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地熱エネルギーレポート:2011年第1版

NRG Expert Geothermal Report Ed 1 2011: Global Geothermal Energy Complete Industry Report

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出版日 ページ情報 英文 424 Pages
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地熱エネルギーレポート:2011年第1版 NRG Expert Geothermal Report Ed 1 2011: Global Geothermal Energy Complete Industry Report
出版日: 2011年09月01日 ページ情報: 英文 424 Pages

当商品の販売は、2020年01月08日を持ちまして終了しました。

概要

現在、地熱エネルギーにおいては米国が3,102MWの設置容量で世界最大であり、これにフィリピン(1,966MW)、インドネシア(1,189MW)、メキシコ(958MW)、イタリア(863MW)が続きます。第6位のニュージーランドは140MWの世界最大級の地熱プラントが昨年立ち上がったことで大きく成長すると予測されています。

当レポートでは、世界の地熱エネルギー市場について調査し、地熱エネルギーの使用概要、地熱発電業界参入企業のプロファイル、収益とコスト、国別動向などをまとめ、概略以下の構成でお届けします。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 地熱エネルギーのイントロダクション

  • 概要
  • 地熱エネルギー使用の拡大
  • 地熱エネルギーの直接的低エンタルピー使用
  • 地熱ヒートポンプ(GHP)、地表源ヒートポンプ(GSHP)
  • 発電のための地熱エネルギーの間接的使用
  • 地熱発電技術
  • 各種技術の比較
  • 資源の場所

第3章 地熱エネルギーの容量と使用概要

  • 直接的地熱エネルギーの使用
  • 地表源ヒートポンプ(GSHP)
  • 地熱発電
  • 地熱発電の成長
  • 技術

第4章 地熱発電業界

  • 概要
  • Alterra Power Corporation
  • Borealis Geothermal
  • Caithness Energy
  • Calpine
  • CalEnergy
  • Chevron 他

第5章 地熱の収益とコスト:発電、建設、設備売上

  • 地熱発電売上からの収益
  • 地熱発電所建設の資本投資コスト
  • 地熱発電設備市場

第6章 国別地熱エネルギーの使用と開発

  • 北米
  • カナダ
  • メキシコ
  • 米国

第7章 アジア太平洋地域

第8章 欧州

第9章 中米・カリブ海沿岸諸国

第10章 南米

第11章 アフリカ

第12章 地熱メーカー

第13章 目標、助成、インセンティブ

第14章 情報源と謝辞

図表

目次
Product Code: NRGGT1

2010 appeared to be a weak year for geothermal with few projects commissioned and only in existing markets. However, this is not indicative of the state of the sector as a whole. As more money was invested in geothermal last year than the previous year. Several projects are now in the advanced stages of development, e.g. in the US alone there is 722 MW of project in phase 3 and 4, and support for the sector is strong. Specifically, Japan and Indo-nesia are relaxing rules on developing geothermal projects on protected land, which should open up more sites for development.

Once again the US is the largest country in terms of installed capacity of 3,102 MW followed by the Philippines (1,966 MW), Indonesia (1,189 MW), Mexico (958 MW) and Italy (863 MW). Sixth placed New Zealand is reporting strong growth after a 140 MW geothermal plant was commissioned in the country last year and is now the biggest plant in operation. This is

flash geothermal plant, like the second largest plant - the 117 MW Wayang Windu plant in Indonesia.

However, there are signs of a move towards the increasing use of binary geothermal plants. These plants tend to be used at lower temperature resources. As viable high temperature geothermal sites are being used or are under development and the creation of more viable sites through hydraulic fracturing, known as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), is not close to full commercialisation. With only two EGS projects in operation, the economics is not fully understood and there are concerns about induced seismicity. An even more innova-tive idea is the use of underwater geothermal resources for projects, but this would be extremely expensive and a long way in the future.

There are also reports that lithium in geothermal brine could be used to generate additional revenue for owners of geothermal projects. One project such project is under development in the Salton Sea in California in the USA.

Highlights

Over the next five years high growth markets for the sector are expected to continue to be the top six main markets, Kenya, Iceland, Mexico and South America. For the latter, devel-opers have already been awarded concessions to explore new sites in Argentina, Colombia, Chile and Peru. In the middle of 2010 the Chilean government announced plans to invest up to USD 200 million in geothermal projects and will grant over 170 geothermal concessions over the next two years, which should result in the country installing its first generation plant in the mid-term. Kenya and Mexico and the other six major markets are likely to commission projects in the advanced stages of development. As part of a strategy to raise revenue Iceland is considering exporting electricity to other countries. A feasibility study is being undertaken to build a sub-sea electric cable linking Iceland to Europe to sell electricity generated from geothermal projects to Britain, Norway, Holland and Germany.

