
  • ITSの主要技術
  • ITSの主なサブシステム:無人走行車の基盤
  • ITSの整備中の標準規格
    • 概要
    • ETSI
    • 米国
    • 中国
    • 国際組織
    • サマリー
  • ITSの各種用途
    • V2V・V2I
    • インテリジェントビークル
  • ITS市場統計
    • 概要
    • 推計

第3章 5Gの時代

  • 5Gのタイムテーブル (3GPP-ITU)
  • 貢献因子
  • 5Gに向けた取り組み
    • NGMN
    • 5G-PPP
    • 5G Americas
    • GSMA
    • Verizon 5G TF
    • 3GPP:New Radio (NR)

第4章 5G技術

  • 将来の展望
  • 確実な方向性
  • 課題
  • 利用事例
    • 概要:特徴
    • モバイルブロードバンド
    • 自動車
    • スマートソサエティ

第5章 無人走行車:発展状況

  • 同時成長
  • 方向性と課題
  • ADAS
  • 現状:法規制・保険
  • 主なメリット
  • 代替技術
  • 市場予測・価格
  • フェーズ
  • 参入企業・R&D
    • 自動車メーカー
      • Audi
      • Ford
      • GM
      • 日産
      • Daimler/Mercedes
      • VW・AdaptIVe Consortium
      • Volvo Cars
      • Tesla Motors
      • その他
    • R&D・関連事業者
      • Alphabet/Google:ProjectX
      • Baidu
      • DOTs
      • Telecom Readiness
      • QNX
      • Continental Automotive
    • 新興企業
      • Uber
  • 標準化
    • NHTSA
    • SAE International
    • IEEE
    • サマリー

第6章 コネクテッドカー

  • 概要:定義
  • 政策
  • 選択肢
    • ネットワーク要件
    • 機能的技術
  • 推進因子
  • 主要用途
  • 市場
  • 参入企業
    • AT&T
    • Airbiquity Inc.
    • Apple
    • Broadcom
    • Ericsson
    • Ficosa
    • GM
    • Luxoft
    • MobilEye
    • Nvidia
    • Nokia
    • Qualcomm
    • Sierra Wireless
    • Streetline
    • Verizon
    • Visteon
    • Wind River
    • Zubie
  • コネクテッドカー:グループ・アライアンス
    • Open Automotive Alliance
    • 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars
    • Apple:iOS in the Car
  • 規格・法規制
    • 共同の取り組み
    • EU
    • 米国
    • WWW Consortium
    • SAE
    • GSMA Connected Car Forum
    • Car Connectivity Consortium
  • M2M/IoT・無人走行車/コネクテッドカー

第7章 Lidar

  • 概要
    • 一般的特徴
  • 構造・機能
    • その他のセンサーとの比較
  • センサー・悪天候
  • 参入企業
    • Aerostar
    • ASC
    • Ibeo
    • LeddarTech
    • Osram/Phantom Intelligence
    • Quanergy
    • TriLumina
    • Velodyne
  • メリット・制約
  • 市場

第8章 総論

図表

目次

BRIEF

This report updates and extends the Practel intelligent car project.

The goal of this report is to:

  • Analyze current trends in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) development
  • Address the progress in the ITS standardization
  • Analyze technological and marketing ITS specifics
  • Address the connected car trend
  • Analyze the connected car technologies and marketing specifics; identify major industry players and their portfolios
  • Present the current status of the driverless car development
  • Analyze marketing and technological driverless car specifics
  • Analyze the lidar technologies and market as well as the industry for automotive applications
  • Show how communications industry is preparing for the 5G era, emphasizing the role of 5G mobile communications in supporting the driverless car development. The driverless car is one of important 5G use cases.

Though never managing to successfully predict what each forthcoming generation of mobile technology should deliver to satisfy future users, the industry has nonetheless reached some consensus on the use cases for 5G communications. Machine to machine communications is one. 5G should enable the IoT, the future where all online-enabled objects will quietly pass on data to each other or to a central computer.

