表紙:ポリマー向け化学原料としての二酸化炭素 (CO2) - 技術・ポリマー・開発業者・生産業者
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ポリマー向け化学原料としての二酸化炭素 (CO2) - 技術・ポリマー・開発業者・生産業者

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers - Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers

出版日: | 発行: Nova-Institut GmbH | ページ情報: 英文 108 Pages | 納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは

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ポリマー向け化学原料としての二酸化炭素 (CO2) - 技術・ポリマー・開発業者・生産業者
出版日: 2021年01月28日
発行: Nova-Institut GmbH
ページ情報: 英文 108 Pages
納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは
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  • 概要
  • 目次
概要

毎年4億トンのポリマーが世界で生産されています。その量は何十年にもわたって毎年3~4%ずつ増加し、現在では、世界で不可欠かつ重要な部分となっています。

当レポートでは、ポリマー向け化学原料としての二酸化炭素 (CO2) について取り上げ、技術的な観点、既に開発・製造・市販されているポリマーの概要、製造の機会などについて、体系的な情報を提供しています。

目次

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 CO2の利用とは

  • CCUとは、主要なメリット
  • 利用可能なCO2原料
  • CCUの用途
  • CO2製品の持続可能性 (石油由来・バイオベース製品との比較)
  • 持続可能な有機化学では、CO2の利用が極めて重要
  • CCUのさらなる利点は、再生可能エネルギーの拡大
  • 半商業的なCO2利用プラントの導入

第3章 CO2ベース構成要素・CO2ベースポリマーの概要

  • ポリマーにCO2を利用する方法
  • CO2変換の触媒

第4章 ポリカーボネート・炭酸塩の構成要素へのCO2の化学変換

  • 脂肪族ポリカーボネート(APC)
  • 芳香族ポリカーボネート
  • CO2ベースのポリカーボネート開発に従事している企業
    • Asahi Kasei (Japan)
    • Cardia Bioplastics (Australia)
    • Covestro (Germany)
    • Empower Materials (USA)
    • Huinnovation (South Korea)
    • Hyundai Motor Group (South Korea)
    • Jiangsu Zhongke Jinlong-CAS Chemical (China)
    • Jilin Boda New Materials (China)
    • Inner Mongolia Mengxi High-Tech Group (China)
    • Norner Innovation (Norway) / SCG Chemicals (Thailand)
    • Royal Dutch Shell (the Netherlands)
    • Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia) / Novomer (USA)
    • Siemens / BASF (Germany)
    • SK Innovation/ SK Global Chemical (South Korea)
    • Taizhou BangFeng Plastic (China)
    • Tianguan Group / Nanyang Zhongju Tianguan Low Carbon Technology Company (China)

第5章 ポリウレタンの構成要素として使用されるポリオールへのCO2の化学変換

  • 概要
  • CO2由来ポリオールベースのポリウレタン開発に従事している企業
    • Covestro (Germany)
    • Econic Technologies (United Kingdom)
    • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

第6章 ポリアクリレートの構成要素へのCO2の化学変換

  • 概要
  • CO2ベースのポリアクリレート開発に従事している企業
    • BASF (Germany)
    • Novomer (USA)

第7章 その他のポリマーへのCO2の化学変換に関する進行中の研究

  • CO2ベースのポリ尿素
  • CO2ベースのポリエステル

第8章 合成ガス変換によるCO2ベースのナフサからの構成要素・ポリマー

第9章 メタノールからオレフィンへの技術

第10章 ポリマー・構成要素へのCO2の電気化学変換

  • 概要
  • ポリマー・構成要素へのCO2の電気化学変換に従事している企業・研究グループ
    • Avantium (the Netherlands)
    • CERT (University of Toronto, Canada)
    • CO2EXIDE (Europe)
    • eEthylen (Germany)
    • Opus 12 (USA)
    • Spectrum Global Solutions (Canada)
    • The State University of New Jersey (USA) /RenewCO2 (USA)
    • Toyota Central R&D Labs (Japan)