Another potential growth market is Japan. The country' s geothermal power plants were largely unaffected by the recent earthquake and tsunami unlike the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As both provide base load electricity and Japan has a good geothermal re-source.

Australia is also developing geothermal projects, and has several EGS and Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA) projects in the pipeline.

Cost is still a major barrier to the development of projects and access to finance for the exploratory stages is still a challenge.

Table of Contents

Geothermal

1. Executive Summary

  • USA
  • Philippines
  • Indonesia
  • Mexico
  • Italy
  • New Zealand
  • Iceland
  • Japan
  • Other countries

2. Introduction to Geothermal Energy

  • Overview
  • Development of geothermal energy use
  • Direct low enthalpy use of geothermal energy
  • Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP), Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Indirect use of geothermal energy for power generation
  • Technology of geothermal power generation
    • Dry steam
    • Flash Steam
    • Binary cycle/Organic Rankine cycle
    • Combined-cycle or hybrid plants
    • Conventional and hot rocks technologies
    • Volcanic Geothermal/Convective hydrotreatment
    • Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA)
    • Hot dry rock/enhanced geothermal systems (HDR)
  • Comparison of technologies
    • Geothermal energy efficiency
    • Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
    • Geothermal coproduction from waste water
    • Offshore geothermal
  • Location of resources

3. Overview of geothermal energy capacity & utilisation

  • Geothermal direct use
  • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Geothermal electricity generation
  • Geothermal generation growth
  • Technology

4. Geothermal Power Industry

  • Overview
  • Alterra Power Corporation
  • Borealis Geothermal
  • Caithness Energy
  • Calpine
    • CalEnergy
    • USA
    • Philippines
  • Chevron
  • Contact Energy
  • Enel
  • Energy Development Corporation (EDC)
  • Gradient Resources
  • Hot Rock
  • Mighty River Project
  • Nevada Geothermal Power (NGP)
  • Ormat Technologies
  • Oski Energy
  • Panax Geothermal
  • Ram Power
  • Terra-Gen Power
  • US Geothermal
  • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)
    • AltaRock Energy
    • EGS Energy
  • Geodynamics
  • Geox
  • GreenFire Energy
  • Rockenergy
  • Drilling
    • Baker Hughes
    • Geothermal Anywhere
    • Halliburton
    • Iceland Drilling
    • Potter Drilling
    • Schlumberger
    • ThermaSource
  • Ground Source Heat Pumps
    • Nibe
    • Waterfurance Renewable Energy
  • Geothermal equipment manufacturers
  • Turbines
    • Mitsubishi
    • Toshiba
    • Fuji Electric

5. Geothermal revenue & costs - generation, construction & equipment sales

  • Revenue from geothermal electricity sales
  • Capital costs for building geothermal power plants
    • Indirect costs
    • Disposal
    • Operation & Maintenance
    • Cost comparison with other technologies
    • Geothermal generation equipment market
    • Costs of electricity

6. Country use and development of geothermal energy

  • North America
  • Canada
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Mexico
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Recent power development
    • Geothermal fields
    • Geothermal generation plants
    • Future developments
    • Direct Use
  • United States
    • Overview
    • Geothermal power generation
    • The Geysers
    • Existing Installations and Active Geothermal Projects in the United States
    • Alaska
    • Arizona
    • Arkansas
    • California
    • Colorado
    • Connecticut
    • District of Colombia
    • Florida
    • Hawaii
    • Idaho
    • Illinois
    • Indiana
    • Louisiana
    • Massachusetts
    • Michigan
    • Minnesota
    • Mississippi
    • Montana
    • North Carolina
    • North Dakota
    • Nebraska
    • Nevada
    • New Jersey
    • New Mexico
    • New York
    • Ohio
    • Oklahoma
    • Oregon
    • Pennsylvannia
    • South Carolina
    • Tennessee
    • Texas
    • Utah
    • Virginia
    • Washington
    • West Virginia
    • Wisconsin
    • Wyoming
    • Proposed installations
    • Current industry outlook
    • Geothermal Resources of the USA
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
    • Direct Use
    • Industrial process heat
    • Space heating
    • District Heating
    • Fish farming
    • Greenhouse Heating
    • Cooling and Snow Melting
    • Agricultural Drying
    • Bathing and Swimming
    • Federal Government Programmes / Incentives
    • Research & Development

