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市場調査レポート

各種電動移動機器の市場予測・市場動向・市場機会

Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2016-2026

発行 IDTechEx Ltd. 商品コード 288568
出版日 ページ情報 英文 254 Pages, 36 Tables, 127 Figures
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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各種電動移動機器の市場予測・市場動向・市場機会 Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2016-2026
出版日: 2016年07月01日 ページ情報: 英文 254 Pages, 36 Tables, 127 Figures
概要

陸海空で使用される純電動式およびハイブリッド式の車両・その他の移動機器の市場は近年急速に一体化が進んでおり、これまで珍奇な存在でしかなかった電動バイクも順調に受注を伸ばしています。また、収益の見込めるニッチ市場も多く生まれています。

当レポートでは、純電動自動車、ハイブリッド自動車、重工業用電動重機、バス、軽工業・商業用移動機器、障害者用電動車両、軍事用電動移動機器、電動船など、電動の移動機器全般について総合的に調査し、それぞれの車両・機器の種類と概要、製品開発動向、販売予測、主要製造業者のプロファイルなどをまとめています。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー・総論

第2章 イントロダクション

  • 定義・調査範囲
  • ハイブリッドEV
  • 利点

第3章 重工業用EV

  • 含まれる車両・機器
  • 課題
  • 製造業者のリスト
  • EVオプションを含む今後のパワートレインに関する調査
  • 市場規模

第4章 軽工業・バス・その他の商用EV

  • 含まれる車両・機器
  • バス
    • バン・ピックアップトラック・大型路上走行トラック
  • 市場成長推進因子
  • 空港用EV:地上支援機材(GSE)
  • 小型ピープルムーバー
  • 軽工業用支援機材
  • 製造業者のリスト

第5章 障害者用車両・移動機器

  • 必須な継続的ニーズ
  • 人口動態的影響
  • 車両・移動機器のタイプ
  • 製造業者のリスト

第6章 二輪EV・連結車両

  • 含まれる車両・機器
  • 価格・性能の比較
    • ハイブリッドバイク
  • 市場成長推進因子
  • すべての自転車の統計
  • 製造業者のリスト
  • 予測

第7章 自動車様の形態の認可外車両:マイクロEV・クアッドサイクル・Eトライク・NEV・ゴルフカート

  • 多くの名称を持つが、共通の要素を持つ
  • 規制・課税・その他のコストを回避する自動車様の車両
  • Estrima Biro MicroEV Quadricycleのリムーバブルバッテリー
  • Eトライクに注力するフィリピン
  • 製造業者のリスト
  • ゴルフカート

第8章 純電気自動車・ハイブリッド自動車

  • 電気自動車市場
  • 破壊的な変化・すべてのパーツの統合
  • バッテリー
  • 電動機
  • パワーエレクトロニクス
    • 性能と複雑性の増大
  • スーパーキャパシター
  • トヨタおよびTeslaの発展

第9章 軍事用EV

  • 軍事用EVの例
  • 電動UAV(無人航空機)
  • 軍事用EVの例:水中
  • 製造業者
  • 予測

第10章 船舶

  • ハイブリッド・純電動タグボート
  • 市場区分
  • 陸用EVとの共通点
  • 市場成長推進因子
  • 製造業者
  • 販売価格
  • 予測

第11章 航空機・移動ロボット・その他のEV

  • 定義
  • 市場成長推進因子
  • 製造業者のリスト
  • 市場規模・市場動向
  • 予測

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目次

A $400 billion opportunity within a decade

This master report summarising and forecasting every sector of the EV industry remains unique. It adds new sectors as they become substantial, the latest being car-like micro EVs homologated as quadricycles in Europe. There are currently 45 sectors analysed.

In the last year it has become a more closely integrated market - pure electric and hybrid whether on land, water or airborne. For example, Nissan has launched hybrid cars selling in tens of thousands yearly.

Many profitable niches are emerging just as the largest major sectors are changing in importance; the industrial and commercial sector is now bigger and much more profitable than e-cars, and is set to remain so for at least eight more years.

Figure 1: Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2026, by applicational sector

                     Source: IDTechEx

All components are changing with supercapacitors sometimes replacing or partly replacing batteries and also new types of battery, energy harvesting, power electronics and structure powering growth in this already huge and prosperous business. It is comprehensively forecasted only in this master report and the subsidiary reports on the segments. Disruptive change is now the norm and Apple-like inspiration and technological innovation is at last being seen.

