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Z世代の展望:人口統計パターンおよび支出動向

Looking Ahead to Gen Z: Demographic Patterns and Spending Trends

発行 Packaged Facts 商品コード 662741
出版日 ページ情報 英文 176 Pages
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本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=108.54円で換算しております。
Z世代の展望:人口統計パターンおよび支出動向 Looking Ahead to Gen Z: Demographic Patterns and Spending Trends
出版日: 2018年07月05日 ページ情報: 英文 176 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、Z世代 (ジェネレーションZ) の10代・若年成人の消費者態度について分析し、Z世代消費者市場を形成する主な動向、およびマーケッターがZ世代消費者へ近づくための機会、Z世代の人口統計・経済プロファイル、Z世代消費者のショッピング態度・支出パターンとメディア・マーケティングアプローチなどに関する分析を提供しています。

エグゼクティブサマリー

考察・機会

  • Z世代の概要
  • マーケティング機会

人口統計プロファイル

  • 人口動向
  • 社会的・政治的な見解
  • Z世代の生活環境
  • 社会指標

経済プロファイル

  • 学業成績
  • 雇用傾向
  • 所得水準

ショッピング習慣・支出パターンの概要

  • ショッピング習慣
  • Z世代の支出パターン
  • Z世代若年成人の購買力
  • Z世代消費単位の概要

消費者支出のハイライト

  • アパレル
  • コンシューマーエレクトロニクス・エンターテインメント
  • 自動車
  • 食品

金融サービスの利用

  • 銀行サービス
  • クレジットカード・デビットカードの所有・使用
  • その他の金融サービス動向

Z世代へのマーケティング

  • 概要
  • Z世代の大学生へのマーケティング
  • 多文化マーケティングの展望
目次
Product Code: LA15529459

The 31 million 18- to 24-year-olds in the vanguard of Gen Z and the 21 million 13- to 17-year-olds growing up behind them are making a profound impact on the American consumer economy. Gen Z young adults generate an aggregate income of $463 billion, while older teens (15- to 17-year-olds) have an aggregate income of $17 billion and have parents who spend $25 billion on their clothing and categories such as entertainment and personal care items.

This Packaged Facts report provides an in-depth look at how members of Gen Z view the world and analyzes what drives their behavior as consumers. One overriding conclusion of the report is that today's teens and young adults display a wide range of complicated and contradictory characteristics that create an unparalleled challenge for marketers.

Despite being glued to their screens and living full lives on social media, these Gen Z digital natives continue to seek out consumer experiences in the brick-and-mortar world. Compared to adults on average, Gen Z young adults are less likely to buy online and are more likely to make visits to the mall. Gen Z consumers are more likely both to use banking apps and to make frequent visits to their local bank branch. They are more likely both to download entertainment at home and to go out to the movies often.

Another defining characteristic of Gen Z is their unprecedented comfort with the idea of gender fluidity and their broad view of sexuality. As a result, marketers have begun to respond to Gen Z consumers by launching gender-neutral marketing campaigns and rolling out gender-neutral products that have traditionally been geared exclusively toward either males or females.

Not only is Gen Z different from the Millennial generation that came before it, but it includes divergent demographic and psychographic segments that pose challenges to marketers. For example, when it comes to 18- to 24-year-olds paying attention to advertising or consuming traditional media, there are substantial differences across the lines of race and Hispanic origin. Non-Hispanic whites are far less likely than African American and Hispanic young adults to express positive attitudes about advertising and African Americans are much more likely to depend on traditional media.

Scope and Methodology

Scope of the Report

This Packaged Facts report analyzes the consumer behavior of Generation Z teens and young adults. It includes an overview of key trends shaping the Gen Z consumer market and highlights opportunities for marketers reaching out to Gen Z consumers. The report offers demographic and economic profiles of Gen Z and examines the shopping behavior and spending patterns of Gen Z consumers and well as their receptivity to media and marketing approaches.

Generational definitions are fluid, as market researchers and demographers do not always agree about when one generation ends and another begins. Also, since generations age one year at a time, in any given year the standard multi-year age groupings in published data do not necessarily overlap various generational definitions.