Facilitating the use of mobile networks by connected and autonomous cars, remotely controlled industrial robots, telehealth systems, and smart city infrastructure are also all expected to figure large in 5G thinking. There is a common notion the industry is hoping that 5G will solve problems we don't have today, but those that could hold us back years in the future - and one of the best examples to such a statement is a driverless car.

-This particular report addresses the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) progress in reaching its ultimate goal - to make a car "intelligent" enough to safely drive without a human participation. It also updates the status of a driverless car development in connection with transition to the 5G era: the industry identified driverless cars as most viable form of ITS, dominating the roadways by 2040 and sparking dramatic changes in vehicular travel. The report discusses the specifics of the 5G era as they are seen by the industry at the present time with emphasis on what 5G technologies can bring to the driverless car.

-Such a car was considered by many as a scientists' dream only 10-15 years ago; now it is a reality and all predictions are that driverless cars will hit the roads in 6-8 years. Fully developed driverless car needs support of communications systems evolving in the transition to 5G; and these two developments are interrelated - a driverless car becomes a 5G use case.

The report provides overview of the current status of the driverless car development, pictures the future steps, which the industry is planning, analyzes roadblocks, and emphasizes the importance of standardization - several organizations are working in this direction. The analysis concentrates on technological and marketing aspects of driverless cars and also on the status of the industry.

The survey of driverless cars projects currently underway is conducted; as well as the survey of related patents (2017-2019). Initial marketing statistics are developed.

-The detailed analysis of two important parts of a driverless car - lidar (one of the main components of ADAS) and the communications gear - "connected car" - is performed. The survey of recent auto lidar patents is also performed.

A driverless car, for simplicity, may be described as a combination of a connected car and ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems); and other parts. The ADAS important part is driverless car "eyes" - an instrument that can "see" surroundings and provide the information to the car for the analysis and taking relevant actions. One of most promising technologies that make cars "to see" is lidar, which is composed of laser and other parts. The report provides the detailed analysis of lidar technical and marketing characteristics and the survey of the industry.

The detailed analysis of connected cars specifics, standardization, technical characteristics and economics are presented in this report. The companies - contributors to the connected car market development - are identified and their portfolios are analyzed.

The report also emphasizes the importance of 5G mobile networking as a basis for the driverless car ITS revolution. With "ultimate" ITS, it is expected that safety on the roads will be drastically improved and the society will be free from massive amount of injuries and deaths on the roads as well as from damages to the economy due to accidents and traffic jams.

The report is intended to technical and managerial staff involved in the advanced ITS development; and for specialists in communications technologies who support such a development.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Overview
  • 1.2 Report Goal
  • 1.3 Report Scope
  • 1.4 Research Methodology
  • 1.5 Target Audience

2.0 ITS: Roads to Perfection

  • 2.1 Response
  • 2.2 Structure
  • 2.3 ITS Key Technologies
  • 2.4 ITS Main Subsystems - Driverless Car Basis
  • 2.5 ITS Standardization: In Progress
    • 2.5.1 Overview
    • 2.5.2 ETSI - Europe
    • 2.5.3 U.S.
      • 2.5.3.1 General
      • 2.5.3.2 National Transportation Communications for IT
    • 2.5.4 International
      • 2.5.4.1 General
      • 2.5.4.2 ITU
    • 2.5.5 Summary
  • 2.6 ITS Applications
    • 2.6.1 V2V and V2I
    • 2.6.2 Intelligent Vehicles
  • 2.7 ITS Market Statistics
    • 2.7.1 General
    • 2.7.2 Estimate

