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A Guide to Virtualized Network Processing, 17th Edition

発行 Linley Group 商品コード 68747
出版日 ページ情報 英文
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ネットワークプロセッサーのガイド A Guide to Virtualized Network Processing, 17th Edition
出版日: 2016年11月30日 ページ情報: 英文

ネットワークプロセッサー (NPU:Network Processing Unit) は、キャリアの機器設計における重要な構成要素です。






第1章 キャリアネットワークとは

  • ネットワークの種類とトポロジー
    • MAN
    • 有線アクセス
    • ワイヤレスアクセス
  • 機器の種類
    • メトロプラットフォーム
    • 有線アクセスインフラ
    • ワイヤレスアクセスインフラ

第2章 キャリアネットワーク技術

  • ネットワークレイヤーとOSIモデル
    • レイヤー3〜7
    • レイヤー1・2
  • ネットワークプロトコルの詳細
    • イーサネット
    • PPP
    • マルチプロトコルラベルスイッチング (MPLS)
    • OTN
    • IPマルチキャスティング
    • TDMエミュレーション
    • タイミング同期
    • イーサネットOAMと保護スイッチング
    • HDLCとフレームリレー
  • キャリアイーサネットサービス
  • SDN
    • ネットワーク機能仮想化
    • OpenFlow
    • Open vSwitch
    • トンネリングプロトコル
  • パケット処理パイプライン
    • 制御・データプレーン
    • 構文解析
    • 分類
    • 転送
    • 修正
    • ネットワーク経路とサービス品質
    • トラフィック管理
    • ポリシングとシェーピング
    • 混雑管理
    • スケジューリング
    • 階層的トラフィック管理
  • ネットワークとI/O (入出力) インターフェース
    • イーサネットPHYインターフェース
    • Interlaken/Interlaken Look-Aside
    • OIF/NPF LA-1
    • Utopia、POS-PHY、SPI
    • PCI Express
  • 筐体・ボード規格

第3章 NPU、サーチコプロセッサー、iNIC

  • ネットワークプロセッサーとは
    • ネットワークプロセッサーではないものとは
  • NPUの一般的な特徴
    • マイクロアーキテクチャーの種類
    • 暗号化エンジン
    • 固定機能 vs. プログラム可能
    • ネットワークインターフェース
    • メモリーインターフェース
    • ホストインターフェース
    • ソフトウェアの検討事項
    • ベンダープログラミング vs. 顧客プログラミング
  • サーチコプロセッサー
    • サーチコプロセッサーとは
    • 用途
    • アーキテクチャーと一般的な特徴
  • インテリジェントNIC

第4章 市場規模と動向

  • マーチャントNPUの市場規模と区分
  • NPUの市場シェア:ベンダー別
  • NPUの市場予測
  • サーチコプロセッサー市場
    • 技術動向
  • OEM専用NPU
    • Alcatel-Lucent FlexPath
    • Cisco QuantumFlowプロセッサー・nPower X1
    • Ericsson SNP-4000
    • Huawei Solar
    • Juniper Junos Trio
  • ネットワーク処理の技術動向
    • SDNとNFV
    • 処理状態を把握するネットワークプロセッサー
    • マルチコアプロセッサー vs. NPU
    • FPGA vs. NPU
    • インテリジェントNIC vs. ラインカード

第5章 Broadcom

  • 企業の背景
  • 主な特徴と業績
  • 設計の詳細
  • システム設計
  • 開発ツール
  • 製品ロードマップ
  • 結論

第6章 EZchip

  • 企業の背景
  • ネットワークプロセッサー
  • インテリジェントNIC
  • 開発ツール
  • 製品ロードマップ
  • 結論

第7章 Netronome

  • 企業の背景
  • フロープロセッサー
  • インテリジェントNIC
  • ソフトウェアドライバーとツール
  • 製品ロードマップ
  • 結論

第8章 PMC-Sierra

  • 企業の背景
  • 主な特徴と業績
  • 内部アーキテクチャー
  • システム設計
  • 開発ツール
  • 結論

第9章 サーチコプロセッサーベンダー

  • Cavium
  • Marvell
  • XeL Technology

第10章 NPUとiNICの比較

  • 200Gbps以上のNPU
  • 40Gbps以上のiNIC

第11章 結論

  • NPUベンダーの見通し
    • EZchip
    • Broadcom
    • Netronome
    • PMC-Sierra
  • 結論





