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石炭・精炭の世界市場:2011年第1版

NRG Expert Coal and Clean Coal Report Ed 1 2011

発行 NRG Expert 商品コード 204754
出版日 ページ情報 英文 354 Pages
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石炭・精炭の世界市場:2011年第1版 NRG Expert Coal and Clean Coal Report Ed 1 2011
出版日: 2011年07月07日 ページ情報: 英文 354 Pages
概要

昨年は史上初めて中国が石炭の実質輸入国に転じました。国土の南部および南西部の需要に国内北部の山西省からの調達ではなく、インドネシアおよびオーストラリアからの輸入で対応したのです。理由に挙げられるのは、国内石炭価格の上昇や国内輸送路の未整備に加え、中国政府の安全確保および非効率的鉱山閉鎖による国内鉱業合理化政策。現在、中国は拡大する石炭の国内需要を満たすため、個別の2国間合意によって国内企業が海外の石炭資本に参加する形で、石炭輸入量を増しています。これら2カ国のほかにもモンゴル、北朝鮮、ベトナムとも貿易を推進しています。インドも同様の施策で海外調達を進め、とりわけオーストラリアからの石炭輸入量は中国を上回ります。その他の国々も天然ガス価格の上昇を受けて、中国やインドほどではないにしても、石炭の輸入量を伸ばしているのが現状です。従来の石炭燃焼による火力発電所は近代的な低排出型に置き換えられるとともに、石炭層から発生するメタンガスも採取され、ここに利用されることで、事業効率の改善と鉱山の安全性向上の両方に貢献しています。

当レポートでは、こうした石炭の将来性を探るべく、液化技術の進展やバイオマスとの混焼による環境政策への対応、需給・流通を取り巻く世界各国市場の現況、関与する企業の動向についての最新情報をまとめ、概略以下の構成でお届けします。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 世界概要

  • 石炭生産量
  • 石炭需要量
  • 国別石炭需要
  • 国際石炭貿易
  • 石炭火力発電
  • 世界のエネルギー埋蔵量

第3章 石炭化度

第4章 国際石炭貿易

  • 国際石炭貿易の構造
  • 石炭生産および貿易の国際的地域分布
  • 単一世界石炭市場の発展
  • 国際的な石炭価格
  • 鉄鋼生産

第5章 輸送・貨物運賃

  • 石炭価格の一部としての貨物運賃
  • 海上貨物運賃
  • 海上貨物分類

第6章 新技術 - 抽出と環境

  • 精炭技術(CleanCoal Technologies:CCT)
  • 炭素削減技術
  • 新たな石炭抽出技術
  • 炭鉱メタン

第7章 環境

  • 京都議定書
  • コペンハーゲン合意
  • EUの環境法令
  • 米国の環境法令
  • 日本
  • 中国
  • インド

第8章 中国

第9章 米国

第10章 オーストラリア

第11章 南アフリカ共和国

第12章 ポーランド

第13章 ロシア

第14章 インド

第15章 カナダ

第16章 インドネシア

第17章 英国

第18章 コロンビア

第19章 ベネズエラ

第20章 注釈および出典情報

第21章 統計数値

第22章 付録

第23章 出典資料

目次
Product Code: NRGCR1

For the first time China became a net importer of coal last year. Demand from Southern and South Eastern provinces was met by cheaper imports from Indonesia and Australia rather than more expensive coal from the provinces of Shanxi and Inner in the north, due to logistic costs. Furthermore the rail network in China can only transport half of the country' s demand, and despite investments in the sector is unlikely to meet demand in the near-term. Domestic supply is also likely to diminish owing to the country' s strategy of consolidating the nation' s mines to eventually close unsafe and inefficient mines. Consequently China is ensuring security of supply through a mixture of bi-lateral trade agreement and acquisitions of overseas mining assets. One of the most ambitious is China' s Coal Geology Engineering Corporation and Wanbei Coal Electricity Group' s plan to develop a potential 10 billion tonne coal resource in Queensland, Australia. Bi-lateral trade agreements have been signed with Mongolia, North Korea and Vietnam. Only time will tell whether China will rely more on seaborne or overland imports to meet demand; although, for the latter, improvement' s in rail infra-structure will be needed.

A similar situation exists in India, where companies are buying up coal assets overseas, particularly in Australia, and are importing more coal. As domestic coal production is unlikely to meet growing demand even if logistics and operations within the country are substantially improved. Elsewhere, coal demand is expected to grow, but not at the same pace as China and India, due to rising natural gas prices. Traditional coal-fired power plants will continue to be phased out and replaced with modern plants with low emissions and some form of carbon capture and storage. The biggest investors in CCS are and policies covering CCS are starting to emerge. However, to date, the sector is not eligible for carbon credits and very few demonstration projects are in operation. Thus, an alternative to CCS in the short-term could be co-firing power plants with both coal and biomass, as the biomass proportion of the plant may be eligible for subsidies and count towards renewable energy targets.