This Packaged Facts report defines Gen Z as including the 13- to 24-year-old age group and further segments Gen Z into young adults in the 18- to 24-year-old age group and teens (13- to 17-year-olds). A number of the surveys cited in the report cover different segments of Gen Z, such as 13- to 19-year-olds or 13- to 21-year-olds. Census Bureau data used in the report sometimes include the 15- to 17-year-old and 15- to 24-year-old age groups. Comparisons with other age groups include Millennials (defined as 25- to 39-year-olds) and adults in the 40-and-over age group.

Methodology

The primary source of consumer data in this report is the Simmons National Consumer Survey for Fall 2017, which was fielded between October 2016 and November 2017. For trend analysis comparing Millennials when they were 18- to 24-year-olds a decade ago with today's young adults, the report uses as a baseline the Fall 2007 Simmons survey. On an ongoing basis, Simmons conducts booklet-based surveys of a large and random sample of consumers (approximately 25,000 for each 12-month survey compilation) who in aggregate represent a statistically accurate cross-section of the U.S. population.

U.S. Government data sources include data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The age groupings used by BLS data (18 to 24, 25 to 34 as well as 18 to 35) generally conform with those used by other data sources used in this report.

The report also cites survey research conducted by a wide range of marketing and consulting firms and other non-governmental data sources. These include surveys and reports produced by Accenture, American Express/Forrester Research, Association of National Advertisers, Awesomeness TV, Barna Group (Ventura, California), Euclid Analytics (San Francisco, California), JWT Intelligence, Ketchum Global & Analytics (Chicago, Illinois), Koski Research (San Francisco, California), Raddon (Lombard, Illinois), MTV/Public Religion Research Institute, SCG (Parsippany, New Jersey), TD Ameritrade, and Transunion (Chester, Pennsylvania). The report is also based upon data collected from a wide range of other industry sources, including company websites, trade publications, business newspapers and magazines and consumer blogs.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

  • Overview
    • Scope and Methodology
  • Demographic Profile
    • Population of 13- to 24-Year-Olds Reaches 52 Million
    • Gen Z Is Far More Diverse Than Other Generations
    • Gender Fluidity Is a Marker of Gen Z
    • Religious Institutions Lose Influence Among Gen Z Teens
    • Gen Z Young Adults Are More Politically Engaged
    • 18- to 24-Year-Olds Are Now Much Less Likely to Live Independently
    • Cohabitation Far More Common
    • Teen Marriages and Births Have Declined Precipitously
  • Economic Profile
    • School Defines the Lives of Most Gen Z Teens and Younger Adults
    • Educational Achievement Is on the Upswing
    • Teen Employment Trends Downward
    • Summer Jobs Have Become Less Common
    • Older Teens Much More Likely to Work
    • Working Becomes Part of Life When Teen Years End
    • Employment Patterns Vary Widely by Race and Hispanic Origin
    • A Substantial Percentage of Young Adults Have Managerial or Professional Jobs
    • Level of Personal Income of Gen Z Reflects Earning Capacity
    • Gen Z Is Much More Likely to Depend on Earnings From Self-Employment
  • Overview of Shopping Habits and Spending Patterns
    • Brick-and-Mortar Shopping Still Appeals to Gen Z
    • New Stores More Likely to Appeal to 18- to 24-Year-Olds
    • Gen Z Young Adults Less Likely Than Millennials to Buy Online
    • Gen Z Young Adults Are More Likely to Be Sole Purchase Decision-Maker
    • Parents Are a Major Source of Teen Spending Power
    • Food and Clothing Dominate Teen Spending Priorities
    • Aggregate Income of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Totals $463 Billion
    • Expenditures of Gen Z Consumer Units Total $260 Billion
  • Highlights of Consumer Spending
    • Gen Z Young Adult Males Especially Drawn to Spending on Clothing
    • Under-25 Consumer Units Spend $9.8 Billion on Apparel
    • In-Home Entertainment Soaks Up Biggest Share of Gen Z Entertainment Expenditures
    • Gen Z Is Attached To Cellphones
    • Entertainment Choices Stand Out
    • Gen Z Likely to Continue America's Love Affair with Cars
    • Used Cars Favored by Gen Z
    • Gen Z Young Adults Far More Likely to Eat Out
  • Use of Financial Services
    • Gen Z Young Adults More Likely Than Their Millennial Predecessors to Have Bank Accounts
    • Gen Z Most Likely to Use Mobile Banking Apps but Brick-and-Mortar Branches Still Appeal
    • Many Teens Are Super Savers
    • 67% of Teens Have Access to Bank Accounts
    • Multicultural Young Adults Drive Growth in Ownership of Bank Accounts
    • Multicultural Young Adults Are a Growing Force in Ownership of Credit and Debit Cards
    • 19% of Teens Have Access to a Credit Card, 40% Have a Debit Card
    • Digital and Mobile Payments Preferred by Gen Z
  • Marketing to Gen Z
    • Instagram and Snapchat Win Out Over Facebook
    • Conventional Celebrities Lose Out to Social Media Stars
    • Brands Ramp Up Influencer Marketing Campaigns to Reach Gen Z
    • Traditional Promotional Strategies Are Less Likely to Influence Gen Z
    • Advertising in Traditional Media Still Attracts Attention from Gen Z Young Adults
    • College Market Represents a Multi-Billion Dollar Target for Brands
    • College Students Favor Twitter or Instagram
    • Old-Fashioned Direct Marketing Still Gets Results on College Campuses
    • Most Hispanic Young Adults Stay Connected to Their Heritage
    • Many Gen Z Latino Young Adults See Spanish-Language Advertising as Mark of Respect
    • African American Young Adults More Receptive to Advertising