Network Processing in the SDN/NFV Era

Software-defined networking (SDN) and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) are disrupting the market for networking equipment. NFV is enabling carriers to transition from traditional purpose-built equipment to servers and switch/router platforms designed for data centers. The combination of server virtualization and SDN has pushed the network edge into the server in the form of a virtual switch. Open-source projects, such as Open vSwitch, ONOS, OpenDaylight, and OpenStack are creating an ecosystem around SDN/NFV.

Against this backdrop, the market for network processors (NPUs) has declined while the intelligent NIC (iNIC) segment has emerged. In both categories, however, in-house ASIC designs developed by OEMs or cloud-service providers have hindered the merchant-silicon market. Entering 2017, vendors are adjusting their strategies to navigate this changing landscape. Acquisitions continue to alter the competitive dynamics, with several vendors now offering customers multiple architectural approaches.

The newest NPUs have scaled to 400Gbps and beyond to support high-density line cards and 100G Ethernet. Some remain focused on Layer 2/3 forwarding, whereas others are addressing flow processing at Layers 4 through 7. These NPUs address smart top-of-rack switches and appliances in addition to line cards. Intelligent NICs (or smart NICs) are addressing Open vSwitch offload in high-volume server designs, moving from 10G Ethernet to 25G Ethernet. High-end iNICs address early demand for 100G Ethernet in SDN and network-security applications. This report covers programmable NPUs including Broadcom's StrataDNX line and Mellanox's NPS line. It covers iNICs from Cavium, Kalray, Mellanox, and Netronome.

Only The Linley Group has the technical depth to give you the complete picture. How do the latest products stack up? What is the market outlook for merchant products? "A Guide to Virtualized-Network Processing" is the result more than a decade of research that cannot be duplicated. If you are interested in following this strategic segment, you have located the definitive source.

Get Facts, Not Fiction

This report cuts through the vendor hype and gives you the solid information you need to understand this market. It analyzes each vendor and each product, probes their strengths and weaknesses, then presents key details in a consistent, easy to compare fashion. For those less familiar with this technology, the report includes introductory chapters that explain important technologies.

The Linley Group is the most recognized and respected name for technology and market analysis of networking silicon. Don't be fooled by weak overviews written by market analysts who really don't understand technology. The "Guide" provides a unique combination of business and technology savvy from the leading analysts in this market. Bob Wheeler and Loring Wirbel use their long experience in the networking world to analyze these devices. Together, the two authors ignore the fiction and provide the real story on each vendor and its products.

This report is written for:

  • Engineers who are designing carrier-networking equipment and need to select a network processor (NPU)
  • Network architects at service providers who need to select an architecture or vendor
  • Marketing and engineering staff at companies that sell NPUs or NICs
  • Financial analysts who desire a detailed analysis and comparison of NPU and iNIC vendors and their chances of success
  • Universities and research institutes that need a vendor-neutral introduction to this market and technology

What's New in This Edition

Updates to the 17th Edition of "A Guide to Virtualized-Network Processing"

Previously "A Guide to Network Processors," this report has been extensively updated to include the latest vendor disclosures as well as 2016 market data.

Here are some of the many changes you will find:

  • New quantitative market data, including:
    • Preliminary NPU vendor market shares for 2016
    • Preliminary iNIC vendor market shares for 2016
    • Revised forecasts for merchant NPUs through 2020
  • First-time coverage of Cavium's LiquidIO II iNICs
  • First-time coverage of Mellanox's BlueField processor for iNICs
  • First-time coverage of Kalray's KONIC adapters
  • Coverage of Netronome's new Agilio-CX iNICs
  • Extensive updates to company-background information, roadmaps, and analysis for major vendors
  • New introductory chapters covering SDN, NFV, and related technologies

Executive Summary

Previously A Guide to Network Processors, this edition represents a major revamp, reflecting the changing networking landscape in the era of software-defined networking (SDN) and network functions virtualization (NFV). As the network edge moves into servers, we now cover intelligent NICs (or smart NICs) that accelerate Open vSwitch (OVS) as well as other functions and protocols. In addition, we have refocused our NPU cover-age on the 400Gbps-and-faster chips that are relevant for new designs.