At the production level, more mines will use methane from both operating and abandoned mines. As the project would both provide revenues from electricity production, methane sales and from any greenhouse gas emission reduction incentives, and improve mine safety. By preventing methane build-up, which is thought to be the cause of Pike River mine accident in New Zealand and numerous mining accidents worldwide. NRG EXPERT expects the use of methane to increase more in the short-term than underground coal gasification, which still has several technical and policy barriers to its deployment. However, if deployed UCG would allow some countries to tap unexploited coal re-sources. The UK is one of the country' s leading the development of the sector with a total of fourteen conditional near offshore UCG licenses awarded to date.

Highlights

In the near and long-term India, China and perhaps Brazil are expected to drive growth for coking coal for the domestic steel sector following projections of strong growth in steel production and consumption in these countries. Demand for coal will be driven more by China than India, in the former coal will be increasingly used to produce a liquid fuel and chemicals such as olefins, a long-chain polymer synthetic fiber, to reduce the country' s reliance on imports.

Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are expected to remain as major exporters, with growth in exports from Russia, Mongolia and other countries in the region to meet demand from China and, to a lesser extent, India.

For the US mining sector, operations in the Power River Basin region may increase. But will be balanced out by a reduction in output from the East Appalachian region that mainly uses invasive mountain-top mining operations. Any resurgence in the US coal mining sector will only occur with improved clarity regarding the permitting process, and incentives ensure domestic coal is cheaper than imports.

The switch from underground to surface mining is expected to continue along with the consolidation of mining assets. More mergers and acquisitions involving big players are likely.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

2. Global Overview

  • Coal Production
  • Coal Demand
  • Coal Demand by Country
  • International Coal Trade
  • Coal-fired Power Generation
  • Global Energy Reserves

3. Coal Rank

  • Primary Coal
  • Secondary Coal
  • Coke Coal
  • Metallurgical Coal
  • Hard Coal
  • Coal Rank
    • Anthracite
    • Bituminous Coal
    • Sub-bituminous Coal
    • Lignite
    • Steam coal
    • Brown coal
  • Heat Content of Coal or Calorific Value

4. International Coal Trade

  • Structure of the International Coal Trade
  • Geographical Distribution of International Coal Production and Trade
  • Development of the Single Global Coal Market
    • The USA
    • Canada
    • Emergence of Australia as the Leading Exporter
    • South Africa
    • New Entrants
    • Regional Markets and Trade Patterns
    • Future Trading Patterns
  • International Coal Prices
    • McCloskey Coal Information Services (MCIS) NWE Steam Coal Marker Price
    • Steam Coal Prices
    • Coking Coal Prices
    • Fossil Fuel Prices
  • Steel Production

5. Shipping and Freight Rates

  • Freight as a Component of Coal Prices
  • Ocean Freight Rates
    • Price Indexes
  • Ocean Vessel Categories
    • Cape Vessels
    • Panamax Vessels
    • HandyMax Vessels
    • Fleet Size

6. New Technologies Extraction and Environment

  • Clean Coal Technologies (CCT)
    • Switch to a cleaner fuel or reduce load to burn less of a ' dirty' fuel
    • Efficiency improvement
    • Clean coal technology (CCT)
  • Carbon Abatement Technologies
    • Improvement in Combustion Efficiencies
    • Co-firing with CO2 Neutral Biomass Fuels
    • Carbon Capture and Storage or Carbon Sequestration (CCS)
    • Cost-benefit of carbon capture and storage (CCS)
    • Support and prospects for carbon capture and storage (CCS)
    • Major barriers to the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS)
  • New Coal Extraction Technology
  • Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)
  • Coal Mine Methane

7. Environment

  • The Kyoto Protocol
  • Copenhagen Accord
  • The Environmental Legislation of the EU
    • LCPD - Large Combustion Plant Directive
    • ETS Emissions Trading Directive
  • The Environmental Legislation of the US
    • Clean Air Act and Amendments
    • Existing Programmes under the Clean Air Act
    • Effects of Compliance on Regional Coal Supply and Demand
    • Clear Skies Act
  • Japan
  • China
  • India

