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脱塩:オフグリッドゼロエミッション 2018-2028年

Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028

発行 IDTechEx Ltd. 商品コード 600122
出版日 ページ情報 英文 192 Slides
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=111.53円で換算しております。
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脱塩:オフグリッドゼロエミッション 2018-2028年 Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028
出版日: 2018年02月16日 ページ情報: 英文 192 Slides
概要

当レポートでは、脱塩向けオフグリッド電気システムについて調査し、オフグリッドゼロエミッションの世界における問題、成功技術、トレンド、および将来の技術ロードマップを提供しており、設置容量・売上の予測、技術の新たな組み合わせ・用途、ベストプラクティス、脱塩技術・オフグリッド動機の概要、脱塩向けの新たなオフグリッド電気技術などについてまとめています。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー・総論

第2章 イントロダクション

第3章 脱塩技術

  • 脱塩技術:概要
  • 脱塩オプション
  • 脱塩技術の比較
    • 機械・電気

第4章 脱塩向けオフグリッド電気システム

  • 定義・全体的な動向
  • オフグリッド電気構造・歴史
  • 多くの変化
  • オフグリッドゼロエミッション電力供給の特徴
  • ゼロエミッションオフグリッドシステムアーキテクチャー
  • 技術をゼロエミッションへ結合する
  • 価格に基づいた競争は思ったより容易
  • 機能のヒエラルキー
  • オフグリッド電力の将来動向
  • ゼロエミッションオフグリッド電気技術のロードマップ

第5章 オフグリッド電気システム要素

  • 基本
  • バッテリーはトラブルを意味:好まれる代替物
  • エネルギーハーベスティング

第6章 光・赤外線からの電力

  • 基本
  • シリコーン以外の主なPVオプション

第7章 風からの電力

  • 脱塩向けの風力発電
  • 地上風力発電は小型化されていない:物理特性・弱い風
  • 揚水による巨大な風力タービン
  • 風力タービンの選択
  • 垂直軸風力タービン (VAWT) の役割
  • 空中風力エネルギー

第8章 脱塩向け風力発電「ブルーエネルギー」

  • 概要
  • 脱塩電力向け波力の新形態
  • 直圧脱塩向け水圧
  • 波力による電力
  • 脱塩向け潮力: Nova Innovation (英国)
目次

It is time for a report on the heart of future desalination. This is the new IDTechEx report, "Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028". Coming from very little in 2018, off grid zero emission desalination will be a rapidly growing $35 billion market in 2028. The report looks closely at its roadmap of exciting new desalination and electricity technologies that will boost performance and reduce cost, in particular reducing what is usually the largest cost element - electricity. That embraces photovoltaics that is three times as efficient, Aerial Wind Energy AWE such as tethered kites more affordable and versatile than ground wind turbines and many new forms of water power that viably downsize and are sufficiently rugged and free of marine growth. There is a lot of benchmarking best practice in other industries ahead in these aspects for all sizes.

This 180 page report covering 79 organisations is replete with new infograms and forecasts. They clarify such things as the increasing interaction and integration in this emerging industry. Desalination plants will refill the Dead Sea while providing drinking water and many will provide spare electricity for communities. Some will be part of village, island and ship microgrids. How many islands? Which countries? What is best practice? It is here including future desalination options and why certain ones are dying out.

The report starts with a 48 page Executive Summary and Conclusions that is sufficient in itself for those in a hurry. It surveys the problem globally, the winning technologies, the trend to off grid zero emission and the future roadmap of technology. Forecasts of installed capacity and sales are given to 2028 of this, the heart of next generation desalination.

New combinations and applications of technologies are proposed, best practice illustrated and everything is put into the context of the rapid trend to off grid zero emission electricity production generally. The Introduction then gives an overview of desalination technologies and off grid motivation. A chapter on desalination technology appraises what will be a match for new off grid electricity technology, with detailed comparisons and best practice examples. Chapter 4 specifically examines emerging off grid electricity technology for desalination, Chapter 5 explains off grid ZE electricity system elements and how to avoid the troublesome ones and appraise what comes next. Chapters 6, 7 and 8 show how desalination will be tackled by new photovoltaics, wind power and water power with best practice examples.

The increasingly popular mobile desalinators will sometimes double as transport, provide electricity for farm robots not just irrigation and some will replace increasingly unaffordable diesel gensets expensively modified to meet new emissions laws and involving yesterday's crippling fuel supply systems. There are many strategies for avoiding expensive, dangerous, short lived batteries in desalination and examples are given.

