"Everything is changing in this market"
This report provides the most comprehensive and authoritative view of the conductive inks and paste market, giving detailed ten-year market forecasts segmented by application and material type. The market forecasts are given in tonnage and value at the ink level. It also includes critical reviews of all the competing conductive inks and paste technologies including firing-types pastes, PTFs, silver nanoparticles, stretchable inks, IME inks, copper, and more.
This report also gives fact-based and insightful analysis of all the existing and emerging target applications. For target applications, it provides an assessment and/or forecast of the addressable markets, key trends and challenges, latest results and prototype/product launches, and the IDTechEx insight on the market potential.
We provide a detailed analysis of at least 17 existing and emerging application sectors including silicon solar cells, UF/UHF RFID tags, touch screen edge electrodes, automotive, in-mould electronics, e-textiles, 3D antennas, 3D printed electronics, desktop PCB printers, ITO replacement, OLED lighting and others.
All our market forecasts are built using models that are based on primary industry inputs from IDTechEx interviews and company visits, and from prior industry experience at IDTechEx. We clearly outline and justify the assumptions, rational, trends and actual data points underpinning all our forecasts. Our report provides more than 50 interview-based company profiles
Unrivalled business intelligence and market insight
This report is based upon years of research. Our analysts have many years of hands-on prior experience and were at forefront of the conductive inks/paste business, playing an important role in creating a multi-billion dollar industry. In the past five years alone, our team has interviewed and profiled more than 50 users and producers of various types of conductive inks and pastes. Each year we have learned more about the market and fine-tuned our analysis, insight and forecasts.
In parallel to this, IDTechEx has organised the leading global conferences and tradeshows on printed electronics for the past decade in Asia, Europe and USA. These shows bring together the entire value chain on printed electronics, including all the conductive ink suppliers, printers, and end users. This has given us unrivalled access to the players and the latest market intelligence.
Conductive inks and paste business: everything is changing
The conductive inks and pastes market will reach nearly $1.7b in 2026 at current metal prices. Micro-sized silver conductive pastes will dominate the market, controlling nearly the entire market in 2016. Silver nanoparticles will however become increasingly competitive, finding use in a range for emerging applications sectors to become an $80m market in 2026. Copper will remain a comparatively immature technology but will achieve limited success as novel curing systems are installed to open the door to copper ink sales.
The solar panel industry will be 1.5 k tonne market in 2016 for screen-printed firing-type conductive pastes. At the paste level, a new group of suppliers will soon come to dominate this business whilst at the powder level the users will force through a more diversified supplier base. The touch screen edge electrode market will continue its decline. The linewidth-over-spacing (L/S) has decreased to 20/20, pushing screen printing with standard PTFs beyond its limits and opening the door to photocurable pastes. Etching-based techniques will find additional opportunities as the bezel is further narrowed whilst standard PTFs will retain some share in the low-cost end of the market.
Sensors such as car occupancy sensors, printed piezoresistive sensors and some versions of glucose sensors will remain a substantial niche market for conductive pastes, as will the automotive sector with its mixed grouping of stagnant traditional and high-growth emerging applications. HF and UHF RFID antenna markets will grow but will see the relative market share of ink types transform over the coming decade. 3D antennas made using aerosol printing will continue gaining traction. This approach will compete head-on with MID (molded interconnect devices) techniques and will become a substantial player in the consumer electronics market. Metal mesh as an ITO alternative will make slow inroads despite the pending consolidation period in the TCF industry, creating demand for silver nanoparticle used in filling or printing fine lines.
New markets will emerge and create new performance requirements. In-mould electronics will demand inks that can stretch and survive the thermoforming/molding process. Electronic textiles will require inks that are truly stretchable and withstand repeated washing cycles. 3D printed electronics and desktop PCB printers will need the high conductivity and low temperature inks to open vast new prototyping possibilities for 3D printers and circuit designers. All these markets are poised for rapid growth provided technology innovations can satisfy the market pull.
Ten-year market projections split by application. Please contact us for the exact values. Note that ink selling prices have declined thanks to a decline in raw metal prices but also pressured margins, resulting in a decrease in our revenue forecasts.
What does this report provide?
- 1. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes segmented by material type (silver nano, PTF, Cu, etc) and application. Forecasts are provided in volume and dollars.
- 2. Interview-based company profiles of 50 suppliers and users. Company profiles provide a detailed company background, and critical technology and business model review. The profile further includes a detailed SWOT analysis by IDTechEx analysts
- 3. Critical review and appraisal of all the main conductive ink technologies including firing-types pastes, PTFs, nano inks, stretchable inks, IME inks, copper, etc.
