Conductive Ink Markets 2020-2030: Forecasts, Technologies, Players
PV, 5G, Automotive, Power Electronics, EMI shielding, In-Mold Electronics, e-Textiles, Skin Patches, Printed Sensors, Flexible Hybrid Electronics, RFID, 3D Metallization, Heating, Hybrid/Printed Metal Mesh, and Many Others.
Current and new opportunities assessed.
This report is based upon years of research. In the past eight years alone, our analysts have interviewed more than 150 industry players, visited numerous users/suppliers across the world, attended more than 35 relevant conferences/exhibitions globally, and worked with many industry players to help them with their strategy towards this market. For example, in the last five years alone we visited around 35 tradeshows in Japan, USA, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, UK, and so on, to update our report. Prior to this, our analysts played an active role in commercializing conductive pastes, particularly in the photovoltaic industry.
In parallel to this, IDTechEx has organised the leading global conferences and tradeshows on printed electronics for the past decade in Asia, Europe and the USA. These shows bring together the entire value chain on printed electronics, including all the conductive ink suppliers, printers, and end users. This has given us unrivalled access to the players and the latest market intelligence.
What does this report cover?
This report provides the most comprehensive and authoritative view of the conductive inks and paste market, giving detailed ten-year market forecasts segmented by application and material type. The market forecasts are given in tonnage and value at the ink level.
It includes critical reviews of all the competing conductive inks and paste technologies including firing-type pastes, sintering pastes, PTFs, laser-cut or photo-patterned pastes, nanoparticles, stretchable inks, In-Mold inks, copper, copper/silver alloys, nanocarbons, and more. Here, we outline the latest performance levels/progress, technology challenges, key suppliers, existing and emerging target market, and forecasts where appropriate.
It also provides a detailed assessment of more than 30 application sectors. Here, we analyse the market needs/requirements, discuss the business dynamics, market leadership and technology change trends, competing solutions, latest product/prototype launches, key players and market forecasts in tonnes and value.
The markets covered include 5G, automotive (sensors, electronics, heaters, etc.), photovoltaics, power electronics, package-level EMI shielding, In-Mold Electronics, electronic textile and wearable electronics, skin patches, RFID, flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), printed sensors (piezoresistive, capacitive, piezoelectric, other), 3D antennas and conformal printing, touch screen edge electrodes, heating, hybrid or fully-printed metal mesh (transparent electrodes, heaters, or antennas), printed PCBs (DIY/hobbyist, professional, seed-and-plate), printed TFT and memory, OLED and large-area LED lighting, flexible e-readers and reflective displays, large-area heaters (battery, plant, seat, etc.), conductive pens, digitizers and more.
In the report we also cover more than 130 companies. For most, we provide insights based on primary intelligence obtained through interviews, visits, conference exhibition interactions, personal communications, and so on.
Market overview (2020-2030)
In this section we provide a review of select markets. To learn more about the rest or for further details please see the report itself.
5G: We are receiving many enquiries about conductive ink opportunity in 5G. There are several interesting opportunities here. First lies in the filter technology. Current filter technologies will need to stretch to meet requirements in sub-6GHz 5G and will fall short on mmwave 5G. A range of candidates are emerging such as microstrip on PCB or ceramic as well as multilayer LTCC filters. The latter offers reasonable filter properties at mmwave whilst maintaining a small footprint, which is vital for mmwave 5G implementation where large closely spaced antenna lattices will be used to increase gain and to beam form. It is early days but multilayer LTCC seems a potential front-runner candidate if tight tolerance can be achieved at high volume production. This would translate into significant paste opportunity.
Another important opportunity lies in highly thermally conductive die attach pastes, e.g., metal sinter or highly loaded epoxies. RF GaN power amplifiers (PAs) are likely to rise as current LDMOS technology will struggle at the required frequencies, even at sub-6GHz 5G. This trend will continue until the point where antenna arrays are large enough to allow Si-based technologies in. GaN is often attached using gold-based solders, i.e., AuSn, but sinter die attach or metal (e.g., Ag) filled epoxies can achieve excellent results at lower cost. Indeed, leading manufacturers have already qualified such AnSu alternative technologies. As such, this is a growth opportunity.
There are of course further opportunities. In particular, minimizing transmission loss at high frequencies calls for both low-loss materials and minimization of distances. To realize the latter, more functions are likely to be integrated within a package. This will boost the need for conformal EMI shielding and in-package compartmentalization. Spray- and inkjet-based approaches are emerging to unseat sputtering.
Automotive: The automotive sector has emerged as an important target market for conductive ink suppliers. The traditional applications include printed defrosters especially on rear-windows. This has been a mature and notable business. A key trend here is to implement transparent and efficient larger-area heating to eliminate the visible defroster lines. Here, printed metal mesh is an excellent candidate, and is already advancing through the qualification process. Furthermore, transparent heating can have other applications, especially in defrosting of perception sensors used in highly-automated and autonomous driving, e.g., cameras or lidar.
Furthermore, seat heaters are also a notable market with ample upside growth opportunity. Printed heating can further expand within the interior of vehicles. Printed occupancy seat sensors and other printed sensors are also existing opportunity with strong potential upsides.
Electric vehicles and power electronics: Furthermore, the emergence of electric vehicles is a growth opportunity. Printers are developing large-area battery pack heaters to help regulate battery temperatures, especially in cold environments. Importantly, metal sintering die attach pastes have already been commercialized in the EV power electronics. This trend will continue rapidly as higher power densities, partly boosted by the growing transition to wideband semiconductors, pushes the operating temperatures beyond the capabilities of many solders. Indeed, the competition here is intense and many metal sintering material supplies are innovating to offer drop-in form factors, lower sintering time, pressure-less sintering, higher thermal conductivity, etc. This is an interesting space which is analysed in great detail in the report.
There are of course other opportunities in vehicles. In-Mold Electronics (IME) is being used to develop both interior and exterior parts, but we will cover IME in a subsequent article. LTCC (low-temperature-cofired-ceramics) has long been a commonplace board technology especially for the ECU, gear control, ABS controller, steer by wire, etc. Last but not the least, there can be niche opportunities in electrochromic glass, even in battery EMI shielding, etc.
Electronic Packaging and conformal metallization: There are multiple aspects to this trend. Aerosol printing had gained some popularity in mobile phone direct-on-part antenna production and similar. This opened a market for mono-disperse nanoparticles. The rise of 5G will likely put such designs at risk. Furthermore, some products have reached end of cycle. As such, the defining question will be whether aerosol can find new applications beyond mobile phone antennas.
Conformal EMI shielding is a megatrend which will accelerate in the coming years. Here, we see a transition from low-cost but bulky lid-based board-level shielding to thin conformal package-level shielding. This trend is not exactly new and one of the early adopters was the application processor on the 2015 Apple watch. Many components today in mobile phones have conformal EMI shielding. In general, the most common elements are WiFi, Bluetooth and other RF front end modules. Conformal coating on NAND memories is rarer but increasing.