The fruits of all this are truly spectacular; including such things as the Marian fast surface boat that acts as a submarine when necessary, the fixed-wing plane that will stay aloft for five years on sunshine and the flying jet ski. An amphibious hybrid plane is also going into production with military robot jellyfish, bats and swarming flies. The race is on to make extremely short take-off and landing (ESTL) personal planes and air taxis, some that take-off and land vertically in your garden or from the "pocket airport" on top of a regular airport building.

10 year forecasts across all EV sectors

This report gives the unit numbers, average vehicle prices, and total value for ten years for the following vehicle types:

  • Hybrid cars
  • Pure electric cars
  • Heavy industrial
  • Buses
  • Lighting industrial/commercial
  • Micro EV/quadricycle
  • Golf car and motorized gold caddy
  • Mobility for the disabled
  • Two-wheel and allied
  • Military
  • Marine
  • Other

Figure 2: Sales forecast for some volume sectors of electric vehicles

                     Source: IDTechEx

Comprehensive applicational and geographic spread

This report is uniquely comprehensive in applicational and geographical spread. Primarily it presents statistics and forecasts including back up data such as conventional vehicle sales and market drivers. There is even comparative data such as statistics and forecasts by other analysts and by regional trade associations. There is some coverage of technology trends and considerable tabulation of manufacturers and by type of vehicle made and which are world leaders in value sales and why. There is little anecdotal text and information already available on the web, the illustrations and tables being largely original and deriving from IDTechEx analysis and private sources as well as extensive interviews.

Analyst access from IDTechEx

All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

  • 1.1. The value market for electric vehicles EVs of all types
  • 1.2. IDTechEx electric vehicles market forecasts 2016-2026
  • 1.3. League table of largest EV manufacturers
  • 1.4. Market sectors and technology trends
    • 1.4.1. Definition and technical trends
    • 1.4.2. Car technology 2016-2031
    • 1.4.3. Voltage trends
  • 1.5. Small and Medium Enterprises SME come to the fore
  • 1.6. Numbers of manufacturers
  • 1.7. Mark ups through the value chain
  • 1.8. Electric "cars" - many very different types
    • 1.8.1. Car-like vehicles not homologated as cars
    • 1.8.2. Terra Motors e-tuktuk/rickshaw in Southeast Asia
    • 1.8.3. Plug-in vehicle sales
    • 1.8.4. Why there will be a tipping point for pure electric cars
  • 1.9. Market by territory
    • 1.9.1. Global
    • 1.9.2. Europe
    • 1.9.3. China
    • 1.9.4. USA
  • 1.10. Lessons from EV related events
  • 1.11. In-wheel motors
    • 1.11.2. Lightweighting
  • 1.12. Range extenders
  • 1.13. Effect of 2015 oil price collapse on electric vehicles
  • 1.14. Highlights of EVS28 Seoul South Korea May 2015

2. INTRODUCTION

  • 2.1. Definitions and scope of this report
    • 2.1.1. Organisations involved in the EV industry value chain
    • 2.1.2. Commonality
    • 2.1.3. Key components and systems
    • 2.1.4. Batteries
    • 2.1.5. Efficiency
  • 2.2. Hybrid electric vehicles
    • 2.2.1. Here come range extenders
    • 2.2.2. Structural components
  • 2.3. Benefits
    • 2.3.1. How green are electric vehicles really?
    • 2.3.2. Contrast global automotive production 2012: major polluter

3. HEAVY INDUSTRIAL EVS

  • 3.1. What is included
  • 3.2. Challenges
  • 3.3. Listing of manufacturers
    • 3.3.1. Statistics for all types of industrial lift truck
    • 3.3.2. Manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs
  • 3.4. Survey of expected powertrains including EV options
  • 3.5. Market size
  • 3.6. Conventional car with 48 V electric torque assist

4. LIGHT INDUSTRIAL, BUSES AND OTHER COMMERCIAL EVS

  • 4.1. What is included
    • 4.1.1. Large and diverse sector
    • 4.1.2. Mainly on-road
    • 4.1.3. Move to cities
    • 4.1.4. Hybrid and pure electric trend
    • 4.1.5. Sub categories
  • 4.2. Buses
    • 4.2.1. Vans, pick-up trucks and larger on-road trucks
  • 4.3. Market drivers
  • 4.4. Airport EVs: Ground Support Equipment GSE
    • 4.4.1. Airbus signs MoU to develop airliner electric taxi system
  • 4.5. Small people-movers
  • 4.6. Light industrial aids
  • 4.7. Listing of manufacturers