7. Asia Pacific

  • Australia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Bangladesh
    • Geothermal power generation
  • China
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Fiji
    • Geothermal power generation
  • India
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Indonesia
    • Overview
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Resource Potential
    • Geothermal Plants
    • Field development and contractor status
    • Geothermal contracts concluded
    • Prices
    • Regional Autonomy
    • Law and Regulation - insufficient legal protection
    • Developments in 2006
    • Recent Developments
    • Barriers
    • Direct Use
  • Iran
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Israel
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Japan
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Future Prospects
    • Government Support
    • Barriers
    • Direct Use
  • Jordan
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Korea, People' s Republic of (North Korea)
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Korea, South
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Kyrgyzstan
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Malaysia
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Mongolia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Figure 7-22: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Mongolia, MW
  • Nepal
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Figure 7-23: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Nepal, MW
  • New Zealand
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Future Developments
    • Direct Use
  • Papua New Guinea
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Philippines
    • Overview
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Chronology of development of geothermal power in the Philippines
    • Geothermal Plants
    • Direct Use
  • Samoa
  • Tajikistan
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Taiwan
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Thailand
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Vanuatu
  • Vietnam
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Yemen
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use

8. Europe

  • Albania
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Armenia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Austria
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Belarus
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Belgium
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Bosnia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Bulgaria
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Croatia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Czech Republic
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Denmark
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Estonia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Finland
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • France
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Georgia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Germany
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
    • New Production Capacity
  • Greece
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Hungary
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Iceland
    • Geothermal power generation
    • New Production Capacity
    • Direct Use
  • Ireland
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Italy
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Latvia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Lithuania
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Macedonia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Netherlands
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Norway
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Poland
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Portugal & the Azores
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Romania
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Russian Federation
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Serbia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Slovakia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Slovenia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Spain
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Sweden
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Switzerland
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
    • Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP)
  • Turkey
  • Overview
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Ukraine
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • United Kingdom
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use

9. Central America & Caribbean

  • Caribbean Islands
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Costa Rica
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Future Development
    • Direct Use
  • Dominica
    • Geothermal power generation
  • El Salvador
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Future Development
    • Direct Use
  • Grenada
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Guadeloupe (France)
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Guatemala
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Honduras
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Nicaragua
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Future Development
    • Economic benefits of geothermal energy for Nicaragua
    • Geothermal Master Plan for Nicaragua
    • Exploration Leases
    • Direct Use
  • St Kitts and Nevis
    • Geothermal power generation
  • St Lucia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Geothermal power generation

10. South America

  • Argentina
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Bolivia
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Brazil
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Chile
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Colombia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Ecuador
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Peru
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Venezuela
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use

11. Africa

  • Geothermal power generation
  • Direct Use
  • Botswana
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Comoros
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Dijbouti
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Egypt
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Ethiopia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Kenya
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Morocco
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • South Africa
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Rwanda
    • Geothermal power generation
  • South Sudan
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Tanzania
    • Geothermal power generation
  • Tunisia
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Uganda
    • Geothermal power generation
    • Direct Use
  • Zambia
    • Geothermal power generation