The markets for both data-center and carrier networking equipment are experiencing a major upheaval driven by SDN/NFV adoption as well as the ongoing rise of large public-cloud operators. These changes have upset the merchant packet-processing market, which is now served by multiple architectures including NPUs and intelligent NICs (iNICs). Even as incumbent network-equipment vendors face an uncertain growth path, they continue to develop internal ASICs, limiting the merchant market. The largest public-cloud operators are also developing their own ASIC- and FPGA-based designs, leaving iNIC vendors to serve the next tier of data centers.

Although the network-processor market as a whole has been declining since 2011, the top-line view fails to tell the whole story. Revenue from high-end NPUs grew from 2012 through 2015 before falling slightly in 2016. By contrast, access-NPU sales have been in continuous decline. After peaking at $397 million in 2010, we estimate merchant-NPU revenue fell to $306 million in 2016, a level not seen since 2008.

We began sizing the iNIC market with the 2013 calendar year, for which time we estimate sales were only $49 million. From that small base, revenue then jumped 79% in 2014 to $87 million. The iNIC market exceeded $100 million for the first time in 2015. Although we capture all iNICs in a single category regardless of port speed, 10GbE dominated iNIC port shipments through 2016.

Mellanox acquired the leading supplier of high-end merchant NPUs, EZchip, in February 2016. The company is shipping multiple product generations that combine a customer-programmable packet processor, traffic manager, and Ethernet MACs. It works with Marvell to supply special versions of its NP line to Cisco, which primarily uses them in the ASR 9000 router. Mellanox is sampling a new 400Gbps NPU, called the NPS-400, that handles Layer 4-7 features and offers easier programming than traditional NPUs. It's also developing a new SoC for iNICs, dubbed BlueField, that combines technology from Mellanox and Tilera, a company that EZchip acquired in 2014.

Broadcom is shipping NPUs in two product lines, which have their origins in two different acquisitions. For new designs, however, the company focuses on its StrataDNX family. The currently shipping version is Jericho (BCM88670), which delivers an industry-leading 720Gbps of throughput. Although the BCM88670 is internally programmable, the company sells it as a configurable device using factory-supplied microcode. The StrataDNX family also includes a complete switch fabric that works with Broadcom's NPUs. In 2016, the company added both higher-end and lower-performance members to the StrataDNX family. Thanks to its broad offering, Broadcom provides system solutions that are more complete than any competitor's.

Privately held Netronome is the leading supplier of intelligent NICs, which are based on its custom network flow processors. The company shipped its 40Gbps NFP-3240 and associated iNICs in 2011, followed in 2015 by the NFP-6000 and new cards that scale throughput to 200Gbps. After initially targeting network-security and other appliance designs, Netronome in 2016 launched lower-power iNICs for high-volume servers. Its Agilio adapters include software to transparently accelerate OVS. Cavium was first to market with low-power (25W) iNICs for cloud servers. Introduced in 2013, its initial LiquidIO adapters used the company's Octeon II embedded processors. In 2016, Cavium began shipping LiquidIO II cards, which employ 28nm Octeon III chips. Because they give customers a standard programming environment, these iNICs offer easy software porting and customization. In addition to OVS, LiquidIO II accelerates the IPSec network-encryption protocol.

Other iNIC vendors include Kalray, which uses its own massively parallel processors, and Silicom, which builds iNICs around silicon from Broadcom and Intel.