Insights and Opportunities

  • Overview of Gen Z
    • Gen Z Makes an Impact
    • A Paradoxical Generation
    • Plotting a Different Course
    • A Generation of Savers and Strivers
    • Far From Monolithic
    • "A Tough Nut to Crack" for Marketers
  • Marketing Opportunities
    • Gen Z Offers a Big Payoff for Brick-and-Mortar Retailers
    • Omnichannel In-Store Systems Required to Engage Gen Z Shoppers
    • Retailers Reach Out to Gen Z With a Heightened Store Experience
    • Clothes Matter to Gen Z
    • Abercrombie & Fitch Reinvents Itself With Inclusive Gen Z Strategy
    • Brick-and-Mortar World of Gen Z Consumers Extends Beyond Retail Stores
    • Gender Fluidity of Gen Z Opens New Terrain for Marketers
    • Gen Z Represents Significant Market Segment for Consumer Electronics
    • Target Aims at Gen Z With New Consumer Electronics Brand
    • Video Games Offer Unique Marketing Platform
    • Gen Z Represents a Key Market for Restaurant Industry
    • Gen Z Young Adults Can Offer High ROI for Marketers
    • Gen Z Is Highly Receptive to Financial Services
    • Financial Education Seen as Key Tool in Establishing Relationships with Gen Z
    • Multicultural Young Adults Spark Growth in Banking Services
    • Members of Gen Z Remain Strong Prospects for Auto Industry

Demographic Profile

  • Population Trends
    • Population of 13- to 24-Year-Olds Reaches 52 Million
    • Table: U.S. Population by Age Group/Generation, 2016 (in thousands)
    • Gen Z Is Far More Diverse Than Other Generations
    • Table: U.S. Population by Age Group/Generation and Race and Hispanic Origin, 2016 (in thousands)
    • One-Third of 13- to 24-Year-Olds Live in Just Four States
    • Table: States with Largest Populations of 13- to 24-Year-Olds, 2016 (in thousands)
  • Social and Political Views
    • Gender Fluidity Is a Marker of Gen Z
    • When It Comes to Gen Z's Views of Diversity, It's Complicated
    • Religious Institutions Lose Influence Among Gen Z Teens
    • Gen Z Young Adults Are More Politically Engaged
    • Table: Partisan Affiliation and Political Orientation of 18- to 24-Year-Olds, 2007 vs. 2017
    • Political Profile of Gen Z Varies Across Race and Hispanic Origin
    • Table: Political Orientation of 18- to 24-Year-Olds by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2017 (in thousands)
    • Young Women Are More Likely to Be Political Activists
    • Today's 18- to 24-Year-Olds Are More Environmentally Conscious
    • Table: Attitudes of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Toward Recycling, 2007 vs. 2017
  • Living Arrangements of Gen Z
    • Most Gen Z Teens Still Live in Family Households
    • Table: Living Arrangements of 15- to 19-Year-Olds by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2017
    • 18- to 24-Year-Olds Are Now Much Less Likely to Live Independently
    • Table: Percent of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Living in Own Household vs. Households of Others, 1970 vs. 2017
    • Cohabitation Far More Common
    • Table: Spouses and Cohabiting Partners as Percent of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Living with a Partner by Gender, Selected Years 1970-2016
    • Table: Characteristics of Couples in Households Headed by 15- to 24-Year-Olds (in thousands)
  • Social Indicators
    • Gen Z Teens Are Better Off Than Millennial Counterparts in a Number of Ways
    • Table: Changes in School Enrollment and Labor Force Participation for 15- to 19-Year-Olds by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2007 vs. 2016
    • Table: Living Arrangements of 15- to 19-Year-Olds by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2007 vs. 2016
    • Teen Marriages and Births Have Declined Precipitously
    • Table: Changes in Marital Status for 15- to 19-Year-Old Males and Females by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2007 vs. 2016