Sputtering is the well-entrenched processes here. It benefits from being proven and from sunk capex investment. It, however, may not have the highest unit per hour (UPH) rate given that sputtering rates will need to be slowed to achieve good adhesion to the epoxy molding compounds. This approach uses a SUS-Cu-SUS structure and is thus light on bill of materials. Instead, it is heavy on machinery costs as multiple sputtering tools will be needed.
Multiple ink-based alternatives are now emerging. Spraying is one option. Here, the process is non-vacuum. The ink composition and particle morphology do matter. The thicknesses here are 3-6um and good side and top thickness uniformity is obtained. The ink-jet based approach is novel. It uses particle-free inks activated by light exposure. Here, there will be no nozzle clogging. The suppliers are suggesting that they can achieve sufficient shielding at just 1-2um thickness with UHP reaching 12k on 10mm2 packages. In both approaches, Capex is low, making the technology accessible to all manners of OSATs and to lower value ICs and applications. This can, in the longer term, boost volumes.
In general, ink-based approaches can only partly conformably cover the package, leaving some areas unexposed. Furthermore, jetting can also be used to fill in trenches created to isolate parts within a package, leading to in-package compartmentalization. This is a critical attribute especially when antenna-in-package designs, important for 5G, are considered.
Photovoltaics: This remains the largest market worldwide for firing-type pastes. This is an irreplaceable market volume-wise. Indeed, the PV market has been roaring ahead since 2014, more than doubling in size. Indeed, global installations are expected to have exceed 114GW in 2019. This is not an easy market for paste or powder suppliers, however. Here, price pressures are immense and performance advantages temporary and short-lived. Only those with large and well-established production lines can participate.
Non silicon wafer-based PV technology are now confined to very small niches in the market. These, nonetheless, represent important sales opportunity especially in forming the electrodes. This opportunity extends mainly to thin and highly conductive lines which cured at low temperatures. Such requirements match well with what nanoparticle inks seek to offer.
Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHE): This emerging technology frontier allows printed electronics to be combined with, or hybridized with, rigid ICs and electronics, thus marrying the best of both worlds. Indeed, a limiting factor thus far for printed electronics has been that many components such as logic and memory are either non-existing and don't come close to matching the cost and performance of non-printed technologies.
FHE is of course not straightforward to implement. Thinned ICs are being developed to enable flexibility. Novel attachment techniques such as low-T solder or photonic sintering are being developed to enable the transition from the expensive PI to the low-cost and low-temperature PET. At the first instance, digital printing is likely to be employed, cutting turnaround times, allowing customization, and producing limited units. In the longer run, high-throughput roll-to-roll techniques will be required. This will require innovation on rapid pick-and-place on a roll able to handle thin ICs. This is indeed a major innovation opportunity.
All in all, in the long term, this technology will enable flexible, complex, and relatively large circuits to be rapidly produced. Imagine the multi-billion-unit RFID business but imagine more complex and larger area circuit lines as well as larger and more powerful ICs. This is the long-term transition.
Conductive inks will play a central role here. Rapid sinter/cure technologies will be needed to enable high-throughput production. Low-cost is also essential. To address this, new copper formulations are being offered that seek overcome the cost/performance trade-offs and to enable simple and rapid sintering. Narrow linewidth and high-throughput printing will also be needed to support complex ICs with many closely spaced I/O pins. This will be an increasingly important area. At first, the industry will be led by many well-funded research centres. However, the transition to commercial production will soon take place in earnest.
In-Mold Electronics: In-Mold Electronics is projected to exceed $1Bn by 2029 at the product level across automotive, consumer goods, wearables, and home appliance applications. The progress will start with smaller and simpler devices launching in areas where reliability and product lifetime requirements are more relaxed. It will then transition into more challenging markets. In other words, this time around, the industry will probably learn to walk before it runs. We expect the automotive market to adopt IME product starting from the 2022-2023 period.
IME is no longer a young field. The first products were launched more than five years ago. Conductive ink innovations have played a key role in enabling this method. Today, many inks are available. Suppliers are seeking to bridge the conductivity gap with standard conductive inks, to improve reliability individually and as part of a stack, and to extend the limits of stretchability. The innovations are mainly on the formulation step and the powder requirements are rather relaxed. The product development works have been undergoing as such the early pioneers are well placed to reap the rewards when the first generation of products launches. Once the requirements become more standard more suppliers can enter the business.
Skin Patches: This is already a major business. Indeed, IDTechEx estimates that skin patches generated $7.5Bn in 2018 and forecasts this to rise to over $20Bn by 2029. Several skin patch product areas, particularly in diabetes management and cardiovascular monitoring, have superseded incumbent options in established markets to create billions of dollars of new revenue each year for the companies at the forefront of this wave.
Whilst many people may imagine skin patches to be thin, highly conformable devices that sit close to the skin, the reality is that many of the most successful products today are still bulky devices. Future developments utilising flexible, stretchable and conformal electronic components seek to change this. This is important because skin patches offer continuous monitoring and are thus worn for extended period. As such, convenience is critical. Furthermore, stretchable electronics can allow more and/or longer electrodes to be integrated without compromising user comfort, boosting the locations the skin patch can sense.
Conductive inks are an enabling component of this long-term trend. Indeed, already fully or partly printed skin patches are commercially launched in cardiovascular, diabetic foot, temperature, respiration, blood oximetry, and humidity/moisture monitoring as well as muscle simulation and sensing. The printed element almost invariably includes conductive inks. The ink requirements here often extend beyond stretchability and include, for example, the ability to withstand harsh hydrogels, high conductivity to pick up weak signals, adhesion to stretchable substrates, and so on. Early close engagement with this field will bear fruits.
E-Textiles: This market is already expected to exceed $100M in 2020 across all application sectors at the textile level. The snapshot of the e-textile application readiness levels shows a robust pipeline. Applications such as elite sports biometric (chest straps or apparel), heated clothing, illuminated apparel, high-fashion e-textile apparel, carpet pressure sensors and similar extend from the early commercial sales to full market penetration. There are also many applications at early development phases, rendering the pipeline deep and robust.
Despite all these, there are many challenges. There is a lack of standards or even clearly defined product requirements. The supply chain is immature although efficiency is improving with co-located manufacturing. Critically, most works are in small volumes, which allows the small firms or project teams to survive. However, there are still only few consistent success stories demonstrating volume manufacturing. These challenges are not however showstoppers.
The technology options for conductivity in e-textile are multiple, but stretchable conductive inks are beginning to find their space. They can be added post-production, thus requiring little change to the manufacturing process. The device shape and properties can also be better controlled than with fibre-based solutions. Furthermore, the inks can also offer more stretchability than many alternative solutions.
The ink performance has improved over years with the elongation-induced conductivity changes becoming much more supressed and predictable. The relationship between substrate/encapsulant properties and the inks are better known and optimized. A range of formulations now exist to address varying needs. The washability figures however also improved although this is largely dictated by the encapsulant.