8. China

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • The Coal Sector
  • Future of Coal
  • Coal Quality
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves and Mines in China
  • Production
  • Mine safety
  • Chemicals from Coal
  • Coal Companies
    • China Shenhua Energy Group CSEC
    • China National Coal Group Corporation
    • Datonneg Coal Mining Group
    • Yanzhou Coal Mining Company Limited
    • Shangxi Coke Group
  • Steel Industry
  • Power Generation
  • Imports and Exports of Coal
  • Transport
    • Coal Ports
    • Rail
    • Inland Waterways
    • The Grand Canal
    • Coal Slurry Pipeline
  • Environmental Impact
    • Impact of Coal Combustion
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Sulphur
    • Oxides of Nitrogen
    • Low NOx Burners
    • Particulates
    • Coal Preparation
    • Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

9. USA

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Imports and Exports
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves
  • Coal Quality
  • Coal Producers
    • Peabody Energy Corporation
    • Arch Coal, Inc
    • Cloud Peak Energy
    • Alpha Natural Resources
    • CONSOL Energy Inc
    • Massey Energy Company
    • North American Coal Corporation
    • Kiewit Mining Group
    • Patriot Coal Corporation
    • Alliance Resource Partners
    • Murray Energy Corporation
    • Westmoreland Coal Company
    • Other mining companies
  • Coal Mines
  • Power Generation
  • Transport
    • Rail, inland shipping and road
    • Ports
  • Environmental Impact
    • Air Pollution
    • Energy Use and Carbon Emissions
    • Energy and Carbon Intensity

10. Australia

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Coal Quality
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves
  • Coal Producers
    • Anglo Coal Australia (Anglo American Australia)
    • BHP Billitonne
    • Rio Tinto
    • Xstrata
  • Power Generation
  • Transport
    • Rail
    • Conveyors
    • Road Transport
    • Ports
  • Shiploading and Blending
  • R&D

11. South Africa

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Coal Quality
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves
  • Coal Producers
    • Anglo Operations
    • BHP Billitonne
    • Exarro
    • Sasol
  • Synthetic Fuels
  • Exports
  • Rail infrastructure
  • Environmental Impact

12. Poland

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • History
  • Coal Consumption
  • Coal Quality
  • Coal Reserves
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves and Mines in Poland
  • Coal Producers
  • Power Generation
  • Transport
    • Rail
  • Environmental Impact
    • Environmental Conditions and Crises
    • Environmental Outlook

13. Russia

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Coal Industry Restructuring
  • Coal Quality
  • Coal Reserves
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves and Mines in Russia
  • Coal Producers
  • Mine Safety
  • Power Generation
  • Transport
    • Ports
  • Environmental Impact
  • Outlook for Coal

14. India

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Coal Quality
  • Reserves and Geographical Distribution of Mines and Coalfields
  • Coal Producers
  • Major Coal Producers in India
    • Coal India Ltd
    • Bharat Coking Coal Ltd. (Bihar)
    • South-Eastern Coalfields Ltd. (Madhya Pradesh)
    • Central Coalfields Ltd. (Bihar)
    • Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. (Orissa)
    • Northern Coalfields Ltd., NCL (Madhya Pradesh)
    • Eastern Coalfields Ltd. (West Bengal)
    • Western Coalfields Ltd. (Maharashtra)
    • North-Eastern Coalfields
    • Singareni Collieries Company Ltd
    • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd
    • Tata Iron Steel Company Ltd
  • Power Industry
  • The Coke Industry
    • Secondary steel sector
    • Foundries, Chemical Units and Ferro-alloy Operations
    • Integrated Steel Plants
    • Secondary Steel Sector Pig-iron Plants
  • Cement Industry
  • Liberalisation of the Coal Market
  • Imports
  • Exports
  • Transport
    • Water Transport
    • Ports
  • Environmental Impact

15. Canada

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Coal Quality
  • Coal Reserves
    • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves and Mines
  • Tar Sands
  • Coal Producers
  • Coal Mines
  • Power Generation
  • Transport
  • Environmental Impact
    • Air Pollution
    • Energy Use and Carbon Emissions
    • Renewable Energy
    • Outlook

16. Indonesia

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • The Coal Sector
  • Coal Quality
  • Coal Reserves
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves and Mines in Indonesia
  • Coal Producers
  • Power Generation
  • Exports
  • Environmental Impact

17. United Kingdom

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Coal Reserves
  • Coal Production
  • Power Generation
  • Future of Coal Power Generation
  • Transport
  • Environmental Impact
  • The Future of Coal
  • Methane

18. Colombia

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • CoalSector
  • Exports
  • Coal Quality
  • Coal Reserves
  • Coal Producers
  • Power Generation
  • Outlook