3.0 Connected Car

  • 3.1 General - Definition
    • 3.1.1 Driving Forces
  • 3.2 Alternatives: Technologies
    • 3.2.1 Connected Car - 5.9 GHz DSRC
      • 3.2.1.1 Background
        • 3.2.1.1.1 Recent Developments
      • 3.2.1.2 Efforts
      • 3.2.1.3 Place
      • 3.2.1.4 Structure and Protocols
      • 3.2.1.5 Requirements
      • 3.2.1.6 Milestones
      • 3.2.1.7 IEEE 802.11p
        • 3.2.1.7.1 General
        • 3.2.1.7.2 Objectives and Status
        • 3.2.1.7.3 ASTM Contributions
        • 3.2.1.7.4 Characteristics
      • 3.2.1.8 IEEE 1609
        • 3.2.1.8.1 General
        • 3.2.1.8.2 Overview
        • 3.2.1.8.3 IEEE 1609 in Use
        • 3.2.1.9 ETSI ITS-G5 - Major Features
      • 3.2.1.10 ISO and DSRC
      • 3.2.1.11 5.9 GHz DSRC Components and Procedures
        • 3.2.1.11.1 Components
        • 3.2.1.11.2 Procedures
      • 3.2.1.12 Major Applications
        • 3.2.1.12.1 EPS
      • 3.2.1.13 Spectrum - DSRC
        • 3.2.1.13.1 Channels Designation
      • 3.2.1.14 Services
        • 3.2.1.14.1 Major Services
        • 3.2.1.14.2 Service Categories/QoS
        • 3.2.1.14.3 Service Requirements
      • 3.2.1.15 Summary: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics
      • 3.2.1.16 Market Segment and Industry
        • 3.2.1.16.1 Market Drivers
        • 3.2.1.16.2 Market Requirements
        • 3.2.1.16.3 Market Estimate - 5.9 GHz DSRC
      • 3.2.1.17 Industry
        • 3.2.1.17.1 Industry Coalition
        • 3.2.1.17.2 Recent Progress
        • 3.2.1.17.3 Vendors
          • Arinc (Rockwell Collins)
          • AutoTalks
          • Cohda Wireless
          • Delphi
          • Kapsch
          • NXP
          • Redpine Signals
          • Savari
          • Unex
      • 3.2.1.18 Enhancing 802.11p - 802.11bd
    • 3.2.2 Connected Car - Cellular Technologies
      • 3.2.2.1 General
      • 3.2.2.2 3GPP Activities
        • 3.2.2.2.1 D2D Communications
        • 3.2.2.2.2 C-V2X Broadcast
        • 3.2.2.2.3 Performance Comparison
  • 3.3 Connected Car - Features
    • 3.3.3 Two Technologies - Two Opinions
      • 3.3.3.1 Governments
      • 3.3.3.2 Comparison
    • 3.3.4 Functional Technologies
      • 3.3.4.1 Over the Air Updates
    • 3.3.5 Major Applications
    • 3.3.6 Policies
    • 3.3.7 Choices
    • 3.3.8 Network Requirements
    • 3.3.9 Market: Connected Car
    • 3.3.10 Industry
      • AT&T
      • Airbiquity Inc.
      • Apple
      • Broadcom
      • Ericsson
      • Ficosa
      • GM
      • MobilEye (Intel Company)
      • Nokia
      • Qualcomm
      • Sierra Wireless
      • Streetline
      • Verizon
      • Visteon
      • Wind River
      • Zubie
    • 3.3.11 NR V2X - Evolution of C-V2X

4.0 Connected Car - Industry Groups and Standardization

  • 4.1 Industry Groups
    • 4.1.1 Open Automotive Alliance
    • 4.1.2 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars
    • 4.1.3 Apple - iOS in the Car
    • 4.1.4 GSMA Connected Car Forum
    • 4.1.5 Car Connectivity Consortium
  • 4.2 Standards and Regulations
    • 4.2.1 Joint Efforts
    • 4.2.2 EU
    • 4.2.3 U.S.
    • 4.2.4 WWW Consortium
    • 4.2.5 SAE