第11章 ポリマー・構成要素へのCO2のバイオテクノロジー変換

  • 概要
  • ポリマー・構成要素へのCO2の電子発酵・2段階ハイブリッド変換に従事している企業・研究グループ
    • Avantium, Celbicon project (the Netherlands)
    • b.fab (Germany)
    • BioElectroPlast (Germany)
    • BioRECO2VER (Europe)
    • Evonik / Siemens, Rheticus project (Germany)
  • ガス発酵プロセスによるポリマー・構成要素へのCO2の変換に従事している企業
    • Bio-On / Gruppo Hera / Lux-On (Italy)
    • Brain (Germany)
    • CO2BioClean (Germany)
    • EnobraQ (France)
    • Kiverdi (USA)
    • LanzaTech (NZ/USA)
    • Mango Materials (USA)
    • MicroRio (USA)
    • NatureWorks / Calysta Energy (USA)
    • Newlight Technologies (USA)
    • OakBio (USA)
    • Photanol (the Netherlands)
    • Phytonix Corporation (USA)

第12章 頭字語リスト

第13章 参考文献

目次

The nova report addresses the polymer industry, brands, technology scouts, investors, and policy makers. The report provides 100 pages of information around CO2 utilisation for chemical building blocks and polymers.

400 million tonnes of polymers are produced globally each year. The amount has been growing by 3-4 % per year for decades and they have become an integral and important part of the modern world. Despite all their useful and versatile material properties, polymers face a major problem: 90 % of them are produced from fossil carbon and finally end up as CO2 emission. This has no future!

The organic chemistry and plastics sectors cannot be decarbonised, simply because carbon is the main atom in their material structures. In this context, renewable alternatives to fossil feedstocks are needed, which have already been available for a long time, thanks to intensive research. Chemicals and polymers are already being produced today using renewable carbon, which is carbon from biomass and recycling - and also from CO2. However, as the use of biomass and the recycling of plastics alone will not suffice, CO2 utilisation could be the solution to meet the demand of virgin polymers in the future (Carus et al. 2020).

nova-Institutes technology and trend report "Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as Chemical Feedstock for Polymers - Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers" examines this alternative, renewable carbon source in detail: which polymers can be produced from CO2, and by which processes? How far have the technologies already been developed, optimised and implemented in pilot, demonstration and (semi)commercial plants? Which companies and institutes are working on technologies to produce polymers or building blocks from CO2?

Production capacities for CO2-based polymers

As nova-Institute shows in its report, the potential and the actual production capacity for CO2-based polymers is much larger than commonly assumed and discussed. The production capacity, mainly for polycarbonates and polyols for polyurethanes production, already amounts to more than 850 kt/a today, with an average weighted CO2-based carbon content of currently only 5.4 %. Nine companies were considered, mainly located in Asia, Europe and North America and are shown in table 1.

However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome to enable the deployment of new CO2-conversion plants on a widespread basis, but the use of CO2 as a chemical feedstock for polymers has been intensively diversified in the last years. By now, there are several successfully implemented technologies on the market or close to the commercialisation phase. The third version of the nova-Institutes Technology and Trend Report spans 100 pages and gives a comprehensive overview of the different production routes of CO2-based polymers that are developed and commercialised by research groups of industrial key players, start ups and institutes. A total of at least 40 companies and research projects from Asia, Europe and North America are working on CO2-based polymers and are presented in this report.

Catalysis is the key for CO2-conversion

The breakthrough innovations for CO2-utilisation have all been achieved using specifically designed catalysts. CO2 is a very thermodynamically stable molecule, so it requires a significant amount of energy to be activated. Accordingly, a catalyst must be used to reduce the energy barrier. Whether synthetic or bio catalysts: most of the research on CO2-conversion to polymers focuses on the design of the appropriate catalysts. An introduction to catalysis in CO2-utilisation for polymers is included in the report.

Use of renewable energy to ensure sustainable processes

CO2-based products have significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions than comparable fossil products, if the energy used to convert the CO2 comes from renewable resources. The chemical industry's carbon demand will continue to grow with an annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3-4 %. Calculations demonstrate that just 1-2 % of the Sahara area would be sufficient to meet the entire carbon demand of the chemical industry in 2050 by means of photovoltaics and CO2-utilisation!