- 4. Detailed application assessment often including IDTechEx insight and assessment, state-of-the-art and commercial progress, analysis of competing technologies, pricing and market trends, key players, addressable market size, and ten-year market projections for:
b. Touch screen edge electrodes (segmented by device type)
c. Automotive (de-frosters, occupancy sensors, seat heaters, etc)
d. 3D antennas
e. UHF ad HF RFID antenna
f. Stretchable inks for electronic textiles
g. In-mould electronics inks
h. Glucose and piezoresistive sensors
i. 3D printed electronics
j. Desktop PCB printing
k. ITO replacement
l. OLED lighting
m. Conductive pens
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Table of Contents
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
- 1.1. Conductive inks and paste: everything is changing
- 1.2. Traditional Markets
- 1.2.1. Photovoltaics
- 1.2.2. Touch screen market
- 1.2.3. Automotive
- 1.2.4. Sensors
- 1.4. Emerging applications
- 1.4.1. 3D antennas
- 1.4.2. ITO replacement
- 1.4.3. Stretchable inks
- 1.4.4. Desktop PCB printing
- 1.4.5. 3D Printed Electronics
2. CONDUCTIVE INKS AND PASTES
- 2.1. PTF vs Firing Paste
- 2.2. Curing and sintering
- 2.3. Value chain
- 2.4. Silver nanoparticle inks
- 2.5. Silver nanoparticle inks are more conducting
- 2.6. Curing temperature of silver nanoparticle inks
- 2.6.1. Enhanced Flexibility
- 2.6.2. Inkjet Printability
- 2.7. Price competiveness of silver nanoparticles
- 2.8. Performance of silver nanoparticle
- 2.9. Value chain
3. SILVER NANOPARTICLE PRODUCTION METHODS
4. COPPER INKS AND PASTE
- 4.1. Methods of preventing copper oxidisation
- 4.1.1. Superheated steam
- 4.1.2. Reactive agent metallization
- 4.1.3. Photocuring and photosintering
- 4.2. Pricing strategy and performance of copper inks and pastes
- 4.3. Copper oxide nanoparticles
- 4.4. Silver-Coated Copper
5. CONDUCTIVE PASTES IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET
- 5.1. Background to the PV industry
- 5.2. Conductive pastes in the PV sectors
- 5.3. Alternative and improved metallization techniques
- 5.4. Silicon inks
- 5.5. Trends and changes in solar cell architecture
- 5.6. Market dynamics
- 5.7. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive paste in solar cells
- 6.1. De-misters or de-foggers
- 6.2. Car seat heaters
- 6.3. Seat sensors
7. 3D PRINTED ELECTRONICS
- 7.1. Progress in 3D printed electronics
- 7.1.1. Nascent Objects
- 7.1.2. Voxel8
- 7.1.3. nScrypt ad Novacentrix
- 7.2. University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP)
- 7.3. Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics
8. TOUCH PANEL EDGE ELECTRODES
- 8.1. Narrow bezels change the market
- 8.2. Ten-year market projections for conductive inks and paste in the touch screen industry