19. Venezuela

  • Economic Background
  • Primary Energy
  • Coal Sector
  • Coal Quality
  • Geographical Distribution of Coal Reserves and Mines
  • Coal Producers
  • Orimulsion
  • Infrastructure

20. Notes and Sources

  • TechnicalNotes

21. Statistics

22. Appendix

  • The Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Change
  • Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks
    • Water Vapour
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Methane
    • Nitrous Oxide
    • Halocarbons and Other Gases (CFCs)
    • HFCs
    • PFCs
    • ' Kyoto gases' (HFC, PFC, and SF6)
    • Other Important Radiative Gases
  • Relative Forcing Effects of Various Gases
  • The Kyoto Protocol
    • Differentiated Targets
    • Commitment Period
    • Six Gases
    • Demonstrable Progress
    • Land Use and Forestry
    • Flexibility Mechanisms
    • Emissions Trading
    • Joint Implementation
    • Joint Fulfillment
    • Clean Development Mechanism
    • Entry into Force

23. Sources

Tables

  • Table 2-1: The biggest coal producers, Mt
  • Table 3-1: Qualities of Steam Coal Traded on the World Market
  • Table 3-2: Qualities of Coking Coal Traded on the World Market
  • Table 3-3: Major Coal Producers and Heat Value per t
  • Table 4-1: Development of FOB Prices in US $ per tonne in Important Supplier Countries
  • Table 4-2: Largest Steel Makers in the World, Production, Mt, 2009
  • Table 5-1: Capacities of the Bulk Carrier Fleet Forecast Based on Order Books and Delivery Dates
  • Table 6-1: Thermal Efficiency of Different Generation Technologies
  • Table 6-2: CO2 capture in power plants
  • Table 6-3: Phase II Large-scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Selections for ARRA funding
  • Table 6-4: Clean Coal Power Initiative Round III projects
  • Table 6-5: North American Storage Potential, Giga Tons
  • Table 6-6: CCS Projects for coal and general carbon storage
  • Table 6-7: Status of UGC development worldwide
  • Table 6-8: Coal mine methane projects at various stages of development registered on the Globalmethane.org
  • Table 7-1: Top 22 CO2 Emitting Countries, Mt of CO2 Emitted, 2008
  • Table 8-1: Coal market in China
  • Table 8-2: Mining consolidation targets in Shanxi
  • Table 8-3: Status of coal reserves at Shenhua' s mines, Mt, 2009
  • Table 8-4: Breakdown of CSES' s coal production by mine, Mt, 2009
  • Table 8-5: Chinese companies with an export licence by weight, Mt
  • Table 8-6: Coking coal imports and their source
  • Table 8-7: China Coal Imports by source, Mt
  • Table 8-8: Bilateral Coal Trade between China and Other Countries, Mt
  • Table 8-9: Export Coal Shipments in China, Mt, 2008 to 2009
  • Table 8-10: China Coal Imports by Province, Mt, 2009
  • Table 9-1: Recent and proposed environmental developments affecting the coal industry
  • Table 9-2: Bilateral Coal Trade between the USA and Other Countries, Mt
  • Table 9-3: Major US underground coal mines, million short tonnes, 2009
  • Table 9-4: Major US surface coal mines, million short tonnes, 2009
  • Table 9-5: Major US multi-mine production complexes, million short tonnes, 2009
  • Table 9-6: Major Coal Company Asset Acquisitions, Sales and Other Activities in the US in 2009 and 2010
  • Table 9-7: Major US coal producers by production in Million short tonnes, 2009
  • Table 9-8: Peabody Energy Corporation' s coal mines
  • Table 9-9: Arch Coal' s active mines, end 2009
  • Table 9-10: Cloud Peak Energy' s coal mines
  • Table 9-11: Cloud Peak Energy' s coal commitments, 2010 2014, Mt or US $
  • Table 9-12: Alpha Natural Resources' organic growth opportunities
  • Table 9-13: CONSOL' s coal commitments, 2010 2014, Mt or US $
  • Table: 9-14 CONSOL Energy' s mines
  • Table 9-15: North American Coal Corporation' s active mines
  • Table 9-16: Kiewit Mining Group' s coal mines
  • Table 9-17: Alliance Resource Partner' s coal mines and transfer terminals
  • Table 9-18: Westmoreland Coal Company' s mines in operation
  • Table 9-19: Westmoreland power plants
  • Table 9-20: US Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2009, 2008, thousand short tonnes
  • Table 9-21: Average cost of natural gas delivered to electric generating plants, US $ per
  • Table 9-22: Non-coal electricity mix in the US and change in generation, %
  • Table 9-23: Coal-fired power plants commissioned in the US in 2009