5. MOBILITY FOR THE DISABLED

  • 5.1. Compelling and enduring need
  • 5.2. The demographic time-bomb
    • 5.2.1. Ageing population, obesity and the dependent elderly
    • 5.2.2. Laws make mobility easier
  • 5.3. Types of mobility vehicle
    • 5.3.2. Interchina Industry Group China
  • 5.4. Listing of manufacturers
    • 5.4.2. Growth by creating new markets
    • 5.4.3. Mobility dynamics

6. TWO WHEELED EVS AND ALLIED VEHICLES

  • 6.1. What is included
    • 6.1.1. China - unprecedented growth of electric two wheelers
    • 6.1.2. Other countries
  • 6.2. Prices and performances compared
    • 6.2.2. Hybrid motorcycles
  • 6.3. Market drivers
    • 6.3.1. Bicycles and electric bicycles
    • 6.3.2. The big winners in western markets
  • 6.4. Statistics for all bicycles
  • 6.5. Listing of manufacturers
    • 6.5.2. China
  • 6.6. Forecasts
    • 6.6.1. Two-wheel dynamics

7. CAR-LIKE VEHICLES NOT HOMOLOGATED AS CARS: MICRO EV, QUADRICYCLE, E TRIKE, NEV, GOLF CAR

  • 7.1. Many names, common factors
  • 7.2. Car-like vehicles that evade restrictions, taxes and other costs
  • 7.3. Estrima Birò Micro EV Quadricycle removable battery
  • 7.4. Philippines: big new commitments to e trikes
  • 7.5. Listing of manufacturers beyond golf cars
  • 7.6. Golf cars
    • 7.6.1. What is included
    • 7.6.2. Market drivers
    • 7.6.3. Prices and profits
    • 7.6.4. Listing of manufacturers
    • 7.6.5. Forecasts

8. PURE ELECTRIC AND HYBRID CARS

  • 8.1. Successful strategies
    • 8.1.1. Plug-in market dynamics
    • 8.1.2. Security of forecasts
    • 8.1.3. New models as lead indicator
    • 8.1.4. Profitability
  • 8.2. Disruptive change and merging of all parts
  • 8.3. Range extenders including fuel cells
  • 8.4. Electric motors
  • 8.5. Power electronics
    • 8.5.1. Increased performance and complexity
    • 8.5.2. Wide band gap semiconductors
  • 8.6. Supercapacitors: more than meets the eye
    • 8.6.1. Across batteries in cars
    • 8.6.2. Completely replacing batteries in hybrid cars
    • 8.6.3. Indian supercapacitor sports car
    • 8.6.4. Across fuel cells in cars
  • 8.7. Plugging in: when, where, why?
  • 8.8. Progress of Toyota and Tesla
    • 8.8.1. Market and technology priorities
    • 8.8.2. Toyota simplifies priorities and Tesla lands Gigafactory partnership
  • 8.9. Fuel cell cars: caution needed

9. MILITARY

  • 9.1. Strong demand
  • 9.2. Environmental and logistics pressures
  • 9.3. Examples of military EVs
    • 9.3.1. Hummer USA / China
    • 9.3.2. Quantum Technologies USA Aggressor AMV
    • 9.3.3. US Army trucks etc - ZAP, Columbia ParCar USA
    • 9.3.4. Oshkosh Truck Corp USA
    • 9.3.5. Electric robot vehicles USA
    • 9.3.6. Autonomous vehicles for the military
  • 9.4. Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
    • 9.4.1. Small electrical UAVs
    • 9.4.2. The most successful electric UAV
    • 9.4.3. Micro nano air vehicles
    • 9.4.4. Large electrical UAVs
  • 9.5. Examples of military EVs - in the water
    • 9.5.1. US Naval Undersea Warfare Center
  • 9.6. Manufacturers of military EVs
  • 9.7. Forecasts