12. Geothermal Manufacturers

13. Targets, subsidies and incentives

14. Sources and acknowledgements

Tables

  • Table 2-1: Total geothermal capacity and use in 2010
  • Table 2-2: Worldwide geothermal status
  • Table 2-3: Geothermal resource type
  • Table 2-4: Description of geothermal resources
  • Table 2-5: Key Data and Figures for Geothermal Heat and Power Technologies
  • Table 3-1: Summary of regional geothermal use in 2010
  • Table 3-2: Top direct use countries
  • Table 3-3: Direct use of geothermal energy by country, 1995 to 2010
  • Table 3-4: Uses of direct thermal energy by type of use, capacity (MW), and utilisation (TJ), 1995 Q1 2010
  • Table 3-5: Heat Pumps
  • Table 3-6: Number of Ground-Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) by major country
  • Table 3-7: Sales trend for heat pumps used as a heat source in 8 EU countries* followed by EHPA
  • Table 3-8: Representative GSHP manufacturers in the European Union
  • Table 3-9: Annual Number of GSHPs Installed Units in Key European Markets 2003 to 2009E
  • Table 3-10: Quantity & Capacity of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in European Union, 2005 to 2009
  • Table 3-11: Top Six Countries Growth 2005 to 2010, Growth Hot Spots
  • Table 3-12: Leading countries in electric power generation with a capacity of more than 100 MWe
  • Table 3-13: National and regional geothermal power contributions
  • Table 3-14: Geothermal plants commissioned in 2009 and 2010
  • Table 3-15: Geothermal installed power capacity by country, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2015 forecast
  • Table 3-16: Geothermal plants by technology: units, capacity (MW) and average capacity
  • Table 4-1: Calpine geothermal plants
  • Table 4-2: Chevron' s geothermal assets
  • Table 4-3: Similarities and differences between oil and gas and geothermal
  • Table 4-4: Energy Development Corporation' s geothermal projects
  • Table 4-5: Hot Rock' s HAS geothermal resource assessments at its Australian site
  • Table 4-6: Hot Rock' s geothermal milestones
  • Table 4-7: Mighty River Power' s geothermal projects
  • Table 4-8: Nevada Geothermal Power' s geothermal projects
  • Table 4-9: Ormat' s geothermal projects under construction and under development as of July 2011
  • Table 4-10: Ram Power projects under development
  • Table 4-11: Terra-Gen' s geothermal power projects
  • Table 4-12: List of geothermal turbine manufacturers
  • Table 5-1: Direct Capital Costs, USD per kW installed capacity
  • Table 5-2: Costs of conventional geothermal binary cycle power plants in the US
  • Table 5-3: Unit cost of power, US cents per kWh
  • Table 5-4: Cost comparison of geothermal power, heating and CHP
  • Table 5-5: Operating and maintenance costs
  • Table 5-6: Capital cost comparisons by technology
  • Table 5-7: Geothermal projects funded by the World Bank, 2000 - 2010
  • Table 5-8: Geothermal projects registered under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  • Table 6-1: Average costs for common ground source heat pumps in Canadian provinces, CAD
  • Table 6-2: Incentives for ground source heat pumps at the provincial level, as of August 2010
  • Table 6-3: Geothermal power generation plants in Mexico
  • Table 6-4: Present and planned geothermal plants in Mexico
  • Table 6-5: US geothermal power plants brought on line in 2009 and 2010
  • Table 6-6: Total investment in geothermal in the US, 2009, USD million
  • Table 6-7: Geothermal Plants in the USA in April 2011
  • Table 6-8: Ongoing Projects in United States by phase, April 2011
  • Table 6-9: Ongoing Projects by State in US in terms of stage and announced planned capacity additions, March 2011
  • Table 6-10: US geothermal projects with priority status as of June 2011
  • Table 6-11: Approved US geothermal projects as of March 2011
  • Table 6-12: US geothermal heat pump shipments by model type, quantity, revenue and average price, 2009
  • Table 6-13: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat in the US (excluding heat pumps)
  • Table 6-14: List of geothermal electricity department of Treasury Cash Grant Awardees
  • Table 6-15: Overview of state-level geothermal incentives in the US
  • Table 6-16: State incentives for geothermal indirect-use, direct-use, and heat pump incentives in US
  • Table 7-1: Synopsis of the applicable legislation currently governing geothermal exploration activities in the various Australian States
  • Table 7-2: A summary of Commonwealth and State government grant options currently available the Australian geothermal sector