Looking forward, public-cloud data centers represent the largest volume opportunity for iNICs, but hyperscale operators are also the most likely to adopt internal designs. Amazon paid a reported $350 million for Annapurna Labs, although it has also applied the acquired technology to products other than iNICs. Microsoft developed its Azure SmartNIC, combining an off-the-shelf Ethernet controller and an FPGA as an alternate means of delivering programmability.

We estimate that public-cloud data centers will consume 8.1 million 10GbE-and-above NIC ports in 2017 and that this number will surpass 10 million by 2019. Programmable iNICs will face competition, however, from partial-offload NICs as well as operators' in-house designs.

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

About the Authors

About the Publisher


Executive Summary

1 Intro to Virtualized Networks

  • Virtualization, SDN, and NFV
    • Open-Source Projects
    • Orchestration Tools and OpenCloud Server
  • Target Applications for NPUs and iNICs
    • Cloud Data Centers
    • Service-Provider Infrastructure
  • Packet-Processing Pipelines
    • Control and Data Planes
    • Parsing
    • Classification
    • Forwarding
    • Modification
    • Network Paths and Quality of Service
    • Traffic Management

2 Network and Server Technology

  • Software-Defined Networks
    • OpenFlow
    • P4
    • Open vSwitch
    • Tunneling Protocols
    • Service-Function Chaining and Network-Service Headers
  • PCI Express
    • I/O Virtualization
    • Open Compute Project Mezzanine
  • Operating Systems and Drivers
    • Offloads
    • DPDK and ODP
    • RDMA, iWARP, and RoCE

3 NPUs and iNICs

  • Network Processors
    • Common Characteristics
  • Intelligent NICs
    • Common Characteristics

4 Market Size and Trends

  • Merchant-NPU Market
    • NPU Market Share by Vendor
    • NPU Market Forecast

List of Figures

  • Figure 1-1. Microsoft Open CloudServer.
  • Figure 1-2. Control and data planes.
  • Figure 2-1. P4 abstract forwarding model.
  • Figure 2-2. PCI Express system topology.
  • Figure 2-3. Simplified diagram of the Linux network stack.
  • Figure 3-1. Block diagram of a typical NPU.
  • Figure 3-2. Block diagram of a typical iNIC.
  • Figure 4-1. Preliminary market share of merchant NPUs by revenue, 2016.
  • Figure 4-2. Merchant-NPU market forecast, 2015-2020.
  • Figure 4-3. Preliminary market share of merchant iNICs by revenue, 2016.
  • Figure 5-1. Block diagram of Broadcom BCM88670.
  • Figure 5-2. Block diagram of a Broadcom-based 600Gbps line card.
  • Figure 7-1. Block diagram of Mellanox NPS network processing cluster (NPC).
  • Figure 7-2. Block diagram of Mellanox NPS 400.
  • Figure 7-3. Programmable top-of-rack switch using Mellanox NPS-400.
  • Figure 8-1. Block diagram of Netronome Agilio CX 2x40GbE iNIC.
  • Figure 8-2. Netronome Agilio Open vSwitch offload architecture.
  • Figure 9-1. Block diagram of a Kalray Bostan compute cluster.

List of Tables

  • Table 2-1. PCI Express revisions and characteristics.
  • Table 4-1. Worldwide revenue of merchant NPUs by vendor, 2015-2016.
  • Table 4-2. Worldwide revenue of merchant intelligent NICs by vendor, 2015-2016.
  • Table 5-1. Key parameters for Broadcom NPU and traffic-manager chips.
  • Table 6-1. Key parameters for Cavium LiquidIO II iNICs.
  • Table 6-2. Key parameters for Cavium Octeon III CN73xx processors.
  • Table 7-1. Key parameters for Mellanox NPUs.
  • Table 7-2. Key parameters for Mellanox Tile-Gx and BlueField SoCs.
  • Table 8-1. Key parameters for Netronome Agilio LX and Agilio CX.
  • Table 8-2. Key parameters for Netronome NFP-4000 and NFP-6000.
  • Table 9-1. Key parameters for Kalray Konic iNICs.
  • Table 10-1. Comparison of 400Gbps-and-above NPUs.
  • Table 10-2. Comparison of 25GbE intelligent NICs.
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