Economic Profile

  • Educational Achievement
    • School Defines the Lives of Most Gen Z Teens and Younger Adults
    • Table: Percent of 15- to 24-Year-Olds Enrolled in Educational Institutions by Age Group and Type of Institution, 2016
    • Educational Achievement Is on the Upswing
    • Table: Educational Attainment of 18- to 24-Year-Olds, 2007 vs. 2017
  • Employment Trends
    • Teen Employment Trends Downward
    • Summer Jobs Have Become Less Common
    • School Gets Priority Over Work
    • Older Teens Much More Likely to Work
    • Table: Employment Status of 16- to 19-Year-Olds by Age Group, 2017
    • Working Becomes Part of Life When Teen Years End
    • Table: Employment Status of 16- to 24-Year-Olds by Age Group, 2017
    • Table: Work Experience of 15- to 24-Year-Olds by Age Group, 2016
    • Young Adult Men More Likely to Work Full-Time
    • Table: Work Experience of 18- to 24-Year-Olds by Gender, 2016
    • Employment Patterns Vary Widely by Race and Hispanic Origin
    • Table: Work Experience of 15- to 24-Year-Olds by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2016
    • A Substantial Percentage of Young Adults Have Managerial or Professional Jobs
    • Table: Leading Occupations of Employed 20- to 24-Year-Olds, 2017
  • Income Levels
    • Level of Personal Income of Gen Z Reflects Earning Capacity
    • Table: Income of 15- to 24-Year-Olds by Age Group, 2016
    • Gen Z Is Much More Likely to Depend on Earnings From Self-Employment
    • Earnings Gender Gap Still Holds Among Young Adults in Gen Z
    • Table: Earnings of 18- to 24-Year-Olds with Associate's Degree or More by Gender, 2016