Overall, the supplier numbers mushroomed around 2015/2017. These supplies have been seeding the market, exploring the applications, and painstakingly findings case where there is a business case and ruling out the rest. As such, the business is likely to grow, although sustaining the growth is not easy because one requires a robust and continuous application pipeline since consumption per part is low.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. MARKET FORECASTS
- 1.1. Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by 30 application areas
- 1.2. Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
- 1.3. Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV included.
- 1.4. Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
- 1.5. Ten-year market forecast for micron-sized (non nano) conductive inks and pastes split by application
- 1.6. Ten-year market forecasts for silver nanoparticle conductive inks and pastes split by application
- 1.7. Ten-year market forecasts printed sensors (piezoresistive, glucose, capacitive, touch edge electrode, ITO replacement, etc.)
- 1.8. Ten-year market forecasts printed sensors (In-Mold Electronics)
- 1.9. Ten-year market forecasts automotive (exterior, seat heaters, occupancy sensors, FHE, etc.)
- 1.10. Ten-year market forecasts RFID and flexible hybrid electronics
- 1.11. Ten-year market forecasts for power electronic in electronics vehicles (sintered Ag, nanoAg and Cu)
- 1.12. Ten-year market forecasts for conformal metallization (aerosol and package-level conformal EMI coating)
- 1.13. Ten-year market forecasts for other (3D printed electronics, desktop printing, professional PCB printing, wearable e-readers, etc.)
2. GENERAL TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION
- 2.1. Powder morphologies in conductive paste
- 2.2. How cured conductive lines appear
- 2.3. Changing the morphology of particles: from spherical to flat flakes
- 2.4. Elements of a paste: resin, solvent, milling, etc.
- 2.5. Curing categories: PTF vs firing type
- 2.6. Firing type paste: key properties and considerations
- 2.7. Firing type paste: key properties and considerations
- 2.8. Performance level of fired and cured traditional pastes/inks across various applications
- 2.9. Typical oven and drying towers used in curing
- 2.10. Value chain for conductive pastes
3. SILVER NANOPARTICLE INKS
- 3.1. Silver nanoparticle inks: key value propositions
- 3.2. Silver nanoparticle inks: higher conductivity
- 3.3. Silver nanoparticles: getting more with less
- 3.4. Performance of Ag nano inks and comparison with traditional inks
- 3.5. Ag nanoparticle inks: do they really cure fast and at lower temperatures?
- 3.6. Ag nanoparticle inks: why the curing takes time
- 3.7. Ag nanoparticle inks: roadmap towards reducing curing temperature
- 3.8. Other benefits of nanoparticle inks
- 3.9. Price competitiveness of silver nanoparticles
- 3.10. Performance and typical characteristics of various silver nanoparticle inks on the market
- 3.11. Value chain of silver nanoparticle inks
- 3.12. Silver nanoparticle production methods
- 3.13. Silver nanoparticle production methods
- 3.14. Benchmarking different nanoparticle production processes
4. PARTICLE FREE INKS
- 4.1. Particle free conductive inks and pastes
5. COPPER INKS
- 5.1. Copper inks: how silver prices drove innovation
- 5.2. List of companies supplying or researching copper or silver alloy powders, inks or pastes
- 5.3. Methods of preventing copper oxidisation
- 5.4. Toyobo's Superheated steam: principle, status, merits and disadvantages
- 5.5. Toyobo's Superheated steam: potential application
- 5.6. Hitachi's Reactive agent metallization: principle, status, merits and disadvantages
- 5.7. Rapid photosintering: low-cost materials combined with rapid sintering
- 5.8. Photosintering: temperature profile as a function of thickness
- 5.9. Ag and even solder can also be photosintered
- 5.10. Photosintering: machines come in a variety of shapes and sizes
- 5.11. Air curable copper pastes
- 5.12. NOF: Screen printable air-curable copper paste
- 5.13. Copprint: Copper inks with in-situ oxidation prevention
- 5.14. Asahi Kasei: Reducing cuprous oxide by sintering
- 5.15. Pricing strategy and performance of copper inks and pastes
- 5.16. Performance and key characteristics of copper inks and pastes offered by different companies
- 5.17. Copper oxide nanoparticles
- 5.18. Silver-Coated Copper
6. NON-SOLUTION BASED ADDITIVE PROCESSES
- 6.1. Additive non-solution deposition of metals
7. PHOTOVOLTAICS: MARKET DYNAMICS, TRENDS, AND FORECAST
- 7.1. Conductive inks: everything is changing
- 7.2. Photovoltaic market: overview of price and cumulative installation
- 7.3. Photovoltaic markets: the massive loans that drove Chinese expansion and eventual market consolidation
- 7.4. Photovoltaics: historical price evolution of silicon PV
- 7.5. Price learning curve of c-Si and thin film PV technologies
- 7.6. Latest PV prices at wafer, cell, and module levels
- 7.7. Photovoltaic market: overview of price and cumulative installation
- 7.8. Photovoltaics: evolution of production share by region
- 7.9. Photovoltaics: global annual production by region
- 7.10. Photovoltaics: top ten players
- 7.11. Photovoltaics: evolution of market share of thin film PV technologies
- 7.12. Photovoltaics: eroding margins and market valuations
- 7.13. The return of the boom and bust to the PV sector?
- 7.14. Photovoltaics: global installation and forecasts showing market is to breach 100GW/yr
- 7.15. Massive Chinese investments had buoyed the market
- 7.16. China takes markets to new heights but have the changes in FiTs finally cooled it down?
- 7.17. Did the market cool in 2019 or grow rapidly?
8. CONDUCTIVE PASTES IN PHOTOVOLTAICS
- 8.1. Conductive pastes in the PV sectors: introduction
- 8.2. Conductive pastes in the PV sectors: firing
- 8.3. Conductive ink: major cost driver for PVs
- 8.4. Reducing silver content per wafer: industry consensus
- 8.5. Reducing silver content per wafer: our projection
- 8.6. Reducing silver content per wafer: ink innovations
- 8.7. Photovoltaics: expected market share evolution between plating and screen printing of electrodes
- 8.8. Photovoltaics: roadmap towards ever thinner wafers
- 8.9. Photovoltaics: market share forecast for different metallization technologies
- 8.10. Silicon inks: made redundant before seeing daylight?
- 8.11. Copper metallization in solar cells
- 8.12. Trends and changes in solar cell architecture
- 8.13. Photovoltaics: evolution of different silicon solar cell architectures
- 8.14. Photovoltaics market dynamic: everything is changing
- 8.15. Silver nanoparticles are finally adopted in the thin film photovoltaic business?
- 8.16. PV and heater: digital printing comes of age?
9. ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS
- 9.1. What is an OPV?