  • Table 7-3: Grants awarded to companies developing geothermal projects in Australia, as of February 2010
  • Table 7-4: Forecast geothermal development costs in Australia, AUD per MW
  • Table 7-5: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation
  • Table 7-6: Total investment in geothermal in China, USD million
  • Table 7-7: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct use (except heat pumps)
  • Table 7-8: Geothermal (ground source) heat pumps
  • Table 7-9: Future Development Planning and Installation of geothermal plant for 10,000 MW - crash programme in Indonesia
  • Table 7-10: Indonesia geothermal proven reserves, MW, 1995 to 2005
  • Table 7-11: Indonesia geothermal proven reserves, MW
  • Table 7-12: Geothermal power generation plants in Indonesia
  • Table 7-13: Installed Geothermal Power Plants in Indonesia
  • Table 7-14: Numbers of well drilled in Indonesian Geothermal Area during 1974 to 2009
  • Table 7-15: Status of PT PLN projects as of December 2010
  • Table 7-16: PLN' s ESC prices
  • Table 7-17: Geothermal power plant development projects
  • Table 7-18: List of geothermal working areas that have ready to be offered through bidding process in Indonesia
  • Table 7-19: List of existing geothermal power plants in Japan
  • Table 7-20: Installed renewable energy capacity accredited under the RPS law in Japan as of July 2010
  • Table 7-21: Historical Changes in NZ Geothermal Electricity Generation Capacity
  • Table 7-22: Projects under development in New Zealand
  • Table 7-23: Geothermal systems identified in New Zealand
  • Table 7-24: Assessment of geothermal potential in New Zealand
  • Table 7-25: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation in Papua New Guinea
  • Table 7-26: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation in the Philippines
  • Table 8-1: Geothermal power plants in Austria
  • Table 8-2: Utilisation of geothermal for direct heat
  • Table 8-3: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation in France
  • Table 8-4: Geothermal power plants in Germany
  • Table 8-5: Status of geothermal projects in Germany
  • Table 8-6: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat in Greece
  • Table 8-7: Geothermal power generation plants in Iceland
  • Table 8-8: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation in Iceland
  • Table 8-9: Projects in development in Iceland
  • Table 8-10: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat in Iceland
  • Table 8-11: Geothermal power generation plants in Italy
  • Table 8-12: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation in Italy
  • Table 8-13: Targets, national and regional objectives for direct use geothermal in Italy
  • Table 8-14: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat in the Netherlands
  • Table 8-15: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat (other than heat pumps) in Poland
  • Table 8-16: Geothermal power generation plants in The Azores, Portugal
  • Table 8-17: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation in Portugal*
  • Table 8-18: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat in Portugal (other than heat pumps)
  • Table 8-19: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat in Romania (other than heat pumps)
  • Table 8-20: Utilisation of geothermal energy in Russia for power generation
  • Table 8-21: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat (other than heat pumps)
  • Table 8-22: Geothermal power plants in Turkey
  • Table 8-23: Turkish feed-in tariffs
  • Table 8-24: Turkey' s district heating systems
  • Table 8-25: Geothermal greenhouse heating in Turkey
  • Table 9-1: Present and planned production of electricity in Costa Rica
  • Table 9-2: Power generation plants in El Salvador
  • Table 9-3: Utilisation of geothermal energy for electric power generation in El Salvador
  • Table 9-4: Geothermal power generation plants in Guatemala
  • Table 9-5: Geothermal lease areas in Nicaragua
  • Table 9-6: Projects in the development stages in Nicaragua, 2010
  • Table 10-1: Planned geothermal plants in Chile
  • Table 10-2: Feed-in tariffs in Ecuador
  • Table 11-1: Milestones for the Olkaria power plants in Kenya
  • Table 11-2: Summary of planned power plant developments
  • Table 11-3: KenGen ongoing projects with completion expected in the short-term
  • Table 11-4: Planned transmission projects in Kenya
  • Table 12-1: Geothermal manufactures
  • Table 13-1: Worldwide incentives for geothermal projects
  • Table 13-2: Worldwide incentives for geothermal projects