  • Table 9-24: Utilisation of Port Capacity in the US, Mt
  • Table 10-1: Production by Mining Method and State, Mt, 2008 and 2009
  • Table 10-2: Australia' s Black Coal Exports by Region, Mt, 2008-9
  • Table 10-3: The energy content of solid fuels in Australia
  • Table 10-4: Identified insitu resources of black coal, Australia
  • Table 10-5: Recoverable economic demonstrated resources (EDR) black coal reserves by basin, end 2008
  • Table 10-6: Coal projects under construction or committed in Australia
  • Table 10-7: Prices of coal produced by Anglo American, US $ per tonne, 2009
  • Table 10-8: Mines owned by BHP Billitonne
  • Table 10-9: BHP Billitonne Mine Production
  • Table 10-10: Coal mining operations fully or partly owned by Rio Tinto
  • Table 10-11: Rio Tinto' s coal mines
  • Table 10-12: Xstrata' s coal mines in operation, 2009
  • Table 10-13: Coal-fired power plants in operation in Australia, 2008
  • Table 10-14: Coal-fired power plants proposed in Australia, 2008
  • Table 10-15: Australian Port Expansion Plans, Mt
  • Table 10-16: Port Capacity and Export Loadings, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 (Mt)
  • Table 11-1: Consumption of Coal by the Domestic Market in South Africa, Mt
  • Table 11-2: Status of Eskom' s coal-fired power projects as of April 2009
  • Table 11-3: Major Producers in South Africa 2009
  • Table 11-4: Anglo Operations' coal assets
  • Table 11-5: Anglo Operations' coal mining projects in the pipeline
  • Table 11-6: Exarro coal mines
  • Table 11-7: Companies and their export capacity at the Richards Bay Coal Terminal, 2010
  • Table 11-8: Exports through South African Ports
  • Table 12-1: Coke production capacity projections for Poland
  • Table 12-2: Aid for Polish Coal Mining According to Council Regulation 1407/2002, € millions
  • Table 12-3: Largest Hard Coal Producers in Poland, Mt
  • Table 13-1: Major Coal Producers in Russia, Mt
  • Table 13-2: Production Output from SUEK' s mining regions, 2009
  • Table 13-3: Recent developments in the Russian coal mining sector
  • Table 13-4: Bilateral Coal Trade between Russia and Other Countries, Mt
  • Table 13-5: Shipments at Russian Ports
  • Table 14-1: Projects sanctioned in India under delegated power in the 2008/2009 tax year
  • Table 14-2: Estimated Coal Resources in India as of April 2009, Mt
  • Table 14-3: Estimated Types of Coal Resources in India as of April 2009, Mt
  • Table 14-4: Central Coalfields' projects in the pipeline
  • Table 14-5: Details of NCL production included in the tenth plan
  • Table 14-6: Production output from Western Coalfields from 2000 2001, Mt
  • Table 14-7: Neyveli Lignite Corporation' s projects in the pipeline
  • Table 14-8: Indian anti-dumping taxes on imports of Chinese coke, US $ per tonnene
  • Table 15-1: Canadian coal mine projects mentioned in the Major Projects Management Office' s project list
  • Table 15-2: Canadian coal mines in operation, 2009
  • Table 15-3: Coal-fired power plants in operation in Canada, April 2010
  • Table 15-4: Canadian Port Handling Capacities 2009, Mt per annum
  • Table 16-1: Indonesian mines in operation in 2009
  • Table 16-2: The largest hard coal producers in Indonesia
  • Table 16-3: Structure of Indonesia' s export capacity, Mt per annum, 2009
  • Table 16-4: Port throughput in Indonesia, Mt
  • Table 17-1: UK coal mines in operation or under development, 2009
  • Table 17-2: Installed FGD capacity in the UK
  • Table 17-3: Coal-fired power plants in operation in the UK, May 2010
  • Table 17-4: Details of opencast coal mines granted planning permission in Great Britain during 2009
  • Table 17-5: Coal Mine Methane Operators' Activities in the UK
  • Table 17-6: Benefits of exploiting coal bed methane and coal mine methane in the UK
  • Table 18-1: Exports from Colombian by Company
  • Table 18-2: Colombian Port Capacity, Mt
  • Table 18-3: Major mines in operation in Colombia
  • Table 18-4: Port infrastructure projects under development in Colombia
  • Table 19-1: Main coal producers in Venezuela, Mt
  • Table 19-2: Exports of Coal from Venezuelan Ports
  • Table 21-1: The Global Coal Leaders Reserves, production, imports, exports, consumption, Mt, 2009
  • Table 21-2: Coal Reserves, Mt, 2009
  • Table 21-3: Coal Production, Mt, 1981 to 2009
  • Table 21-4: Coal Consumption, million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), 1980 to 2009