- 9.2. Typical device architectures
- 9.3. R2R solution vs R2R evaporation
- 9.4. Progress in solution processing so far
- 9.5. OPV products and prototypes
- 9.6. OPV installations
- 9.7. Latest progress update
- 9.8. Where is silver used in printed OPVs?
- 10.1.1. Automotive industry: a large and growing consumer of conductive ink/paste
- 10.1.2. Automotive de-foggers: established business?
- 10.1.3. Automotive de-foggers: transition from glass to PC
- 10.1.4. Printed on-glass heater: digital printing comes of age?
- 10.1.5. Laser transfer printing as a new process?
- 10.1.6. Metal mesh transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
- 10.1.7. Carbon nanotube transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
- 10.1.8. Growing need for 3D shaped transparent heater in ADAS and autonomous driving perception sensors such as camera and lidars
- 10.2. Automotive Seat Heater
- 10.2.1. Automotive seat heaters
- 10.2.2. Automotive seat heaters: PTC inks
- 10.3. Occupancy and other sensors
- 10.3.1. Automotive occupancy and seat belt alarm sensors
- 10.3.2. Electric vehicle battery heaters
- 10.3.3. Electric vehicle battery heaters (GGI/e2ip technologies)
- 10.3.4. Electric vehicle battery heaters (IEE)
- 10.3.5. Where PTC inks can be used in vehicles?
- 10.4. Metal sintering die attach in electric vehicle power electronics
- 10.4.1. Power electronics in electric vehicles
- 10.4.2. Power switch technology: a generational shift towards SiC and GaN
- 10.4.3. Benchmarking Si vs SiC vs GaN
- 10.4.4. SiC and GaN still have substantial room to improve
- 10.4.5. Where will GaN and SiC win?
11. TOWARDS HIGHER AREA POWER DENSITY AND HIGHER OPERATING TEMPERATURES
- 11.1. Mega trend in power modules: increasing power density
- 11.2. Operation temperature increasing
- 11.3. Roadmap towards lower thermal resistance
- 11.4. Traditional packaging technology
12. REVIEW OF PACKAGING APPROACHES IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES
- 12.1. Toyota Prius (2004-2010): power module
- 12.2. 2008 Lexus power module
- 12.3. Toyota Prius (2010-2015): power module
- 12.4. Toyota Prius (2016 onwards): power module
- 12.5. Chevrolet 2016 Power module (by Delphi)
- 12.6. Cadillac 2016 power module (by Hitachi)
- 12.7. Nissan Leaf power module (2012)
- 12.8. Honda Accord 2014 Power Module
- 12.9. Honda Fit (by Mitsubishi)
- 12.10. BWM i3 (by Infineon)
- 12.11. Infineon: evolution of HybridPack and beyond
- 12.12. Infineon's HybridPack is used by multiple producers (SAIC, Hyundai, etc.)
- 12.13. Tesla Mode S (discreet IGBT) and Model 3 (SiC module)
13. BEYOND SOLDER: MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY TO SUSTAIN ROADMAP TOWARDS HIGHER TEMPERATURES
- 13.1. Die and substrate attach are common failure modes in power devices
- 13.2. Die attach technology trend
- 13.3. The choice of solder technology
- 13.4. Why metal sintering?
- 13.5. Sintering can be used at multiple levels (die-to-substrate, substrate-baseplate or heat sink, die pad to interconnect, etc)
- 13.6. Transition towards Ag sintering (Tesla 3 with ST SiC modules)
14. METAL SINTERING DIE ATTACH PASTE SUPPLIERS
- 14.1. Pressured Ag sintered pastes: key characteristics
- 14.2. Sintering and pick-and-place machines
- 14.3. ASM SilverSAM: integrating sintering machine
- 14.4. Process steps for applying Ag sintered paste
- 14.5. Using film or preform vs paste
- 14.6. Using IR oven to speed up the process
- 14.7. Effect of time, pressure, and temperature on joint strength
- 14.8. Pressure-less Ag sintered pastes: key characteristics
- 14.9. Effect of substrate metallization on sintered joint shear strength
- 14.10. Suppliers of Ag sintered paste
- 14.11. Alpha: commercializing Ag nano sintering die attach paste
- 14.12. Heraeus: sintered Ag die attach paste
- 14.13. Dowa: nano Ag sintered die attach paste
- 14.14. Namics: Low temperature die attach Ag conductive paste
- 14.15. Namics: a variety of Ag die attach paste
- 14.16. Kyocera: mixed nano/micro pressure-less sintering die attach paste
- 14.17. Mitsubishi Materials: low temperature die attach Ag conductive paste
- 14.18. Henkel: Ag sintering paste
- 14.19. Toyo Chem: Sintered die attach paste
- 14.20. Bando Chemical: pressure-less nano Ag sintering paste
- 14.21. Amo Green: pressure-less nano Ag sintering paste
- 14.22. Other Ag nanoparticle sintered die attach paste suppliers (e.g., Bando and NBE Tech)
- 14.23. Nihon Hanada: Pressureless sintering
- 14.24. Heraeus and Nihon Handa cross license
- 14.25. Indium Corp: nano Ag pressureless sinter paste
- 14.26. Nihon Superior: nano silver for sintering
- 14.27. Hitachi: Cu sintering paste
- 14.28. Cu sintering: characteristics
- 14.29. Reliability of Cu sintered joints
- 14.30. Mitsui Mining: Nano copper pressured and pressure-less sintering under N2 environment
- 14.31. Transient liquid phase sintering: mid-level performance alternative?
- 14.32. SMIC: incumbent solder supplier
- 14.33. Some price info on Ag sintering, solder and TLPB
15. LTCC IN AUTOMOTIVE
- 15.1.1. LTCC: introduction and process details
- 15.1.2. LTCC: application examples in automotive electronics
- 15.1.3. Properties of main LTCC substrates
- 15.1.4. Sintering profile of typical LTCC pastes
- 15.1.5. EMI shielding in electric vehicle plastic or composite battery housings
- 15.1.6. Electrochromic mirrors in vehicles
- 15.2. Towards mmwave 5G filters: will LTCC win the race?
- 15.2.1. Evolution of filters towards sub-6GHz 5G and mmWave
- 15.2.2. Performance requirements
- 15.2.3. Size requirements
16. INCUMBENT TECHNOLOGY: SAW AND BAW TECHNOLOGY
- 16.1. SAW and BAW filters
- 16.2. More on BAW filters
- 16.3. SAW and BAW: fit for 5G and beyond?
17. WAVEGUIDE TECHNOLOGY
- 17.1. Metallic waveguide technology: high performance but too big
- 17.2. Waveguide filters
18. SUBSTRATE INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE FILTERS (SIW)
- 18.1. Substrate integrated waveguide filters (SIW)
19. SINGLE-LAYER TRANSMISSION-LINE FILTERS ON PCB OR CERAMICS
- 19.1. Transmission-line filters: single-layer microstrip PCB
- 19.2. Single-layer microstrip PCB: tolerance sensitivity
- 19.3. Transmission-line filters: single-layer stripline PCB
- 19.4. Single-layer stripline PCB: tolerance sensitivity
- 19.5. Transmission-line filters: single-layer thin film metallized ceramic filters as SMTs
- 19.6. High-k ceramics
- 19.7. Filters with thick film substrates
- 19.8. Glass: an excellent filter substrate?