10. MARINE

  • 10.1.1. Hybrid and pure electric tugboats
  • 10.2. Market segments
    • 10.2.1. Total market
    • 10.2.2. Underwater
    • 10.2.3. On the water
  • 10.3. Market drivers
    • 10.3.1. Pollution laws back electric boats - India, Europe, USA
    • 10.3.2. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) - Europe, USA
  • 10.4. Energy Independent Vehicles EIV on water
    • 10.4.1. Loon pontoon boat Canada
    • 10.4.2. MARS Shuttleworth motor yacht, UK
    • 10.4.3. Milper REP-SAIL motor yacht, Turkey
    • 10.4.4. Rensea MARINA motor yacht Europe
    • 10.4.5. Seaswarm oil slick gathering robot, USA
    • 10.4.6. SoelCat motor boat Netherlands
    • 10.4.7. SolarLab tourist boats Germany
    • 10.4.8. Sun 21 Solar Boat
    • 10.4.9. Turanor Planet Solar Germany
    • 10.4.10. Vaka Moana motor yacht Netherlands
  • 10.5. Wave and sun powered sea gliders
    • 10.5.1. Falmouth Scientific Inc. USA
    • 10.5.2. Liquid Robotics USA
    • 10.5.3. US Naval Undersea Warfare Center
  • 10.6. Manufacturers by country and product
  • 10.7. Selling prices
  • 10.8. Forecasts

11. AIRCRAFT, MOBILE ROBOTS AND OTHER EVS

  • 11.1. Definition
  • 11.2. Market drivers
  • 11.3. Listing of other manufacturers by country and product
  • 11.4. Energy Independent Vehicles EIV in the air
    • 11.4.1. Dirisolar airship France
    • 11.4.2. ETHZ UAV Switzerland
    • 11.4.3. ISIS airship USA
    • 11.4.4. Lockheed Martin airship USA
    • 11.4.5. NASA Helios USA
    • 11.4.6. Northrop Grumman airship USA
    • 11.4.7. Projet Sol'r Nepheleos France
    • 11.4.8. Solar Flight USA
    • 11.4.9. Solar Impulse Switzerland
    • 11.4.10. Solar Ship inflatable aircraft Canada
    • 11.4.11. Sunrise Solar airship Turkey
    • 11.4.12. Turtle Airships Spain
  • 11.5. Market size and trends
    • 11.5.1. Non-military mobile robots - USA, UK, Japan
    • 11.5.2. Research and hobbyist
    • 11.5.3. Electric aircraft for civil use
    • 11.5.4. Robotic lawn mowers
  • 11.6. Forecasts

APPENDIX: CHINA EV PLUG-IN MARKET

IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTANCY

TABLES

  • 1.1. Forecast assumptions and market drivers by category of hybrid and pure electric EV 2016-2026
  • 1.2. Numbers of electric vehicles, in thousands, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector
  • 1.3. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded
  • 1.4. Ex-factory value of EVs, in millions of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded. Excludes 48V mild hybrids which become electric vehicles in later years by having up to four brief pure electric modes
  • 1.5. EV profitability by sector
  • 1.6. Top 13 manufacturers of electric vehicles in 2014 showing rounded gross sales value of EVs ex factory by segment, % market share and trend of position. For 2013, first division in red, second division in blue and third division in
  • 1.7. Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2014 by application with numbers for China
  • 1.8. Main market drivers
  • 1.9. The value of the electric vehicle market by territory East Asia, Europe, North America, Other 2016 and 2026 percentage
  • 1.10. Sales of new energy cars in China by model
  • 1.11. Market share of plug in electric vehicles as a percentage of total vehicle sales
  • 2.1. 143 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries with country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte morphology, case type, applicational priorities and customer relationships, if any, in sel
  • 2.2. Energy, number of riders and energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
  • 2.3. Global automotive production by country 2013
  • 3.1. 27 examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
  • 3.2. Percentage split of global manufacture of heavy industrial trucks
  • 3.3. Conventional car with 48 V electric torque assist as a new powertrain option shown yellow in powertrain options
  • 4.1. 150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
  • 5.1. Statistics relevant to the challenge to society caused by ageing population
  • 5.2. Features of mobility vehicles that may hold up the price by offering more in future
  • 5.3. The percentage distribution of manufacture between Taiwan and Mainland China by value of vehicles for the disabled 2005, 2010 and 2015
  • 5.4. 83 examples of manufacturers of EVs for the disabled by country
  • 6.1. Prices and performance of electric two wheelers
  • 6.2. 105 examples of manufacturers of electric motorcycles, two wheel EVs and electric quad bikes
  • 6.3. Largest suppliers of electric bicycles by number (not in order)
  • 6.4. 34 sources of two wheelers in China by brand, region and battery chemistry
  • 6.5. Listing of light electric scooter makers in China. Most use lead-acid battery chemistry but there is a move to lithium-ion batteries
  • 7.1. 85 examples of car and micro EV manufacturers beyond golf car, by country
  • 7.2. 19 examples of golf EV manufacturers
  • 8.1. Examples of traditional limitations and market trends by type of basic design of traction motor Those used mainly on large vehicles but are also seen in cars shown in green. Those on smaller vehicles and high performance vehicles
  • 9.1. Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
  • 9.2. 27 suppliers of military EVs
  • 10.1. 44 examples of manufacturers of EV electric water craft
  • 10.2. Leading manufacturers of remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles for sale
  • 10.3. Indicative prices for marine EVs in 2013
  • 11.1. 36 examples of manufacturers of mobile robots, toy, leisure, research or hobbyist EVs by country and product