Figures

  • Figure 2-1: Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel, Mtoe, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 2-2: World Coal Production, Million Tons (Mt) of Coal, 1981 to 2009
  • Figure 2-3: World Coal Demand, Million Tons of Oil Equivalent (Mtoe), 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 2-4: Coal Demand by Country, Mtoe, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 2-5: Coal Consumption in the Major Markets, Mtoe 2000 to 2009
  • Figure 2-6: Expected growth in global coal demand, Mt, 2007 2030
  • Figure 2-7: Hard Coking Coal Demand Growth Index, 2005 base year
  • Figure 2-8: Coal Production and Consumption by major producers and exporters, 2009, Mtoe
  • Figure 2-9: Estimates major Hard Coal Exporters and Importers (Mt of coal) 2009
  • Figure 2-10: Project and actual installed power capacity worldwide by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 2-11: Number of years when fuel led annual growth
  • Figure 2-12 New global coal power plant generation, GW and Mt, 2010
  • Figure 2-13: Global coal power plant build-out and coal demand, GW and Mt, 2009 - 2014
  • Figure 2-14: Electricity generation in China and India, TWh, 2006 2030
  • Figure 2-15: Proven Coal Reserves, Bt, end 2009
  • Figure 2-16: Top twelve countries in terms of coal reserves, Mt, 2009
  • Figure 3-1: Coal Types
  • Figure 3-2: Schematic of Coal Rank
  • Figure 3-3: The Uses of Coal
  • Figure 4-1: Regional Distribution of Coal Production, Mt
  • Figure 4-2: World Coal Production by Principal Producing Countries, Mt
  • Figure 4-3: Global hard coal and brown coal/lignite production, Mt, 2002 to 2009
  • Figure 4-4: World Steam and Coking Coal Trade, Mt, 1978 to 2009
  • Figure 4-5: Development of Steam Coal and Coking Coal Trade, Seaborne and Land, Mt, 1975 to 2009
  • Figure 4-6: Global Flows of Coal Seaborne Trade, Mt, 2009
  • Figure 4-7: Seaborne trade thermal coal in the Atlantic and Asia Pacific region, Mt, Q1 2009 and Q1 2010
  • Figure 4-8: Seaborne trade of coking coal, Mt, Q1 2009 and Q1 2010
  • Figure 4-9: Trends in seaborne trading patterns
  • Figure 4-10: Projected seaborne coal demand, Mt, 1990 2025
  • Figure 4-11: Seaborne metallurgic coal supply outlook
  • Figure 4-12: Selected coal prices, 1987 2009, US $ per tonne
  • Figure 4-13: Average steam coal prices over the past twelve months in the EU, US $ per tonnene
  • Figure 4-14: Price projections coal in the European market, US $ per tonne, 2005 - 2012
  • Figure 4-15: Thermal Coal Prices, US $ per tonne
  • Figure 4-16: Chinese FOB Coking Coal Prices, US $ per tonne
  • Figure 4-17: Oil, gas and coal prices in the US, US $ per mm Bt, 1995 2010
  • Figure 4-18: Steel production, Mt, 1990 2009
  • Figure 4-19: Steel Consumption per Capita versus Output per Capita
  • Figure 4-20: Global Steel Production, Mt, and Metallurgic Coal Pricing, US $ per tonne, from 2000
  • Figure 5-1: Hard Coal (Steam Coal and Coking Coal) Trade, Mt, 2009
  • Figure 5-2: Sea Freight Rates for Hard Coal, 2002 to 2010, US $ per tonne
  • Figure 5-3: Monthly Sea Freight Rates for Hard Coal, Jan 2009 to Jun 2010, US $ per tonnene
  • Figure 5-4: New build tanker prices, US $ million
  • Figure 5-5: New build and 5-year Asset Values, US $ million, 2000 2010
  • Figure 5-6: Baltic Dry Index 2000 to November 2010
  • Figure 6-1: Coal-fired Power Plant Efficiencies
  • Figure 6-2: Status of gasification worldwide
  • Figure 6-3: Geological storage options for CO2
  • Figure 6-4: Global action on carbon capture and storage (CCS)
  • Figure 6-5: 2020 CO2 avoidance costs for power generation technologies from a macroeconomic perspective in € per tonne of CO2
  • Figure 6-6: Comparison of the global status of CCS projects and proposed ideal portfolio of CCS options, 2009
  • Figure 6-7: Spending on CCS
  • Figure 6-8: COAL21 National Action Plan phases and impact of COAL21 measures on emissions
  • Figure 6-9: CCS projects in Australia at various stages of development
  • Figure 6-10: National Atlas of Projected Adequate CO2 Storage Sites
  • Figure 6-11: Current CO2 Capture Projects
  • Figure 6-12: The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Path of Development
  • Figure 6-13: Schematic of UCG Extraction
  • Figure 6-14: Coal strata and sites where provisional UCG licences have been awarded
  • Figure 7-1: Top Eight Carbon Emission Countries, Mt of CO2, 1980 to 2008
  • Figure 7-2: Top Eight Carbon Emission from Coal Countries, Mt of CO2, 2008
  • Figure 7-3: Global Distribution of Carbon Emissions. Difference between Targeted and Projected Emissions 2010 (Mt of CO2 equivalents)
  • Figure 7-4: Carbon Emission of EU-27 countries, Mt, 2008