- 19.9. Glass-based single-layer transmission-line filters
20. MULTI-LAYER LTTC-BASED FILTERS
- 20.1. NGK: multi-layer LTTC-based filters
- 20.2. TDK: multi-layer 28GHz LTCC filter
- 20.3. Kyocera: multi-layer 28GHz LTCC filter
- 20.4. Minicircuits: multilayer LTCC filter
- 20.5. Multilayer LTCC: production challenge
- 21.1. Benchmarking different mmwave filters
22. SINTERED DIE ATTACH OR EPOXY IN 5G RF POWER AMPLIFIERS?
- 22.1.1. Motivation of 5G: increasing the bandwidth
- 22.1.2. 5G station installation forecast by frequency
- 22.2. Overview of RF power amplifier technologies
- 22.2.1. The choice of the semiconductor technology
- 22.2.2. Key semiconductor properties
- 22.2.3. Key semiconductor technology benchmarking
- 22.2.4. The choice of the semiconductor technology
- 22.2.5. Power vs frequency map of power amplifier technologies
- 22.2.6. LDMOS dominates but will struggle to reach even sub-6GHz 5G
- 22.2.7. GaAs vs GaN for RF power amplifiers
- 22.2.8. GaN to win in sub-6GHz 5G
- 22.2.9. The situation at mmwave 5G can drastically different
- 22.2.10. Solving the power challenge: high antenna gain increases distance
- 22.2.11. Shift to higher frequencies shrinks the antenna
- 22.2.12. Major technological change: from broadcast to directional communication
- 22.2.13. Which power amplifier technology to win in mmwave 5G?
- 22.3. Current and future die attach: role of metal sintering or filled epoxy
- 22.3.1. Air cavity vs plastic overmold packages
- 22.3.2. Packaging LDMOS power amplifiers
- 22.3.3. Packaging GaN power amplifiers
- 22.3.4. Benchmarking CTE and thermal conductivity of various packaging materials
- 22.3.5. HTCC metal-ceramic package
- 22.3.6. LTCC RF transitions in packages
- 22.3.7. Current die attach technology choice for RF GaN PAs
- 22.3.8. Current die attach technology choice for RF GaN PAs
- 22.3.9. Emerging die attach technology choice for RF GaN PAs
- 22.3.10. Properties of Ag sintered or epoxy die attach materials
- 22.3.11. Automating the die attach for 5G power amplifiers
- 22.3.12. Board-level heat dissipation: thermal interface materials
- 22.3.13. Indium foils as a good board-level TIM option
- 22.3.14. Built-in Cu slugs in GaN packages
23. SKIN PATCHES
- 23.1. Product areas with body-worn electrodes
- 23.2. Printed electronics in cardiac skin patches
- 23.3. Cardiac skin patch types: Flexible patch with integrated electrodes
- 23.4. Skin patches for inpatient monitoring
- 23.5. General patient monitoring: a growing focus
- 23.6. Chemical sensing in sweat
- 23.7. VivaLNK
- 23.8. DevInnova / Scaleo Medical
- 23.9. US Military head trauma patch / PARC
- 23.10. Wound monitoring and treatment
- 23.11. Nissha GSI Technologies
- 23.12. Printed wearable medical sensors (examples)
- 23.13. Opportunity for printed electronics by type of skin patch
- 23.14. Electrode types
- 23.15. Printed functionality in skin patches.
- 23.16. Blue Spark
- 23.17. DevInnova / Scaleo Medical
- 23.18. Novii: Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring
- 23.19. Wearable ECG sensor from VTT
- 23.20. Quad Industries - developing healthcare
24. CONFORMAL METALLIZATION (LDS, AEROSOL PRINTING, AND OTHER PRINTING)
- 24.1.1. Conformal coating: increasingly popular
- 24.1.2. Conformal printing in consumer electronics
- 24.1.3. Conformal electronics: rapid turn-around with little tooling costs
- 24.1.4. Laser Direct Structuring and MID: introduction
- 24.1.5. Laser Direct Structuring and MID: example in cosumer electronics
- 24.1.6. Examples of LDS products on the market
- 24.1.7. Observations on the MID market
- 24.2. Aerosol deposition
- 24.2.1. Aerosol deposition: introduction
- 24.2.2. What is aerosol deposition
- 24.2.3. Aerosol deposition can go 3D
- 24.2.4. Aerosol deposition: applications
- 24.2.5. Aerosol deposition is already in commercial use
- 24.2.6. Applications of aerosol beyond antennas
- 24.2.7. Aerosol deposition vs LDS (laser direct structuring)
- 24.2.8. Ink requirements for aerosol printing
- 24.2.9. Others ways of printing structurally-integrated antennas
- 24.3. Ink-based conformable package-level EMI shielding
- 24.3.1. What is package-level EMI shielding
- 24.3.2. Conformal coating: increasingly popular
- 24.3.3. EMI shielding
- 24.3.4. EMI shielding films: price and performance level
- 24.3.5. EMI shielding market: an approximate estimate
- 24.3.6. Why conformal EMI shielding?
- 24.3.7. What is package-level EMI shielding?
- 24.3.8. Has package-level shielding been adopted?
- 24.3.9. Which suppliers and elements have used EMI shielding?
- 24.3.10. What is the incumbent process?
- 24.3.11. Screen printed EMI shielding: process and merits
- 24.3.12. Spray-on EMI shielding: process and merits
- 24.3.13. Suppliers targeting ink-based conformal EMI shielding
- 24.3.14. Henkel: performance of EMI ink
- 24.3.15. Duksan: performance of EMI ink
- 24.3.16. Ntrium: performance of EMI ink
- 24.3.17. Clariant: performance of EMI ink
- 24.3.18. Fujikura Kasei: performance of EMI ink
- 24.3.19. Spray machines used in conformal EMI shielding
- 24.3.20. Particle size and morphology choice
- 24.3.21. Ink formulation challenges: thickness and Ag content
- 24.3.22. Ink formulation challenges: sedimentation prevention
- 24.3.23. Emi shielding: inkjet printed particle-free Ag inks
- 24.3.24. Agfa: EMI shielding prototype
- 24.3.25. Has there been commercial adoption of ink-based solutions?
- 24.3.26. Compartmentalization of complex packages is a key trend
- 24.3.27. The challenge of magnetic shielding at low frequencies
- 24.3.28. Value proposition for magnetic shielding using printed inks
25. IN-MOLD ELECTRONICS
- 25.1.1. Introduction to in-mold electronics (IME)?