For "Desalination: Off Grid Zero Emission 2018-2028", multi-lingual PhD level analysts from IDTechEx have carried out interviews worldwide, mined restricted databases and thought creatively on your behalf, presenting many new ideas. The research was carried out in 2017/8 and it is constantly updated. There are drill down reports for those wanting even more. They cover AWE, off grid overview, electricity from urban infrastructure and much more.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. Purpose of this report
  • 1.2. Global water resources
  • 1.3. Recycling, preservation and more frugal use of water must have priority
    • 1.3.1. Better use of traditional water supplies is essential
    • 1.3.2. Projecting water stress
  • 1.4. Desalination past, present and future
    • 1.4.1. A history of last resort, big is beautiful
    • 1.4.2. A bright future for desalination
    • 1.4.3. Onerous requirements for large desalination plants may force rethink
    • 1.4.4. Small becomes beautiful too
    • 1.4.5. Best practice small ZE off grid desalination: MIT USA in Puerto Rico
  • 1.5. Driving the trend to off grid electricity
  • 1.6. New technologies for ZE distributed energy for desalination off grid
    • 1.6.1. Photovoltaics, wind turbines
    • 1.6.2. Options for tapping excellent 200+m wind: stronger at night when PV is off
    • 1.6.3. Big gains from multi-mode harvesting
  • 1.7. Desalination technology
    • 1.7.1. Overview
    • 1.7.2. Technology options
    • 1.7.3. Installations: RO winning, having overtaken thermal methods
    • 1.7.4. Solar RO desalination winning in number of ZE plants
    • 1.7.5. RO roadmap of some future technology improvements
    • 1.7.6. Leading technology parameters compared
  • 1.8. Forecasts
    • 1.8.1. Capacity installed and market drivers
    • 1.8.2. Adoption and design choice is complex
    • 1.8.3. Roadmap for ZE off grid desalination 2018-2028
    • 1.8.4. Number of desalination plants globally 2018-2028 operating, added
    • 1.8.5. Desalination plants sold globally 2018-2028 total, off grid ZE
    • 1.8.6. Commentary
    • 1.8.7. Installed ZE electricity capacity worldwide 2018, 2028, 2040, 2050 kTWh/yr and desalination part
  • 1.9. 2018: orders flood in

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Definition and overview
    • 2.1.1. What is desalination?
    • 2.1.2. Current status
    • 2.1.3. Uses - nominally high costs become low relative costs
    • 2.1.4. Absolute costs coming down
    • 2.1.5. Cannot be assessed in isolation
  • 2.2. Global water resources
    • 2.2.1. Brackish Water for Food and Drink
  • 2.3. Questioning ever larger on grid desalination
    • 2.3.1. Questioning ever larger on grid electricity sources
  • 2.4. Zero emission, owning the electricity source and rural life become more desirable
    • 2.4.1. Drivers of off grid electricity impact desalination
  • 2.5. Location
  • 2.6. Much progress with desalination and excellent prospects
  • 2.7. More reasons to worry about national grids now
  • 2.8. Main new demand for off grid electricity
  • 2.9. Continuity of electricity supply is at least as important as cost: energy storage vs energy harvesting for continuity
    • 2.9.1. How to get better continuity
  • 2.10. Multipurpose, mobile, no large battery: desalination can learn from others
  • 2.11. New ZE alternatives to desalination
    • 2.11.1. Zirconium fumarate
    • 2.11.2. Zero Mass Water solar panels with nanomaterials

3. DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY

  • 3.1. Desalination technology overview
  • 3.2. Desalination options
  • 3.3. Desalination technologies compared
    • 3.3.1. Desalination technologies compared: Thermal
    • 3.3.2. Desalination technologies compared: Mechanical and electrical

4. OFF GRID ELECTRICITY SYSTEMS FOR DESALINATION

  • 4.1. Definition and overall trends
  • 4.2. Off grid electricity structure and history
  • 4.3. Much is changing
  • 4.4. Characteristics of off-grid zero emission electricity supply
  • 4.5. Zero emission off grid system architecture
  • 4.6. Bridging technologies to zero emission
  • 4.7. Competing on price is easier than it seems
  • 4.8. Hierarchy of function
    • 4.8.1. Structural types of ZE off grid electricity system
    • 4.8.2. OffGridBox microgrid USA, Rwanda
    • 4.8.3. Minigrids with multi-mode harvesting
  • 4.9. Future trends of off grid electricity
    • 4.9.1. Access to electricity by people in 2018: conflicting forces
    • 4.9.2. Electricity supply in 2018 and 2050: here comes off grid
    • 4.9.3. Solar installation off grid not simply related to wealth/ size of country
  • 4.10. ZE off grid electricity technology roadmaps
    • 4.10.1. Off grid technology and adoption roadmap: harvesting
    • 4.10.2. Off grid technology and adoption roadmap 2038: harvesting
    • 4.10.3. Off grid technology and adoption roadmap: storage

5. OFF GRID ELECTRICITY SYSTEM ELEMENTS

  • 5.1. Basics
  • 5.2. Batteries mean trouble: alternatives favoured
  • 5.3. Energy harvesting
    • 5.3.1. Definition and overview
    • 5.3.2. Market drivers for off grid energy harvesting
    • 5.3.3. Features of energy harvesting
    • 5.3.4. EH transducer construction, materials
    • 5.3.5. Geothermal not important for desalination

6. ELECTRICITY FROM LIGHT AND INFRARED

  • 6.1. Basics
  • 6.2. Main PV options beyond silicon

7. ELECTRICITY FROM WIND

  • 7.1. Wind power for desalination
  • 7.2. Ground turbine wind power does not downsize well: physics and poorer wind
  • 7.3. Gigantic wind turbine with water pumping:
  • 7.4. Wind turbine choices
  • 7.5. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines VAWT have a place
  • 7.6. Airborne Wind Energy

8. WATER POWER "BLUE ENERGY" FOR DESALINATION

  • 8.1. Overview
  • 8.2. New forms of wave power for desalination electricity
  • 8.3. Water pressure for direct pressure desalination
    • 8.3.1. SAROS USA on water
    • 8.3.2. CETO Australia under the waves
  • 8.4. Electricity from wave power
    • 8.4.1. Wave Swell Energy Australia minimising parts
    • 8.4.2. Witt UK: 6D small to large off grid power
    • 8.4.3. Marine Power Systems UK WaveSub
    • 8.4.4. REAC Energy Germany StreamCube
    • 8.4.5. Okinawa IST Japan wave converters
    • 8.4.6. Oscilla Power USA magnetostriction for 100kW+ wave power
  • 8.5. Tidal power for desalination: Nova Innovation UK
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