  • Figure 8-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in China, Million Tons Oil Equivalent (Mtoe), 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 8-2: Coal Production and Consumption in China, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 8-3: CR China Thermal Coal Price Index and Forecast Range
  • Figure 8-4: Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in China
  • Figure 8-5: Domestic thermal coal trade flow in China
  • Figure 8-6: Breakdown of Production by Mine Type in China, 2009
  • Figure 8-7: Gasification potential in China
  • Figure 8-8: CSEC' s average coal sales price, RMB per tonne, 2005 2009
  • Figure 8-9: Global steel production
  • Figure 8-10: Project and actual installed power capacity in China by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 8-11: Coal-fired Power Generation Capacity under Construction by Country (GW), 2009
  • Figure 8-12: Forecast of Unit Coal Consumption and Total Coal Demand for Power Generation
  • Figure 8-13: Imports into China, Mt, from 2002
  • Figure 8-14: Imported Coal Prices in China, US $ per tonne, 2005 April 2010
  • Figure 8-15: QHD Coal Ceiling Price Relative to Coal Stock, yuan per tonne
  • Figure 8-16: China' s Coal Consumption Forecast, Mt, 2009 2015
  • Figure 8-17: Schematic of China' s major coal transportation infrastructure
  • Figure 8-18: Dry bulk freight rates from FOB ports to Guangzhou (GZO) port in ChinaCoalArb, US $ per tonne, 2007 2010
  • Figure 9-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in the US, Mtoe, 1965 to 2010
  • Figure 9-2: Coal Production and Consumption in the US, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 9-3: US historical average weekly coal commodity spot prices, US $ per tonne, November 2007 - 2010
  • Figure 9-4: Key costs for the US, US $ per tonne, 2002 - 2009
  • Figure 9-5: US imports and exports of coal, thousand tonnes, 1949 - 2009
  • Figure 9-6: Cost of imports and exports of US coal, US $ per tonne
  • Figure 9-7: The Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipments in the US
  • Figure 9-8: Top ten owners of coal reserves in the US, million tonnes, 2008 and 2009
  • Figure 9-9: Coal production east and west of the Mississippi river, million tonnes, 1949 - 2009
  • Figure 9-10: Central Appalachian coal production in secular decline
  • Figure 9-11: Underground and surface coal mining production, million tonnes, 1949 - 2009
  • Figure 9-12: Costs of coal by mine type and mine production range in thousand tonnes, US $ per tonne, 2009
  • Figure 9-13: Top five owners of large underground and surface coal mines, million short tonnes, 2009
  • Figure 9-14: Peabody' s pipeline in China
  • Figure 9-15: Long-Term International Coal Demand
  • Figure 9-16: History of Alpha Natural Resources
  • Figure 9-17: Alpha Natural Resources' business unit and mine locations, December 2009
  • Figure 9-18: Alpha Natural Resources' announced acquisitions targets
  • Figure 9-19: CONSOL Energy' s coal seams
  • Figure 9-20: Alliance Resource Partners' coal mines and projects
  • Figure 9-21: Location of US coal-fired power plants under construction
  • Figure 9-22: Project and actual installed power capacity in the US by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 9-23 Projected Eastern US Installed Scrubber Capacity, million tonnes
  • Figure 9-24: Development of US seaborne imports and exports, Mt, 2002 2009
  • Figure 10-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in Australia, Million Tons Oil Equivalent Mtoe), 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 10-2: Coal Production and Consumption in Australia 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 10-3: Australia' s total recoverable resources of black and brown coal at December 2008
  • Figure 10-4: Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in Australia
  • Figure 10-5: Seaborne Thermal Coal Supply Curve, Major Suppliers, 2009
  • Figure 10-6: Index of real world energy prices, 2007 2008
  • Figure 10-7: Advanced mineral and energy projects, April 2010
  • Figure 10-8: Prices for Australian thermal coal, US $ per ounze
  • Figure 10-9: Prices for Australian metallurgic coal, US $ per ounze
  • Figure 10-10: Global mining and metals industry, 2010
  • Figure 10-11: Project and actual installed power capacity in Australia by fuel type, GW, 1990 to 2020
  • Figure 10-12: Capesize Freight Rates to ARA, AUS $ per tonne
  • Figure 11-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in South Africa, Mtoe, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 11-2: Average coal prices in South Africa, R per tonne, 2002 - 2009
  • Figure 11-3: Coal Production and Consumption in South Africa, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 11-4: Project and actual installed power capacity in South Africa by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 11-5: Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in South Africa
  • Figure 11-5: Coal Potential in South Africa