- 25.1.2. Commercial advantages and challenges of IME
- 25.1.3. The route to commercialisation
- 25.1.4. Overview of key players across the supply chain
- 25.1.5. IME market forecast - application
- 25.1.6. Benchmarking competitive processes to 3D electronics
- 25.1.7. IME: 3D friendly process for circuit making
- 25.1.8. What is the in-mold electronic process?
- 25.1.9. In-Mold Electronics production: required equipment set
- 25.1.10. In-Mold Decoration production: required equipment set
- 25.2. Conductive ink requirements for IME
- 25.2.1. IME: value transfer from PCB board to ink
- 25.2.2. New ink requirements: stretchability
- 25.2.3. Stretchable conductive ink suppliers multiply
- 25.2.4. IME conductive ink suppliers multiply
- 25.2.5. Evolution and improvements in performance of stretchable conductive inks
- 25.2.6. Performance of stretchable conductive inks
- 25.2.7. Bridging the conductivity gap between printed electronics and IME inks
- 25.2.8. The role of particle size in stretchable inks
- 25.2.9. Elantas: selecting right fillers and binders to improve stretchability
- 25.2.10. E2IP Technologies/GGI Solutions: particle-free IME inks
- 25.2.11. The role of resin in stretchable inks
- 25.2.12. New ink requirements: portfolio approach
- 25.2.13. Diversity of material portfolio
- 25.2.14. All materials in the stack must be compatible: conductivity perspective
- 25.2.15. All materials in the stack must be compatible: forming perspective
- 25.2.16. New ink requirements: surviving heat stress
- 25.2.17. New ink requirements: stability
- 25.2.18. All materials in the stack must be reliable
- 25.2.19. Design: general observations
- 25.2.20. SMD assembly: before or after forming
- 25.2.21. The need for formable conductive adhesives
- 25.3. Overview of applications, commercialization progress, and prototypes
- 25.3.1. In-Mold electronic application: automotive
- 25.3.2. HMI: trend towards 3D touch surfaces
- 25.3.3. Addressable market in vehicle interiors in 2020 and 2025
- 25.3.4. Automotive: In-Mold Decoration product examples
- 25.3.5. White goods, medical and industrial control (HMI)
- 25.3.6. White goods: In-Mold Decoration product examples
- 25.3.7. Is IME commercial yet?
- 25.3.8. First (ALMOST) success story: overhead console in cars
- 25.3.9. Commercial products: wearable technology
- 25.3.10. Automotive: direct heating of headlamp plastic covers
- 25.3.11. System integrates electronics
- 25.3.12. Automotive: human machine interfaces
- 25.3.13. GEELY Seat Control
- 25.3.14. Faurecia concept: prototype to test functionality
- 25.3.15. Faurecia concept: traditional vs. IME design
- 25.3.16. Increasing number of research prototypes
- 25.3.17. Consumer electronics prototypes to products
- 25.3.18. White goods: human machine interfaces
- 25.3.19. Antennas
- 25.3.20. Consumer electronics and home automation
- 25.3.21. Home automation becomes commercial
- 25.3.22. IME market forecast - application
- 25.3.23. Ten-year in-mold-electronics market forecast in area
- 25.3.24. Estimate of value capture by different elements in an IME product
- 25.3.25. Ten-year market forecasts for functional inks in IME
26. STRETCHABLE INKS (E-TEXTILES MOSTLY)
- 26.1. Introduction to the e-textile industry
- 26.1.1. Timeline: Historic context for e-textiles
- 26.1.2. Timeline: Commercial beginnings and early growth
- 26.1.3. Timeline: A boom in interest, funding and activity
- 26.1.4. Timeline: Challenges emerge from the optimism
- 26.1.5. Addressing industry challenges
- 26.1.6. Timeline: Present day and outlook
- 26.1.7. Commercial progress with e-textile projects
- 26.1.8. E-textile product types
- 26.1.9. Revenue in e-textiles, by market sector
- 26.1.10. Materials usage in e-textiles
- 26.1.11. Example suppliers for each material type
- 26.2. Stretchable conductive inks for e-textiles
- 26.2.1. Inks and Encapsulation
- 26.2.2. Stretchable e-textile conductive inks: introduction
- 26.2.3. Stretchable e-textile conductive inks: performance requirements
- 26.2.4. Performance characteristics of conductive by Panasonic, Nagase, Fujikura Kasei
- 26.2.5. Performance characteristics of conductive by Namics, Toyobo, Jujo Chemical, etc.
- 26.2.6. Performance characteristics of conductive by Polymatech, Cemedine, Henkel, DuPont, etc.
- 26.2.7. Stretchable conductive inks: continuous improvement in performance
- 26.2.8. Stretchable conductive inks: the role of particle size
- 26.2.9. Stretchable conductive inks: the role of particle size
- 26.2.10. Stretchable conductive inks: the role of pattern design
- 26.2.11. Washability of stretchable conductive inks
- 26.2.12. Stretchable conductive inks: the role of encapsulants
- 26.2.13. Other TPU alternatives: Showa Denko, Osaka Industry, Nikkan Industry, etc.
- 26.2.14. Stretchable conductive inks: the role of encapsulants
- 26.2.15. Stretchable conductive inks: the role of substrates
- 26.2.16. Stretchable conductive inks: the role of the resin
- 26.2.17. Graphene as a stretchable e-textile conductive ink
- 26.2.18. Graphene inks are not very conductive
- 26.2.19. PEDOT as a conductive e-textile material
- 26.2.20. Not limited to just Ag inks
- 26.3. Applications of stretchable conductive inks for e-textiles
- 26.3.1. An explosion in ink suppliers for e-textiles
- 26.3.2. E-textile products with conductive inks
- 26.3.3. DuPont
- 26.3.4. Toyobo
- 26.3.5. Inks are not the only solution
- 26.4. Stretchable conductive inks in flexible and/or stretchable circuit boards
- 26.4.1. Stretchable circuit boards: limitations of FPCBs
- 26.4.2. Stretchable conductive inks in FPCBs
- 26.4.3. Stretchable circuit boards
- 26.4.4. Printed stretchable interconnects
27. PRINTING RFID ANTENNAS
- 27.1.1. Different varieties of RFID
- 27.1.2. RFID tags: unit sales forecast for LF, HF, and UHF
- 27.1.3. RFID Range versus cost
- 27.1.4. Passive RFID: Technologies by Operating Frequency
- 27.1.5. Anatomy of passive HF and UHF tags
- 27.1.6. Challenges in contacting HF/NFC coils
- 27.1.7. Antenna Technology Choices
- 27.1.8. Antenna Manufacturing Technologies: Comparison Table
- 27.1.9. Passive RFID price teardown, HF and UHF
- 27.1.10. RFID Antennas: New Technologies
- 27.2. Printed RFID antenna: progress, status, challenges, and innovation
- 27.2.1. Bill of material is high for printed RFID
- 27.2.2. But why are some RFID antennas already printed?