Chemical CO2-conversion to polycarbonates has been known for decades

CO2-based polycarbonates are already commercially available from various suppliers. One of the largest volumes available are aromatic polycarbonates, but several players worldwide are also offering aliphatic polycarbonates such as polypropylene carbonate (PPC) or polyethylene carbonate (PEC) for a large range of applications. The amount of CO2 incorporated can reach up to 50 % by weight for these types of aliphatic polymer! In addition, some companies are focussing on polycarbonate polyols as one component in polyurethanes, which can be used in mattresses, car interior foam or textiles.

Intensive research activities on chemical CO2-conversion for other polymers

As shown by Grignard et al. (2019) and in the nova trend and technology report, different pathways are being studied for the chemical conversion of CO2 to various polymers, such as polyureas, at the academic level. Two different approaches are being reviewed to introduce CO2 onto polymer backbones: CO2 is either used as a comonomer and participates directly in the polymerisation process or it is used for the synthesis of building blocks which can afterwards be involved in a polymerisation process. There is also a research interest in the production of CO2-based polyacrylates for use as superabsorbent polymers.

Besides chemical CO2-conversion, electrochemical CO2-conversion has been driven forward in the last years

A lot of improvements have been made in the last years on electrolysers and electrocatalysts for the conversion of CO2 to chemicals and chemical building blocks, which led to increasing interest from key players and the creation of several start ups in this area. The electrosynthesis of chemicals such as ethylene or monoethylene glycol has been of particular interest because of its potential for the production of polyethylene or polyethylene terephthalate, two main conventional plastics used in high volumes. Chemicals such as methanol, formic acid and other chemical building blocks have also a great potential to be produced via this technology.

Biotechnological CO2-conversion remains of great interest and shows high potential for the production of many chemical building blocks and polymers

Thanks to the use of various microorganisms or cyanobacteria and improvements in microbial engineering, biotechnological conversion of CO2 to polymers has seen tremendous growth in recent years. Several companies and start ups are focusing only on PHAs synthesis from patented processes and microorganisms, such as Newlight Technologies . Other key players have a larger portfolio and could offer chemicals such as butanol, ethanol, lactic acid and other building blocks. The most advanced technology in this field belongs to the company LanzaTech , which currently has commercial plants for CO2-based ethanol, used for fuel and ethylene synthesis. Finally, some companies and research consortia are working on the combination of electrosynthesis and biotechnology, either in a two steps approach, or by working on electrofermentation.

Finally, CO2-based naphtha will help to broaden the CO2-based polymers portfolio more than ever

And it has already started! Companies working on the Fischer Tropsch conversion of syngas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) to hydrocarbons are already operating pilot plants for the production of diesel, kerosene, wax and naphtha and one commercial plant is being constructed by the company Nordic Blue Crude . CO2-based Naphtha can be used in the already established cracker process to produce olefins which are needed for most plastics currently in use.

The potential market volume of CO2 utilisation is in principle the entire petrochemical market. "Almost all chemical products currently manufactured from fossil raw materials can be produced from carbon dioxide" (Lehtonen et al. 2019). The chemical industry could be built on CO2 as one of its key carbon sources.

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary

2 What is CO2 utilisation?

  • 2.1 What does "Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU)" mean and what are the main benefits?
  • 2.2 Which sources of CO2 are available?
  • 2.3 What are the applications for CCU?
  • 2.4 How sustainable is the use of CO2 in products compared to petrochemical or bio-based products?
  • 2.5 For sustainable, organic chemistry, the use of CO2 is crucial
  • 2.6 Additional benefits of CCU for the expansion of renewable energies
  • 2.7 Implementations of (semi)commercial CO2 utilisation plants
    • 2.7.1 Examples for CO2 utilisation plants to chemicals, fuels and proteins (Power-to-X)
    • 2.7.2 Examples for CO2 utilisation plants to polymers and building blocks

3 General overview of CO2-based building blocks and polymers

  • 3.1 Ways to use CO2 for polymers
  • 3.2 Catalysts for CO2 conversion
    • 3.2.1 Typical catalysts' structure
    • 3.2.2 Examples of catalysts used for CO2 conversion processes to polymers or building blocks