5.0 5G Era

  • 5.1 5G Timetable (3GPP-ITU)
  • 5.2 Contributors
  • 5.3 5G Activity Survey
    • 5.3.1 NGMN Ltd - Supporter of C-V2X
      • 5.3.1.1 5G White Papers
    • 5.3.2 5G-PPP (5G Public Private Partnership)
    • 5.3.3 5G Americas
    • 5.3.4 GSMA
      • 5.3.4.1 GSMA Report on 5G
        • 5.3.4.1.1 Vision
        • 5.3.4.1.2 The Evolution: From 4G to 5G
        • 5.3.4.1.3 5G Use Cases
    • 5.3.5 Verizon 5G Technology Forum (TF)
    • 5.3.6 3GPP - New Radio (NR)

6.0 5G Technologies - Main Features

  • 6.1 Look into Future
  • 6.2 Promising Directions
    • 6.2.1 Requirements
    • 6.2.2 Common Views
      • 6.2.2.1 5G Spectrum
    • 6.2.3 Future - Starts Today
  • 6.3 Issues
  • 6.4 Use Cases
    • 6.4.1 General -Characteristics
    • 6.4.2 Mobile Broadband
    • 6.4.3 Automotive
    • 6.4.4 Smart Society

7.0 Evolving of Driverless Car

  • 7.1 Growing Together
  • 7.2 Directions and Issues
  • 7.3 ADAS
  • 7.4 Current Status - Legislation and Insurance
    • 7.4.1 The U.S.
    • 7.4.2 The GB
  • 7.5 Major Benefits
  • 7.6 Solutions
  • 7.7 Market Projections and Price
  • 7.8 Phases
    • 7.8.1 Required Characteristics
  • 7.9 Industry and R&D
    • 7.9.1 Automakers
      • 7.9.1.1 Audi
        • 7.9.1.1.1 First Level 3 Car
      • 7.9.1.2 Ford
      • 7.9.1.3 GM
      • 7.9.1.4 Nissan
      • 7.9.1.5 Daimler/Mercedes
      • 7.9.1.6 VW and AdaptIVe Consortium
      • 7.9.1.7 Volvo Cars
      • 7.9.1.8 Tesla Motors
      • 7.9.1.9 SAIC
      • 7.9.1.10 Other
    • 7.9.2 R&D and Competitors
      • 7.9.2.1 Alphabet/Google - ProjectX -Waymo
      • 7.9.2.2 Baidu
      • 7.9.2.3 DOTs
      • 7.9.2.4 Telecom Readiness: Driverless Car - 5G Communications
        • 7.9.2.4.1 Huawei
        • 7.9.2.4.2 Swisscom
      • 7.9.2.5 QNX
      • 7.9.2.6 Continental Automotive
      • 7.9.2.7 Nvidia
    • 7.9.3 Start-ups
      • 7.9.3.1 Uber
      • 7.9.3.2 Lyft
  • 7.10 Standardization
    • 7.10.1 NHTSA
      • 7.10.1.1 Levels
    • 7.10.2 SAE International
      • 7.10.2.1 USA Preparedness
    • 7.10.3 IEEE
    • 7.10.4 AECC
    • 7.10.5 Summary

8.0 Lidar

  • 8.1 General
    • 8.1.1 Typical Characteristics
  • 8.2 Structure and Functionalities
    • 8.2.1 Comparison with other Sensors
  • 8.3 Sensors and Bad Weather
  • 8.4 Industry
    • AEye
    • Analog Devices
    • ASC
    • Ibeo (subsidiary of SICK AG)
    • Innoviz
    • Lasertel
    • Luminar
    • LeddarTech
    • Oryx Vision
    • Osram/Phantom Intelligence
    • Quanergy
    • TetraVue
    • TriLumina
    • Velodyne
    • Waymo (Alphabet)
  • 8.5 Lidars Benefits and Limitations
  • 8.6 Market

9.0 Conclusions

Attachment I: Driverless/Connected Car-related Patents Survey (2017-2019)

Attachment II: Automotive Lidar-related Patents Survey (2017-2019)

  • Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment
  • Figure 2: Europe - Standardization Organizations
  • Figure 3: U.S. - ITS Standardizations Bodies
  • Figure 4: NTCIP Structure
  • Figure 5: International -Standardization Bodies - ITS
  • Figure 6: Estimate: Global Market - ITS Devices ($B)
  • Figure 7: Estimate: ITS WICT- Global Market ($B)
  • Figure 8: ITS Equipment Sales by Regions ($B)
  • Figure 9: Connected Car - Sensors
  • Figure 10: 5.9 GHz DSRC - Frequencies Allocation and Channelization
  • Figure 11: 5.9 GHz DSRC - Modified Spectrum Proposal
  • Figure 12: Industry Cooperation
  • Figure 13: ITS-5.9 GHz DSRC - Illustration
  • Figure 14: Communications Model: WAVE
  • Figure 15: 802.11p - Communications
  • Figure 16: Signals Flow
  • Figure 17: Collision Detection/Avoidance System
  • Figure 18: Work Zone Warning
  • Figure 19: "Smart" Car
  • Figure 20: DSRC Worldwide - Spectrum Allocation
  • Figure 21: DSRC: Spectrum Allocation Details
  • Figure 22: Channel Assignment - 5.9 GHz DSRC
  • Figure 23: 5.9 GHz DSRC Transmission Characteristics and Channelization
  • Figure 24: Spectrum Details - Overlapping Wi-Fi
  • Figure 25: Major Categories-DSRC Services
  • Figure 26: 5.9 GHz DSRC Rate vs. Distance
  • Figure 27: 5.9 GHz DSRC Protocols - Summary
  • Figure 28: Estimate: 5.9 GHz DSRC U.S. Market Size ($B)
  • Figure 29: C-V2X Modes of Communications
  • Figure 30: 3GPP Schedule - Evolution of LTE-based Communications
  • Figure 31: D2D Communications - Evolution
  • Figure 32: LTE ProSe Functions - Discovery and Communications
  • Figure 33: 3GPP - C-V2X Technology Development
  • Figure 34: Connected Car Functionalities
  • Figure 35: Network Requirements - Connected Car Connectivity
  • Figure 36: Estimate - Global Market - Connected Car ($B)
  • Figure 37: Estimate: Global Automotive Wireless Market - Equipment Sales ($B)
  • Figure 38: Estimate - Global - Service Providers Revenue - Connected Car ($B)
  • Figure 39: Estimate - Global Sales - Connected Cars (Mil. Units)
  • Figure 40: Connected Car Penetration - U.S. (%)
  • Figure 41: ITU-R Schedule and Process for IMT-2020
  • Figure 42: 3GPP - Tentative Timeline - 5G Standardization
  • Figure 43: Time Line - NR Development
  • Figure 44: Transition - Current View
  • Figure 45: 5G Spectrum
  • Figure 46: 5G Technologies Directions
  • Figure 47: 5G - related Characteristics
  • Figure 48: 5G Use Cases - Rate of Transmission and Latency
  • Figure 49: U.S. - Driverless Car Legislative Status (as of 2018)
  • Figure 50: Estimate: Driverless Cars Sold - Global (%)
  • Figure 51: Evolution Path - Driverless Car
  • Figure 52: NHTSA - Car Automation Levels
  • Figure 53: Lidar and Radar Properties
  • Figure 54: Estimate: Lidar Market Size - Global ($B)
  • Figure 55: Estimate: Automotive Lidar Market Size - Global ($B)
  • Table 1: ETSI G5 Characteristics
  • Table 2: Service Categories
  • Table 3: Service Requirements
  • Table 4: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics
  • Table 5: 802.11p and 802.11bd
  • Table 6: LTE - D2D and Broadcast Modes - Performance Comparison
  • Table 7: Major Parameters - 5.9 GHz DSRC and C-V2X
  • Table 8: NR V2X vs 802.11bd
  • Table 9: 5G Network Major Characteristics
  • Table 10: 5G Use Cases
  • Table 11: Lidar Characteristics - Automotive Applications
  • Table 12: Lidar and Video Camera Properties
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