Overview of Shopping Habits and Spending Patterns

  • Shopping Habits
    • Brick-and-Mortar Shopping Still Appeals to Gen Z
    • Table: Percent Shopping at Brick-and-Mortar Stores in Last Three Months by Category of Store and by Age Group, 2017
    • Gen Z Young Adults Have Positive Thoughts About Brick-and-Mortar Shopping
    • Table: Attitudes Toward Shopping, 18- to 24-Year-Olds vs. All Adults, 2017
    • New Stores and Specialty Stores More Likely to Appeal to 18- to 24-Year-Olds
    • Table: Importance of New Stores and Specialty Stores, 18- to 24-Year-Olds vs. All Adults, 2017
    • Gen Z Young Adults Less Likely Than Millennials to Buy Online
    • Gen Z Young Adults Are More Likely to Be Sole Purchase Decision-Maker
    • Table: Percent of Those Making Purchase in Last 12 Months by Category of Item Purchased, 18- to 24-Year-Olds vs. All Adults, 2017
  • Spending Patterns of Gen Z Teens
    • 15- to 17-Year-Olds Generate Significant Personal Income
    • Table: Aggregate Income of 15- to 17-Year-Olds, 2016
    • Parents Remain a Significant Source of Teen Spending Power
    • Parents Spend $25 Billion on Clothing and Miscellaneous Items for Teens
    • Table: Aggregate Family Spending on 15- to 17-Year-Olds for Clothing and Miscellaneous Items Including Personal Care Items, Entertainment, and Reading Materials, 2016
    • Food and Clothing Dominate Teen Spending Priorities
  • Spending Power of Gen Z Young Adults
    • Aggregate Income of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Totals $463 Billion
    • Table: Aggregate Income of 18- to 24-Year-Olds, 2016
    • College Education Leads to Higher Incomes for Gen Z Young Adults
    • Table: Earnings of 18- to 24-Year-Olds with Associate's Degree or More, 2016
    • Table: Earnings of 18- to 24-Year-Olds with Associate's Degree or More by Gender, 2016
  • Overview of Gen Z Consumer Units
    • Gen Z Consumer Units Defined
    • Profile of Gen Z Consumer Units
    • Table: Characteristics of Consumer Units, Under-25 vs. All Consumer Units, July 2016-June 2017
    • Table: Characteristics of Consumer Units With Reference Person Under 25 Years of Age by Size of Consumer Unit, 2015-2016
    • Expenditures of Gen Z Consumer Units Total $260 Billion
    • Table: Mean Income and Aggregate Consumer Expenditures of Consumer Units With Reference Person Under 25 Years of Age, July 2016-June 2017
    • Table: Aggregate Income and Consumer Expenditures of Consumer Units With Reference Person Under 25 Years of Age by Size of Consumer Unit, 2015-2016
    • Spending Priorities of Gen Z Consumer Units Differ
    • Table: Key Differences in Spending Priorities, Under-25 vs. All Households, July 2016-June 2017

Highlights of Consumer Spending

  • Apparel
    • Gen Z Young Adults Place High Priority on Buying Apparel
    • Table: Attitudes Toward Buying Clothes by Gender and Age Group, 2017
    • Gen Z Young Adult Males Especially Drawn to Spending on Clothing
    • Table: Percent of Total Consumer Expenditures by Single Men and Women for Men's and Women's Clothing by Age Group, 2015-2016
    • Gen Z Women Outpace Apparel Expenditures of Older Women
    • Under-25 Consumer Units Spend $9.8 Billion on Apparel
    • Table: Aggregate Expenditures by Under-25 Consumer Units for Apparel and Related Services, July 2016-June 2017 (in million $)
  • Consumer Electronics and Entertainment
    • Gen Z Allocate Below-Average Ratio of Expenditures to Entertainment
    • Table: Percent of Total Consumer Expenditures Allocated to Entertainment, Under-25 vs. All Consumer Units, July 2016-June 2017
    • In-Home Soaks Up Biggest Share of Gen Z Entertainment Expenditures
    • Table: Aggregate Expenditures by Under-25 Consumer Units for Entertainment, July 2016-June 2017 (in million $)
    • Gen Z Is Glued to Cellphones
    • Cellphones Are a Major Expense for Gen Z
    • Gen Z Lags in Ownership of PCs and Tablets
    • Gen Z Most Likely to Download Entertainment
    • Video Games Most Popular Among Gen Z
    • Movies and Live Entertainment Events Are Still Important to Gen Z
    • Table: Attendance at Live Entertainment Events in Last 12 Months by Age Group, 2017
  • Automotive
    • Gen Z Likely to Continue America's Love Affair with Cars
    • Automakers Hedge Bets to Accommodate Gen Z City Dwellers
    • Used Cars Favored by Gen Z
    • Table: Percent of Total Consumer Expenditures Allocated to Vehicle Purchases and Related Items by Category, Under-25 vs. All Consumer Units, July 2016-June 2017
    • Table: Aggregate Expenditures by Under-25 Households for Vehicle Purchases and Related Items, July 2016-June 2017 (in million $)
  • Food
    • Gen Z Moves Toward Healthier Food
    • Gen Z Is More Willing to Experiment With New Foods
    • Table: Attitudes of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Toward Trying Out New Foods, 2007 vs. 2017
    • Eating Habits of Young Adults Have Changed Over the Past Decade
    • Table: Percent of At-Home Food Expenditures Allocated to Miscellaneous Foods, Under-25 vs. All Consumer Units, 2015-2016
    • Table: Percent of Households with 18- to 24-Year-Old Household Head Eating Packaged or Frozen Meals, 2017
    • Gen Z Young Adults Far More Likely to Eat Out