Figures

  • Figure 2-1: Capacity factors for different renewable energy technologies
  • Figure 2-2: Various geothermal uses, including power generation and direct-use, related to their appropriate temperature range
  • Figure 2-3: Direct-use applications of geothermal energy
  • Figure 2-4: Leading Countries for Direct Use in MW, 2010
  • Figure 2-5: GSHP principles
  • Figure 2-6: Loop designs for GSHP
  • Figure 2-7: Commercial application of ground source heat pumps
  • Figure 2-8: Geothermal power plant
  • Figure 2-9: Schematic Diagram of a Dry Steam Power Plant
  • Figure 2-10: Flash Steam Power Plant
  • Figure 2-11: The CalEnergy Navy I flash geothermal power plant at the Coso geothermal field
  • Figure 2-12: Binary Cycle geothermal power plant
  • Figure 2-13: The Mammoth Pacific binary geothermal power plants at the Casa Diablo geothermal field
  • Figure 2-14: Comparison of geothermal technologies
  • Figure 2-15: Volcanic Geothermal
  • Figure 2-16: Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA)
  • Figure 2-17: Enhanced Geothermal System
  • Figure 2-18: Hot Fractured Rock (HFR)
  • Figure 2-19: Heat map indicating areas with temperatures suitable for EGS development
  • Figure 2-20: The schematic layout of the Soultz-sous-Forets HDR plant
  • Figure 2-21: Example of cascaded geothermal resource for multiple uses
  • Figure 2-22: The geothermal resource
  • Figure 2-23: World high temperature geothermal areas
  • Figure 2-24: Geothermal resource utilisation potential
  • Figure 3-1: Development of direct use of geothermal energy, MWt, 1995 to 2010
  • Figure 3-2: Development of geothermal direct use capacity by region, MW, 1995 to 2010
  • Figure 3-3: Top ten countries in terms of installed direct use geothermal capacity
  • Figure 3-4: Share of direct use capacity by segment, 1995, 2005 and 2010
  • Figure 3-5: Estimated global long term forecast of installed capacity for direct use geothermal, GWth, 2020 to 2100
  • Figure 3-6: Roadmap vision of direct use of geothermal heat by region, excluding ground source heat pumps, EJ per year, 2010 to 2050
  • Figure 3-7: Annual Number of Installed GSHPs Units in the top five European Markets 2003 to 2009E
  • Figure 3-8: Installed GSHP and geothermal heat capacity, MWt, 2005 to 2010
  • Figure 3-9: Average GSHP size in Europe, kW, 2005 to 2009
  • Figure 3-10: Geothermal heat pump stage of market development
  • Figure 3-11: Indication of IPCC SSREN projection of global geothermal heat produced by ground source heat pumps up to 2050, EJ per year, 2010 to 2050
  • Figure 3-12: Development of geothermal power generation capacity, MW, 1990 to 2010
  • Figure 3-13: Development of geothermal power generation capacity by region, MW, 1990 to 2010
  • Figure 3-14: Geothermal power generation installed capacity in countries with more than 100 MW installed, 2000, 2005 and 2010
  • Figure 3-15: Top ten countries in terms of projected new capacity additions, MW, 2010 to 2015
  • Figure 3-16: Installed capacity in the top ten markets, MW, 1990 to 2015
  • Figure 3-17: Markets driving geothermal growth
  • Figure 3-18: Installed geothermal capacity worldwide, end 2009
  • Figure 3-19: Forecasting the installed capacity in 2015
  • Figure 3-20: Electricity generating capacity from geothermal energy, MW, 1975 to 2015
  • Figure 3-21: Actual and projected installed geothermal electrical capacity, 1995 - 2100
  • Figure 3-22: Actual and projected growth in global installed geothermal capacity, GW, 1995 to 2100
  • Figure 3-23: Projected installed geothermal capacity to 2030, GW
  • Figure 3-24: Growth of geothermal power capacities by technology, GW, 2010 to 2050
  • Figure 3-25: Potential geothermal energy resources split into categories e.g. theoretical, technical, economic, developable and existing supplies for power generation and direct use
  • Figure 3-26: Geothermal plant installed capacity by technology
  • Figure 4-1: Operating capacity of developers of geothermal projects
  • Figure 4-2: Location of Alterra Power Corporation' s electricity generation assets in operation or under development
  • Figure 4-3: Alterra' s planned rollout of renewable energy projects, MW, 2010 to 2016
  • Figure 4-4: Conceptual geothermal production capacity growth in Iceland, MW, 2010 to 2016
  • Figure 4-5: Production of electricity from Calpine' s geyser geothermal projects
  • Figure 4-6: Calpine' s geothermal plants
  • Figure 4-7: Chevron' s geothermal assets
  • Figure 4-8: Location of Contact Energy' s projects under development
  • Figure 4-9: Contact Energy' s planned CAPEX investments
  • Figure 4-10: Gradient Resources geothermal power project pipeline
  • Figure 4-11: Hot Rock' s geothermal projects
  • Figure 4-12: Location of Mighty River Power' s New Zealand geothermal assets
  • Figure 4-13: Mighty River Project' s projects in the US and Chile through GeoGlobal Energy and EnergySource
  • Figure 4-14: Nevada Geothermal Power' s geothermal projects under development
  • Figure 4-15: Nevada Geothermal Power' s Blue Mountain leases
  • Figure 4-16: Ormat' s projects worldwide as of September 2010
  • Figure 4-17: Panax Geothermal' s geothermal projects
  • Figure 4-18: Ram Power geothermal projects in North America
  • Figure 4-19: Location of Terra-Gen Power' s electric generation assets
  • Figure 4-20: Location of Geodynamic Cooper Basin geothermal projects
  • Figure 4-21: Comparison of the two types of projects Geodynamics is developing
  • Figure 4-22: GreenFire Energy' s CO2ETM technology
  • Figure 4-23: Halliburton' s geothermal projects worldwide
  • Figure 4-24: Iceland Drilling' s drilling fleet
  • Figure 4-25: Potter Drilling' s technology
  • Figure 5-1: Financing for a geothermal electric project for a 20 MW site, EUR million
  • Figure 5-2: Investment cost of renewable energy technologies, USD 1,000 per MW
  • Figure 5-3: Current estimate cost of 100 MW geothermal development
  • Figure 5-4: Completed geothermal well costs as a function of depth
  • Figure 5-5: Renewable Energy cost trend for geothermal, USD 2005
  • Figure 5-6: Range of reduction of average levelised costs of electricity production in hydrothermal flash plants and binary plants, USD per MWh, 2010 to 2050