- 27.2.3. Example of printed RFID antenna
- 27.2.4. YFY: a major RFID antenna printer using high-speed flex printing
- 27.2.5. R2R direct printing with normal heat curing
- 27.2.6. Innovations to eliminate printed BoM and to speed up curing/sintering times
- 27.2.7. End user feedback about recent innovations
- 27.2.8. R2R direct printing with normal heat curing
- 27.2.9. High conductivity copper inks with rapid sintering
- 27.2.10. Direct physical pattering
- 27.2.11. Rapid sintering of copper ink
- 27.3. Transparent antenna
- 27.3.1. Printed or Printed-and-Plate high conductivity transparent antennas
- 27.3.2. Ten-year market projections for conductive inks in UHF and HF RFID antennas
28. INTRODUCTION TO FLEXIBLE HYBRID ELECTRONICS
- 28.1.1. Defining flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
- 28.1.2. FHE Examples: Combing conventional components with flexible/printed electronics on flexible substrates
- 28.1.3. FHE: The best of both worlds?
- 28.1.4. Overcoming the flexibility/functionality compromise
- 28.1.5. Commonality with other electronics methodologies
- 28.1.6. Enabling technologies for FHE
- 28.1.7. Transition from PI to cheaper substrates
- 28.1.8. Low temperature component attachment
- 28.1.9. Development of flexible ICs
- 28.1.10. OFETs offer insufficient processing capability
- 28.1.11. Thinning silicon wafers for flexibility.
- 28.1.12. Silicon on polymer technology
- 28.1.13. Thin Si processing steps
- 28.1.14. Example flexible IC capabilities
- 28.1.15. Flexible silicon chip comparison
- 28.1.16. Assembling FHE circuits
- 28.1.17. Pick-and-place challenges
- 28.1.18. Multicomponent R2R line
- 28.2. Conductive ink-based attachment in flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
- 28.2.1. Low temperature solder enables thermally fragile substrates
- 28.2.2. Substrate compatibility with existing infrastructure
- 28.2.3. Low temperature soldering
- 28.2.4. Photonic soldering: A step up from sintering
- 28.2.5. Photonic soldering: Substrate dependence.
- 28.2.6. Electrically conductive adhesives: Two different approaches
- 28.2.7. Conductive paste bumping on flexible substrates
- 28.2.8. Ag pasted for die attachment.
- 28.3. Conductive ink-based metallization in flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
- 28.3.1. Ag pasted for die attachment.
- 28.3.2. Narrow linewidth metallization in flexible hybrid electronics
29. TOUCH SCREEN EDGE ELECTRODES
- 29.1. Touch screen: where and why pastes are used
- 29.2. Touch screen: narrow bezels change the market
- 29.3. Touch screen: adopting to narrow linewidth requirements
- 29.4. Laser cut paste: hybrid approach towards ultra narrow lines
- 29.5. Photopatternable paste: hybrid approach towards ultra narrow lines
- 29.6. Laser cut vs photopatternable inks
- 29.7. Other printing process towards narrow edge electrodes
- 29.8. Background to the PCB industry
- 29.9. Example of boards
- 29.10. Breakdown of the PCB market by the number of layers
- 29.11. Traditional PCBs are a mature technology
- 29.12. Production steps involved in manufacturing a multi-layer PCB.
- 29.13. PCB market by production territory
- 29.14. IP and turn-around time issues
- 29.15. CNC machine create double-sided rigid PCB.
- 29.16. 'Printing' PCBs for the hobbyist and DIY market: examples
- 29.17. Integrated desktop PCB printer and pick-and-place machine
- 29.18. 'Printing' professional multi-layer PCBs
- 29.19. Print seed and plate approach
- 29.20. Printing etch resists in PCB production
- 29.21. Progress on seed-and-plate PCBs
- 29.22. Comparison of different PCB techniques
30. ITO REPLACEMENT
- 30.1. ITO film assessment: performance, manufacture and market trends
- 30.2. ITO film shortcomings: flexibility
- 30.3. ITO film shortcomings: limited sheet conductivity
- 30.4. ITO film shortcomings: limited sheet resistance
- 30.5. ITO film shortcomings: index matching
- 30.6. ITO film shortcomings: thinness
- 30.7. ITO film shortcomings: price falls and commoditization
- 30.8. ITO films: current prices (2018)
- 30.9. Indium's single supply risk: real or exaggerated?
- 30.10. Recycling comes to the rescue?
- 30.11. Indium: price fluctuations drive innovation
- 30.12. Metal mesh: photolithography followed by etching
- 30.13. Fujifilm's photo-patterned metal mesh TCF
- 30.14. Toppan Printing's copper mesh transparent conductive films
- 30.15. Panasonic's Large Area Metal Mesh
- 30.16. GiS (integrator): Large area metal mesh displays
- 30.17. Panasonic's Large Area Metal Mesh
- 30.18. GiS (integrator): Large area metal mesh displays
31. EMBOSSING FOLLOWED BY PRINTING/FILLING TO CREATE IMBEDDED ULTRAFINE METAL MESH?
- 31.1.1. Embossing/imprinting metal mesh TCFs
- 31.1.2. O-Film's metal mesh TCF technology: the basics
- 31.1.3. Will O-Film rejuvenate its metal mesh business after disappointing sales?
- 31.1.4. MNTech's metal mesh TCF technology (the incident)
- 31.1.5. J-Touch: substantial metal mesh capacity
- 31.1.6. Nanoimprinting metal mesh with 5um linewidth
- 31.1.7. Metal mesh TCF is flexible
- 31.2. Direct printing: finally making a comeback in metal mesh TCF as a viable ultrafine technology?
- 31.2.1. Direct printed metal mesh transparent conductive films: performance
- 31.2.2. Direct printed metal mesh transparent conductive films: major shortcomings
- 31.2.3. Komura Tech: improvement in gravure offset printed fine pattern (<5um) metal mesh TCF ?
- 31.2.4. Shashin Kagaku: offset printed metal mesh TCF
- 31.2.5. Komori: gravure offset all-printed metal mesh film?
- 31.2.6. Asahi Kasei: taking steps to commercialize its R2R ultrafine printing process
- 31.2.7. How is the ultrafine feature R2R mold fabricated?
- 31.2.8. Konica Minolta: inkjet printing large area fine pitch metal mesh TCFs with <10um linewidth?
- 31.2.9. Gunze: S2S screen printing finds a market fit?
- 31.2.10. Toray's photocurable screen printed paste for fine line metal mesh
- 31.2.11. Ishihara Chemical's gravure printed photo-sintered Cu paste
- 31.2.12. Toppan Forms: Ag salt inks to achieve 4um printed metal mesh?
32. PRINT AND PLATE
- 32.1. Eastman Kodak: Transparent ultra low-resistivity RF antenna using printed Cu metal mesh technology
- 32.2. Kuroki/ITRI: printed seed layer and plate Cu metal mesh?