Use of Financial Services

  • Banking Services
    • Gen Z Adults More Likely Than Millennial Predecessors to Have Bank Accounts
    • Gen Z Most Likely to Use Mobile Banking Apps, but Brick-and-Mortar Still Appeals
    • Many Teens Are Super Savers
    • 67% of Teens Have Access to Bank Accounts
    • Most Gen Z Teens Are Comfortable With Traditional Banking Institutions
    • Multicultural Young Adults Drive Growth in Ownership of Bank Accounts
    • Table: Ownership of Bank Accounts by Non-Hispanic White and Multicultural 18- to 24-Year-Olds, 2007 vs. 2017 (in thousands)
  • Ownership and Use of Credit and Debit Cards
    • Gen Z Moves Toward Increased Ownership of Debit/ATM Cards
    • Multicultural Young Adults Are Growing Force in Credit and Debit Cards
    • Table: Ownership and Use of Credit and Debit/ATM Cards by Non-Hispanic White and Multicultural 18- to 24-Year-Olds, 2007 vs. 2017 (in thousands)
    • 19% of Teens Have Access to a Credit Card, 40% Have a Debit Card
    • New Credit Cards Launched to Meet Needs of Gen Z
  • Other Financial Services Trends
    • Gen Z Teens Favor Cash and Peer-to-Peer Payment Services
    • Digital and Mobile Payments Preferred by Older Members of Gen Z
    • 18- to 24-Year-Olds More Likely to Use Cash to Pay Bills
    • Table: Methods and Forms of Bill Paying Used by Those Paying Their Own Bills by Age Group, 2017

Marketing to Gen Z

  • Overview
    • Brands Most Likely to Find Gen Z on Social Media
    • Instagram and Snapchat Win Out Over Facebook
    • Gen Z Consumes Vast Quantity of Videos on Social Media
    • Conventional Celebrities Lose Out to Social Media Stars
    • Brands Ramp Up Influencer Marketing Campaigns to Reach Gen Z
    • Gen Z Sets a High Bar for Brands
    • Traditional Promotional Strategies Are Less Likely to Influence Gen Z
    • Advertising in Traditional Media Still Attracts Attention from Gen Z Young Adults
    • Table: Attitudes Toward Advertising by Age Group, 2017
  • Marketing to Gen Z College Students
    • Population of 18- to 24-Year-Old College Students Exceeds 12 Million
    • Table: Number and Percent of 18- to 24-Year-Year-Olds Enrolled in Undergraduate and Graduate Institutions, October 2016 (in thousands)
    • Table: Number and Percent of 18- to 24-Year-Year-Olds Enrolled Part-Time and Full-Time in Undergraduate and Graduate Institution, October 2016 (in thousands)
    • Gender Gap Remains Wide on College Campuses
    • Gen Z College Students Are Far More Diverse Than Their Millennial Predecessors
    • College Market Represents a Multi-Billion Dollar Target for Brands
    • Gen Z College Students More Likely to Use Financial Services
    • Table: Use of Financial Services by 18- to 24-Year-Olds, College vs. Non-College Students, 2017
    • College Students Favor Twitter or Instagram
    • Old-Fashioned Direct Marketing Still Gets Results on College Campuses
  • Multicultural Marketing Perspectives
    • Most Hispanic Young Adults Stay Connected to Their Heritage
    • Table: Place of Birth and Language Preferences of Hispanics by Age Group, 2017
    • Table: Attitudes of Hispanics Toward Hispanic Heritage by Age Group, 2017
    • Many Gen Z Latino Young Adults See Spanish-Language Advertising as Mark of Respect
    • Table: Attitudes of Hispanics Toward Spanish-Language Advertising by Age Group, 2017
    • African American Young Adults More Receptive to Advertising
    • Table: Attitudes of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Toward Advertising by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2017
    • African American Young Adults Most Likely to Turn to Traditional Media
    • Table: Attitudes of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Toward Traditional Media by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2017