4 Chemical conversion of CO2 into polycarbonates and carbonates building blocks

  • 4.1 Aliphatic polycarbonates (APCs)
    • 4.1.1 Linear aliphatic polycarbonates
    • 4.1.2 Cyclo-aliphatic polycarbonates
    • 4.1.3 Cyclic carbonates as potential polymer building blocks
  • 4.2 Aromatic polycarbonates
  • 4.3 Companies active in CO2-based polycarbonates development
    • 4.3.1 Asahi Kasei (Japan)
    • 4.3.2 Cardia Bioplastics (Australia)
    • 4.3.3 Covestro (Germany)
    • 4.3.4 Empower Materials (USA)
    • 4.3.5 Huinnovation (South Korea)
    • 4.3.6 Hyundai Motor Group (South Korea)
    • 4.3.7 Jiangsu Zhongke Jinlong-CAS Chemical (China)
    • 4.3.8 Jilin Boda New Materials (China)
    • 4.3.9 Inner Mongolia Mengxi High-Tech Group (China)
    • 4.3.10 Norner Innovation (Norway) / SCG Chemicals (Thailand)
    • 4.3.11 Royal Dutch Shell (the Netherlands)
    • 4.3.12 Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia) / Novomer (USA)
    • 4.3.13 Siemens / BASF (Germany)
    • 4.3.14 SK Innovation/ SK Global Chemical (South Korea)
    • 4.3.15 Taizhou BangFeng Plastic (China)
    • 4.3.16 Tianguan Group / Nanyang Zhongju Tianguan Low Carbon Technology Company (China)

5 Chemical conversion of CO2 into polyols used as a building block for polyurethanes

  • 5.1 General overview
  • 5.2 Companies active in polyurethane development based on CO2-derived polyols
    • 5.2.1 Covestro (Germany)
    • 5.2.2 Econic Technologies (United Kingdom)
    • 5.2.3 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

6 Chemical conversion of CO2 into polyacrylates building block

  • 6.1 General overview
  • 6.2 Companies involved in CO2-based polyacrylates development
    • 6.2.1 BASF (Germany)
    • 6.2.2 Novomer (USA)

7 Research ongoing on chemical conversion of CO2 into other polymers

  • 7.1 CO2-based polyureas
  • 7.2 CO2-based polyesters

8 Building blocks and polymers from CO2-based naphtha via syngas transformation

9 Methanol-to-olefins technology

10 Electrochemical conversion of CO2 into polymers and building blocks

  • 10.1 General overview
  • 10.2 Companies and research groups active in electrochemical conversion of CO2 into polymers and building blocks
    • 10.2.1 Avantium (the Netherlands)
    • 10.2.2 CERT (University of Toronto, Canada)
    • 10.2.3 CO2EXIDE (Europe)
    • 10.2.4 eEthylen (Germany)
    • 10.2.5 Opus 12 (USA)
    • 10.2.6 Spectrum Global Solutions (Canada)
    • 10.2.7 The State University of New Jersey (USA) /RenewCO2 (USA)
    • 10.2.8 Toyota Central R&D Labs (Japan)

11 Biotechnological conversion of CO2 into polymers and building blocks

  • 11.1 General overview
  • 11.2 Companies and research groups active in electrofermentation and two-step hybrid conversion of CO2 into polymers and building blocks
    • 11.2.1 Avantium, Celbicon project (the Netherlands)
    • 11.2.2 b.fab (Germany)
    • 11.2.3 BioElectroPlast (Germany)
    • 11.2.4 BioRECO2VER (Europe)
    • 11.2.5 Evonik / Siemens, Rheticus project (Germany)
  • 11.3 Companies active in the conversion of CO2 into polymers and building blocks via gas fermentation processes
    • 11.3.1 Bio-On / Gruppo Hera / Lux-On (Italy)
    • 11.3.2 Brain (Germany)
    • 11.3.3 CO2BioClean (Germany)
    • 11.3.4 EnobraQ (France)
    • 11.3.5 Kiverdi (USA)
    • 11.3.6 LanzaTech (NZ/USA)
    • 11.3.7 Mango Materials (USA)
    • 11.3.8 MicroRio (USA)
    • 11.3.9 NatureWorks / Calysta Energy (USA)
    • 11.3.10 Newlight Technologies (USA)
    • 11.3.11 OakBio (USA)
    • 11.3.12 Photanol (the Netherlands)
    • 11.3.13 Phytonix Corporation (USA)

12 List of acronyms

13 References