33. REPLACING PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY WITH PHOTORESIST PRINTING FOR ULTRA FINE METAL MESH
- 33.1. Replacing photolithography with photoresist printing for ultra fine metal mesh
- 33.2. LCY gravure printing photoresist then etching
- 33.3. Screen Holding: gravure printing photoresist then etching
- 33.4. Consistent Materials' photoresist for metal mesh
- 33.5. Tanaka Metal's metal mesh technology
34. OLED LIGHTING
- 34.1. OLED lighting: solid-state, efficient, cold, surface emission, flexible......?
- 34.2. Performance challenge set by the incumbent (inorganic LED)
- 34.3. Cost challenge set by the incumbent (inorganic LED)
- 34.4. Lighting is more challenging than display?
- 34.5. Status of performance of rigid and flexible sheet to sheet OLED lighting
- 34.6. OLED lighting: key avenues of differentiations vs LED
- 34.7. Will OLED lighting ever take off?
- 34.8. How are conductive inks to be used in OLED lighting
- 34.9. Light Emitting Electrochemical Cell (LEC): printed or air sprayed coating polymeric light
- 34.10. Light Emitting Electrochemical Cell (LEC): printed or air sprayed coating polymeric light
35. PRINTED PIEZORESISTIVE SENSORS
- 35.1. Force sensing resistors
- 35.2. Two constructions for force sensors
- 35.3. Printed piezoresistive sensors: anatomy
- 35.4. Printed piezoresistive sensor
- 35.5. Printed means various sizes possible
- 35.6. Materials
- 35.7. Complete Material Portfolio Approach is Common
- 35.8. Customizing Performance
- 35.9. Previous applications of FSR
- 35.10. Medical applications of printed FSR
- 35.11. Automotive applications of printed FSR
- 35.12. Consumer electronic applications of printed FSR
- 35.13. Textile-based applications of printed FSR
- 35.14. SOFTswitch: force sensor on fabric
- 35.15. Large-area pressure sensors
- 35.16. Printed foldable force sensing solution
- 35.17. Printed foldable force sensing solution
- 35.18. Ten-year market projections for piezoresistive sensors at the device level
36. PRINTED PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
- 36.1. Piezoelectric sensors
- 36.2. PVDF and related materials
- 36.3. PVDF-based polymer options for sensing and haptic actuators
- 36.4. Low temperature piezoelectric inks
- 36.5. Piezoelectric Polymers
- 36.6. Printed piezoelectric sensor
- 36.7. Printed piezoelectric sensors: prototypes
- 36.8. Applications: Loudspeaker
- 36.9. Applications: Haptic actuators
- 36.10. Example application: Haptic gloves
- 36.11. Printed Piezoelectric Sensors: Market Forecasts
- 36.12. High-strain sensors (capacitive)
- 36.13. Use of dielectric electroactive polymers (EAPs)
- 36.14. Printed capacitive stretch sensors
- 36.15. Players with EAPs: Parker Hannifin
- 36.16. Applications: Strain sensor
- 36.17. Players with EAPs: Stretchsense
- 36.18. Players with EAPs: Bando Chemical
- 36.19. C Stretch Bando: Progress on stretchable sensors
- 36.20. Other force sensors (capacitive & resistive)
- 36.21. Force sensor examples: Polymatech
- 36.22. Force sensor examples: Sensing Tex
- 36.23. Force sensor examples: Vista Medical
- 36.24. Force sensor examples: InnovationLab
- 36.25. Force sensor examples: Tacterion
- 36.26. Force sensor example: Yamaha and Kureha
- 36.27. Force sensor examples: BeBop Sensors
- 37.1.1. Diabetes on the rise
- 37.1.2. Managing side effects accounts for 90% of the total cost of diabetes
- 37.1.3. Diabetes management process
- 37.1.4. Diabetes management device roadmap: Glucose sensors
- 37.2. Incumbent technology for glucose testing: the test strip
- 37.2.1. Anatomy of a typical glucose test strip
- 37.2.2. Benchmarking printing vs. sputtering in glucose test strip product
- 37.2.3. Manufacturing steps of a typical glucose test strip
- 37.2.4. Materials used in glucose test strips
- 37.2.5. Glucose test strips: price pressure
- 37.3. Emerging options: continuous monitoring of glucose levels
- 37.3.1. Connected and Smartphone-based Glucometers
- 37.3.2. The case for CGM
- 37.3.3. Skin patches are the form factor of choice
- 37.3.4. CGM: Overview of key players
- 37.3.5. Implantable glucose sensors: Introduction
- 37.3.6. Key Players in Implantable Glucose Monitoring
- 37.3.7. Focus shifts from test strips to CGM
- 37.3.8. Strategy comparison amongst the largest players
38. PRINTED THIN FILM TRANSISTORS
- 38.1. Printed TFTs aimed to enable simpler processing
- 38.2. Technical challenges in printing thin film transistors
- 38.3. Organic semiconductors for TFTs
- 38.4. Organic transistor materials
- 38.5. OTFT mobility overestimation
- 38.6. Merck's Organic TFT
- 38.7. Printed logic for RFID
- 38.8. S2S automatic printed OTFT
- 38.9. Roll-to-roll printed organic TFTs
- 38.10. Commercial difficulties with printed transistors
- 38.11. Fully printed ICs for RFID using CNTs.
- 38.12. MoOx semiconductors: Advantages and disadvantages
- 38.13. Metal oxide semiconductor production methods
- 38.14. Evonik's solution processible metal oxide
- 38.15. IGZO TFTs room temperature with deep UV annealing
39. PRINTED MEMORY
- 39.1. Printed memory: a dead technology?
- 39.2. Applications of printed thin film memory
- 39.3. The structure of printed memory and the role of printed conductors
- 39.4. Challenges in rapid printing of polymeric memories
40. 3D PRINTED ELECTRONICS
- 40.1. Printed wearable medical sensors (examples)
- 40.2. 3D printed plastics: many materials are used
- 40.3. Progress in 3D printed electronics: company examples
- 40.4. Especially formulated inks for 3D printed electronics
- 40.5. Ink requirements for 3D printed electronics
- 40.6. Market forecasts
- 40.7. Why large-area LED array lighting
- 40.8. Examples of LED array lighting
- 40.9. Role of conductive inks in large-area LED arrays
- 40.10. Printed LED lighting
- 40.11. Nth Degree - Printed LEDs
- 40.12. Competitive non-printed approach to making the base for large-area LED arrays
41. CONDUCTIVE PENS
- 41.1. Conductive pens based on particle-free inks
- 41.2. Conductive pens based on particle-based inks
42. MOBILE PHONE DIGITIZERS
- 42.1. Mobile phone digitizers
- 42.2. Value chain for printed digitizers
- 42.3. Using photo sintered Cu for digitizers?
- 43.1. Printed display back circuit for flexible e-readers