  • Figure 6-1: Map showing example of in-place geothermal energy for 6-7 km depth across Canada
  • Figure 6-2: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Canada, MW
  • Figure 6-3: Units of ground source heat pumps installed per year in Canada
  • Figure 6-4: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Mexico, MW
  • Figure 6-5: Total investment in geothermal in Mexico, USD million
  • Figure 6-6: Location of main geothermal fields, zones and sites in Mexico
  • Figure 6-7: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Mexico, MW
  • Figure 6-8: Development of Geothermal Capacity in the United States, MW
  • Figure 6-9: Geothermal generating capacity online in USA by state, MW, April 2011
  • Figure 6-10: NCPA Power Plant 2 at the Geysers, Winter 2005
  • Figure 6-11: New installed geothermal capacity in the USA, MW, 2005 to 2010
  • Figure 6-12: Total number of confirmed geothermal projects and prospects in the US, April 2006 to 2011
  • Figure 6-13: Capacity by project stage in the US, MW
  • Figure 6-14: Number of projects at stages 1 to 4 by US state
  • Figure 6-15: Projects in the advanced phase of development by US state, MW
  • Figure 6-16: Projects in the advanced phase of development in the US, MW, 2006 to 2011
  • Figure 6-17: Operating and installed geothermal capacity in the US by operator, MW
  • Figure 6-18: US operating and development of capacity of major industry participants
  • Figure 6-19: Project capacity in the US at stage 4 by operator, MW
  • Figure 6-20: Projected installed geothermal capacity in the US, MW, 2011 to 2017
  • Figure 6-21: Geothermal Resources in the United States
  • Figure 6-22: Units geothermal heat pump shipments in the United States, 1999 to 2009
  • Figure 6-23: US sales of GSHP units per year, 1999 to 2010E
  • Figure 6-24: US geothermal heat pump shipments by model type, units, 2000 to 2009
  • Figure 6-25: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in the United States, MW
  • Figure 6-26: US geothermal direct use projects and resource areas
  • Figure 6-27: Geothermal Technologies Programme' s ARRA funding
  • Figure 6-28: State or Federal Renewable Standards as of June 2011
  • Figure 7-1: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Australia, MW
  • Figure 7-2: Estimated crustal temperature at 5 km depth
  • Figure 7-3: Australian geothermal licence areas and acreage releases at January 2011
  • Figure 7-4: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Australia, MW
  • Figure 7-5: Development of Geothermal Capacity in China, MW
  • Figure 7-6: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in China, MW
  • Figure 7-7: Geothermal provinces in India
  • Figure 7-8: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in India, MW
  • Figure 7-9: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Indonesia, MW
  • Figure 7-10: Geothermal in Indonesia
  • Figure 7-11: Geothermal resources in Indonesia
  • Figure 7-12: Location map of Indonesian Geothermal Resources and its installed capacity
  • Figure 7-13: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Indonesia, MW
  • Figure 7-14: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Iran, MW
  • Figure 7-15: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Israel, MW
  • Figure 7-16: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Japan, MW
  • Figure 7-17: Geothermal power generation plants in Japan
  • Figure 7-18: Location of geothermal resources
  • Figure 7-19: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Japan, MW
  • Figure 7-20: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Jordan, MW
  • Figure 7-21: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Korea, MW
  • Figure 7-22: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Mongolia, MW
  • Figure 7-23: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Nepal, MW
  • Figure 7-24: Development of Geothermal Capacity in New Zealand, MW
  • Figure 7-25: Historical and projected growth in geothermal electricity generation in New Zealand
  • Figure 7-26: Total investments in geothermal in New Zealand, USD million
  • Figure 7-27: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in New Zealand, MW
  • Figure 7-28: Utilisation of geothermal energy for direct heat (other than heat pumps) in New Zealand
  • Figure 7-29: Geothermal direct heat uses in New Zealand, MW
  • Figure 7-30: Map showing the main uses of geothermal fluids in New Zealand, and showing the five geothermal regions
  • Figure 7-31: Assessment of restricted geothermal potential
  • Figure 7-32: Map of New Zealand geothermal fields
  • Figure 7-33: Map of geothermal fields in the Taupo Volcanic Zone
  • Figure 7-34: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Papua New Guinea, MW
  • Figure 7-35: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Papua New Guinea, MW
  • Figure 7-36: Development of Geothermal Capacity in the Philippines, MW
  • Figure 7-37: Geothermal Service Contract Areas of the Philippines
  • Figure 7-38: Location map of producing geothermal areas in the Philippines
  • Figure 7-39: Identified geothermal prospects for advance exploration and/or field development
  • Figure 7-40: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in the Philippines, MW
  • Figure 7-41: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Tajikistan, MW
  • Figure 7-42: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Thailand, MW
  • Figure 7-43: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Thailand, MW
  • Figure 7-44: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Vietnam, MW
  • Figure 7-45: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Yemen, MW
  • Figure 8-1: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Albania, MW
  • Figure 8-2: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Armenia, MW
  • Figure 8-3: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Austria, MW
  • Figure 8-4: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Austria, MW
  • Figure 8-5: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Belarus, MW
  • Figure 8-6: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Belgium, MW
  • Figure 8-7: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Bosnia, MW
  • Figure 8-8: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Bulgaria, MW