  • Figure 12-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in Poland, Mtoe, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 12-2: Coal Production and Consumption in Poland, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 12-3: The right basis, continuous power plant modernisation or renewal
  • Figure 12-4: Projected EU energy import dependence
  • Figure 12-5: The Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in Poland
  • Figure 12-6: Project and actual installed power capacity in Poland by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 13-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in Russia, Million Tons of Oil Equivalent(Mtoe) 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 13-2: Coal Production and Consumption in Russia, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 13-3: Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in Russia
  • Figure 13-4: Coal Production Breakdown in Russia, 2009
  • Figure 13-5: Breakdown of Coal Exports in Russia, 2009
  • Figure 13-6: Project and actual installed power capacity in Russia by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 14-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in India, Million Tons of Oil Equivalent (Mtoe) 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 14-2: Coal Production and Consumption in India, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 14-3: Major Coalfields and Mining Centres in India
  • Figure 14-4: Coal Production by Coal India, Mt, fiscal year 2006 to 2010
  • Figure 14-5: Coal production from Western Coalfields' coal mines by mine type, thousand tonnes
  • Figure 14-6: Project and actual installed power capacity in India by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 14-7: Coal-fired power plants in India, 2009 2010 fiscal year
  • Figure 15-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in Canada, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 15-2: Coal Production and Consumption in Canada, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 15-3: Total exports and imports of coal by country for Canada, US $ million, 2009
  • Figure 15-4: Gross Domestic Product of the Canadian Coal Mining and Mineral Manufacturing Industry, US $ million, 2000 - 2009
  • Figure 15-5: The Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in Canada
  • Figure 15-6: Canadian Energy Sources
  • Figure 15-7: Project and actual installed power capacity in Canada by fuel type, GW, 1990 2020
  • Figure 16-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in Indonesia, Mtoe, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 16-2: Coal Production and Consumption in Indonesia, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 16-3: The Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in Indonesia
  • Figure 16-4: Bumi Resource' s ownership structure
  • Figure 16-5: Adaro' s coal pit to port integration
  • Figure 16-6: Market for Environmental Coal ' Envirocoal'
  • Figure 16-7: Project and actual installed power capacity in Indonesia by fuel type, GW, 1990 to 2020
  • Figure 17-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in the UK, million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 17-2: Coal Production and Consumption in the UK, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 17-3: Imports and exports of coal for the UK, thousand tonnes, 1970 to 2009
  • Figure 17-4: Reserves of Coal Available for Exploitation by Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)
  • Figure 17-5: Production of coal from deep-mined and open cast mines in the UK, million tonnes, 1970 to 2009
  • Figure 17-6: Deep and open cast mines in operation in the UK, fiscal 1974 to 2009
  • Figure 17-7: Project and actual installed power capacity in the UK by fuel type, GW, 1990 to 2020
  • Figure 17-8: Options for methane extraction in the UK
  • Figure 18-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in Colombia, Million Tons of Oil Equivalent (Mtoe), 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 18-2: Coal Production and Consumption in Colombia, 1965 to 2006
  • Figure 18-3: The Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in Colombia
  • Figure 18-4: Project and actual installed power capacity in Colombia by fuel type, GW, 1990 to 2020
  • Figure 18-5: Central Railroad planned in Colombia
  • Figure 18-6: Central Railroad planned in Colombia
  • Figure 19-1: Total Primary Energy Consumption in Venezuela, Mtoe, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 19-2: Project and actual installed power capacity in Venezuela by fuel type, GW, 1990 to 2020
  • Figure 19-3: Coal Production and Consumption in Venezuela, 1965 to 2009
  • Figure 19-4: The Coal Reserves, Coalfields and Ports of Shipment in Venezuela
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