FIGURES

  • 1.1. Numbers of electric vehicles, in thousands, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector
  • 1.2. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded
  • 1.3. Ex-factory value of EVs, in millions of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded. Excludes 48V mild hybrids which become electric vehicles in later years by having up to four brief pure electric modes
  • 1.4. Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2016, percentage by applicational sector. Excludes 48V mild hybrids which become electric vehicles in later years by having up to four brief pure electric modes of operation
  • 1.5. Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2026, percentage by applicational sector. Excludes 48V mild hybrids which become electric vehicles in later years by having up to four brief pure electric modes of operation
  • 1.6. Basic schematic of pure EV power train
  • 1.7. Size of vehicle, broadly indicated by price and battery kWh, related to when up-front cost becomes competitive with a conventional version
  • 1.8. Car market 2016-2031 by powertrain
  • 1.9. Voltage trends for pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles by land, water and air
  • 1.10. SMEs have more opportunity
  • 1.11. The various types of car, the precise definitions, regulations and user preferences varying greatly between countries
  • 1.12. kWh per passenger for conventional or electric on-road vehicles related to type of vehicle and showing cars to be uniquely inefficient
  • 1.13. The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
  • 1.14. Renault Twizy quadricycle which is now selling only at a modest rate. The standard model has no windows
  • 1.15. Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
  • 1.16. Terra Motors R6
  • 1.17. European homologation below cars
  • 1.18. Hybrid and pure electric vehicle sales to 2025
  • 1.19. Number of pure electric vehicles globally by country
  • 1.20. Yearly sales of pure electric vehicles globally by country, personal and utility
  • 1.21. Yearly US sales of plug-in vehicles
  • 1.22. Utility vs car EV sales in France.
  • 1.23. Sales in units of plug-in cars in China 2010-2014 showing fastest growth in microEVs - cars not homologated as such
  • 1.24. Sales of plug-in cars in China through 2014 showing seasonality
  • 1.25. Sales of electric buses in China by type 2009-2014
  • 1.26. Monthly new PHEV and AEV sales by model to August 2014
  • 1.27. Yearly new HEV sales by model to August 2014
  • 1.28. Electric Drive Vehicle Share of new vehicle sales to August 2014
  • 1.29. Monthly new EDV sales and gasoline prices to December 2014
  • 1.30. Apple-like innovation for the disabled - Omnichair
  • 1.31. Mining vehicles for open mines (over 90% of all mines) will no longer have 2-3 MW diesel mega-trucks climbing the sides but electric mega-trucks at top and bottom, according to Deloitte Touche.
  • 1.32. New vehicles with asynchronous traction motors
  • 1.33. Electric cars are mainly series parallel hybrid today with two motors but otherwise very different, this Mitsubishi being very different in all other respects from market leader the Toyota Prius
  • 1.34. Work on using pure electric and plug in hybrid small vehicles as farming power supplies
  • 1.35. GaN inverter and components for EVs exhibited in Osaka Japan by GaN Systems of Canada September2014
  • 1.36. BMW i8 hybrid car with three-cylinder range extender and gull wing doors launched 2013, deliveries 2015
  • 1.37. The dream of photovoltaics in fields and Building Integrated Photovoltaics BIPV powering EVs
  • 1.38. Protean in-wheel
  • 1.39. Lightweighting approaches
  • 1.40. Future mobility vision
  • 1.41. Mahle range extended car
  • 1.42. Toyota Mirai and BMW fuel cell cars
  • 1.43. Intelligent Energy fuel cell in a van
  • 1.44. Bladon Jets gas turbine range extender
  • 1.45. Wankel range extender
  • 2.1. Electric vehicle value chain