  • Figure 8-9: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Croatia, MW
  • Figure 8-10: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in the Czech Republic, MW
  • Figure 8-11: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Denmark, MW
  • Figure 8-12: Geothermal licences in Denmark
  • Figure 8-13: Map showing the existing plant locations and the principal structural elements in Denmark
  • Figure 8-14: Total investment in geothermal in Denmark, USD million
  • Figure 8-15: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Estonia, MW
  • Figure 8-16: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Finland, MW
  • Figure 8-17: Development of Geothermal Capacity in France MW
  • Figure 8-18: Soultz-sous-Forets Project Overview
  • Figure 8-19: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in France, MW
  • Figure 8-20: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Georgia, MW
  • Figure 8-21: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Germany, MW
  • Figure 8-22: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Germany, MW
  • Figure 8-23: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Greece, MW
  • Figure 8-24: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Hungary, MW
  • Figure 8-25: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Iceland, MW
  • Figure 8-26: Installed capacity and generation in public power plants in Iceland, MW per GWh per percent, 2000 to 2009
  • Figure 8-27: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Iceland, MW
  • Figure 8-28: One of the geothermally heated swimming pools in Iceland
  • Figure 8-29: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Ireland, MW
  • Figure 8-30: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Italy, MW
  • Figure 8-31: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Italy, MW
  • Figure 8-32: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Latvia, MW
  • Figure 8-33: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Lithuania, MW
  • Figure 8-34: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Macedonia, MW
  • Figure 8-35: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in the Netherlands, MW
  • Figure 8-36: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Norway, MW
  • Figure 8-37: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Poland, MW
  • Figure 8-38: Geothermal sites in Poland
  • Figure 8-39: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Portugal & the Azores, MW
  • Figure 8-40: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Portugal & the Azores, MW
  • Figure 8-41: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Romania, MW
  • Figure 8-42: Development of Geothermal Capacity in the Russian Federation, MW
  • Figure 8-43: Some geothermal areas in the Russian Federation
  • Figure 8-44: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Russia, MW
  • Figure 8-45: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Serbia, MW
  • Figure 8-46: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in the Slovak Republic, MW
  • Figure 8-47: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Slovenia, MW
  • Figure 8-48: Localities with geothermal direct heat use in Slovenia
  • Figure 8-49: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Spain, MW
  • Figure 8-50: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Sweden, MW
  • Figure 8-51: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Switzerland, MW
  • Figure 8-52: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Turkey MW
  • Figure 8-53: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Turkey, MW
  • Figure 8-54: Locations of major geothermal fields, district heating and greenhouse installations and young volcanoes
  • Figure 8-55: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in the Ukraine, MW
  • Figure 8-56: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in the United Kingdom, MW
  • Figure 9-1: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power on the Caribbean Islands, MW
  • Figure 9-2: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Costa Rica, MW
  • Figure 9-3: Geothermal resources in Costa Rica
  • Figure 9-4: Map of geothermal development in Costa Rica
  • Figure 9-5: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Costa Rica, MW
  • Figure 9-6: Development of Geothermal Capacity in El Salvador, MW
  • Figure 9-7: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in El Salvador, MW
  • Figure 9-8: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Guatemala, MW
  • Figure 9-9: Geothermal fields in Guatemala
  • Figure 9-10: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Guatemala, MW
  • Figure 9-11: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Honduras, MW
  • Figure 9-12: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Nicaragua, MW
  • Figure 10-1: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Argentina, MW
  • Figure 10-2: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Argentina, MW
  • Figure 10-3: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Brazil, MW
  • Figure 10-4: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Chile, MW
  • Figure 10-5: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Colombia, MW
  • Figure 10-6: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Peru, MW
  • Figure 10-7: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Venezuela, MW
  • Figure 11-1: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Algeria, MW
  • Figure 11-2: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Egypt, MW
  • Figure 11-3: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Ethiopia, MW
  • Figure 11-4: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Ethiopia, MW
  • Figure 11-5: Development of Geothermal Capacity in Kenya, MW
  • Figure 11-6: Geothermal areas in the East African Rift Valley
  • Figure 11-7: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Kenya, MW
  • Figure 11-8: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Morocco, MW
  • Figure 11-9: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in South Africa, MW
  • Figure 11-10: Development of Direct Use Geothermal Power in Tunisia, MW
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