  • 2.2. Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
  • 2.3. Carbon Intensity CO2 kg/kWh and % Fossil fuel in power sector
  • 2.4. LCA greenhouse emissions of a compact car with different drive trains
  • 2.5. Carbon emissions, in grams CO2 per km, of a selection of cars for sale in the UK
  • 3.1. Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
  • 3.2. Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
  • 3.3. Top 20 industrial lift truck suppliers in 2013
  • 3.4. Lift truck market demand in 2013
  • 3.5. World industrial truck statistics/orders and shipments
  • 3.6. Survey of expected powertrains
  • 4.1. Increase in urban delivery 2010-2025
  • 4.2. Electric bus in Nepal
  • 4.3. Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
  • 4.4. Garbage collecting electric car
  • 5.1. Percentage of dependent elderly 1970 to 2040
  • 5.2. New Pihsiang Shoprider pure electric mobility vehicle for the disabled
  • 5.3. The Electric Car (INEC-KARO) for the disabled from Interchina Industry Group
  • 6.1. Gasoline two wheelers G2W and electric two wheelers E2W sales compared to passenger vehicles 1991-2006 in China
  • 6.2. Suzuki Burgman Fuel Cell Scooter powered by Intelligent Energy
  • 6.3. e-bikes parked in Yangzhou China
  • 6.4. Electric mopeds parked in Cheghdu China
  • 6.5. World bicycle and automoblie production, 1950-2007
  • 7.1. IMAs "Colibri" micro EV presented at the Geneva Motorshow
  • 7.2. The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
  • 7.3. Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
  • 7.4. Estrima Birò micro EV and battery removal
  • 7.5. E-trikes
  • 8.1. Technology: everything will change disruptively
  • 8.2. Load-bearing supercapacitors as structural components. Top left: Volvo experimental car trunk lid that is a supercapacitor. Top right: Partner Imperial College London's supercapacitor textile being developed for load bearing compo
  • 8.3. Example of integrated components coming in
  • 8.4. Examples of 2015 hybrid cars
  • 8.5. GaN Systems capability late 2014
  • 8.6. Mazda pure electric car in production with supercapacitor across battery (vertical device by nearside front wheel)
  • 8.7. Toyota supercapacitor-only concept car and precedents
  • 8.8. Nova Electric Vehicles
  • 8.9. Toyota Mirai
  • 9.1. Oshkosh truck
  • 9.2. Grizzly robot electric vehicle for the military
  • 9.3. SPI electrical SUAV
  • 9.4. AeroVironment Raven
  • 9.5. AeroVironment Aqua Puma UAV completes Royal Australian Navy Sea trials in 2007
  • 9.6. Aurora Flight Sciences solar plane that takes off in parts and self-assembles at altitude
  • 9.7. Large autonomous robot jellyfish
  • 10.1. Hybrid tugboat
  • 10.2. Engine room of the hybrid tugboat
  • 10.3. Bratt electric tugboat
  • 10.4. Electric deck boat by Leisure Life
  • 10.5. Electric launch
  • 10.6. Solar powered boats for tourism cruising at 12 kph on Lake Geneva
  • 10.7. Loon
  • 10.8. MARS
  • 10.9. Milper and the REP-SAIL project.
  • 10.10. Rensea MARINA
  • 10.11. Seaswarm
  • 10.12. SoelCat
  • 10.13. Alster Sun Hamburg Solar Shuttle
  • 10.14. Constance Solar Shuttle
  • 10.15. Turanor fact sheet
  • 10.16. Turanor construction process
  • 10.17. Vaka Moana
  • 10.18. Falmouth Scientific solar sea glider AUV
  • 10.19. Wave and sun powered sea glider
  • 10.20. Autonomous wave glider
  • 10.21. PACX Wave Glider
  • 10.22. Large autonomous robot jellyfish
  • 11.1. Dirisolar
  • 11.2. AtlantikSolar2
  • 11.3. ISIS concept
  • 11.4. Lockheed HALE-D
  • 11.5. Helios
  • 11.6. Solar surveillance airship ordered by the US military
  • 11.7. Nepheleos
  • 11.8. Sunstar
  • 11.9. Solar Impulse compared to jumbo jet
  • 11.10. Ghost pictures of Solar Impulse 2
  • 11.11. Round the world route
  • 11.12. Flight to Hawaii
  • 11.13. Solar Ship
  • 11.14. Operating principle
  • 11.15. Turtle airship concept
  • 11.16. The Dyson robot vacuum cleaner
  • 11.17. LawnBott
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