9. CONDUCTIVE INKS IN RFID
- 9.1. RFID market size and business dynamics
- 9.2. Processes, Material Options and Market Shares
- 9.3. Market projections
10. PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE SENSORS
- 10.1. Piezoresistive
- 10.2. Glucose sensors
11. 3D ANTENNAS AND CONFORMAL PRINTING ON CURVED SURFACES
- 11.1. Laser Direct Structuring and MID
- 11.2. Aerosol deposition
- 11.3. Others ways of printing structurally-integrated antennas
- 11.4. Market projections for printed 3D antennas
12. THERMOFORMED OR IN-MOULD ELECTRONICS
- 12.1. Automotive
- 12.2. Ink requirements in in-mould electronics
- 12.3. Other materials used in in-mould electronics
- 12.4. In mould electronics in consumer electronics
13. STRETCHABLE INKS FOR ELECTRONIC TEXTILES
- 13.1. Electronic textile industry
- 13.2. Stretchable inks and products
- 13.3. Applications and ten-year market projections market forecast
14. PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURING AND PROTOTYPING
- 14.1. Background to the PCB industry
- 14.2. 'Printing' PCBs for the hobbyist and DIY market
- 14.3. 'Printing' professional multi-layer PCBs
- 14.4. Comparison of different PCB techniques
15. ITO REPLACEMENT (TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING FILMS)
- 15.1. Market forecast for transparent conductive films
- 15.2. Changing market requirements
- 15.3. A brutal consolidation sets in
- 15.4. Progress and opportunities for conductive inks
- 15.4.1. Embossing followed by silver nanoparticle printing
- 15.4.2. Self-assembled silver nanoparticle films
- 15.4.3. Inkjet printed silver nanoparticles as transparent conducting films
- 15.5. Market Projections
16. CONDUCTIVE PENS
17. MOBILE PHONE DIGITIZERS- FIRST HIGH-VOLUME MARKET FOR SILVER NANOPARTICLE INKS?
18. OLED LIGHTING MARKET
- 18.1. OLED Lighting market dynamics and challenges
- 18.2. OLED lighting in search of a unique
- 18.3. Cost projections of OLED lighting
- 18.4. OLED lighting market forecast
- 18.5. Requirements from conductive inks in OLED lighting
- 18.6. Market projections
19. COMPANY INTERVIEWS
- 19.1. Agfa-Gevaert N.V.
- 19.2. AgIC
- 19.3. Bando Chemical Industries
- 19.4. BeBop Sensors
- 19.5. BotFactory
- 19.6. Cartesian Co
- 19.7. Cima NanoTech Inc
- 19.8. Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH
- 19.9. ClearJet Ltd
- 19.10. Colloidal Ink Co., Ltd
- 19.11. Conductive Compounds
- 19.12. Daicel Corporation
- 19.13. DuPont
- 19.14. DuPont Advanced Materials
- 19.15. Electroninks Writeables
- 19.16. Flexbright Oy
- 19.17. Fujikura Kasei Co Ltd
- 19.18. Genes 'Ink
- 19.19. Henkel
- 19.20. Hicel Co Ltd
- 19.21. Inkron
- 19.22. InkTec Co., Ltd
- 19.23. Intrinsiq Materials
- 19.24. Komori Corporation
- 19.25. KunShan Hisense Electronics
- 19.26. Lord Corp
- 19.27. Methode Electronics
- 19.28. Nagase America Corporation
- 19.29. NanoComposix
- 19.30. Nano Dimension
- 19.31. NANOGAP
- 19.32. Novacentrix
- 19.33. O-film Tech Co., Ltd
- 19.34. Optomec
- 19.35. Perpetuus Carbon Technologies Limited
- 19.36. Printechnologics
- 19.37. Promethean Particles
- 19.38. Pulse Electronics
- 19.39. PV Nano Cell
- 19.40. Raymor Industries Inc
- 19.41. Showa Denko
- 19.42. Sun Chemical
- 19.43. Tangio Printed Electronics
- 19.44. The Sixth Element
- 19.45. T-Ink
- 19.46. Toda Kogyo Corp
- 19.47. Tokusen USA Inc.
- 19.48. Ulvac Corporation
- 19.49. UT Dots Inc
- 19.50. Vorbeck Materials
- 19.51. Voxel8
- 19.52. Xerox Research Centre of Canada (XRCC)
- 19.53. Xymox Technologies
20. COMPANY PROFILES
- 20.1. Advanced Nano Products
- 20.2. AIST and NAPRA
- 20.3. Amogreentech
- 20.4. Applied Nanotech Inc.
- 20.5. Asahi Glass Corporation
- 20.6. Asahi Kasei
- 20.7. Cabot
- 20.8. Chang Sung Corporation
- 20.9. Cima Nanotech
- 20.10. Ferro
- 20.11. Giga Solar Materials Corp
- 20.12. Harima
- 20.13. Hitachi Chemical
- 20.14. Kishu Giken Kogyo Co.,Ltd.
- 20.15. Liquid X Printed Metals, Inc.
- 20.16. Indium Corporation
- 20.17. NanoMas Technologies
- 20.18. Noritake
- 20.19. Novacentrix
- 20.20. Novacentrix PulseForge
- 20.21. Samsung (former Cheil Industries)
- 20.22. Taiyo
- 20.23. Toyobo
- 20.24. Vorbeck
IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTANCY
- 2.1. These tables show the performance and processing conditions of screen-printable silver pastes.
- 2.2. Table listing the key suppliers of metallic powders/flakes and conductive inks/paste.
- 2.3. Performance and typical characteristics of various silver nanoparticle inks on the market.
- 2.4. List of silver nanoparticle suppliers.
- 4.2. List of companies supplying or researching copper or silver alloy powders, inks or pastes.
- 4.3. The performance and key characteristics of copper inks and pastes offered by different companies
- 9.1. Table outlining the operational frequency and main features of each RFID tag.
- 9.2. Average sales price of passive RFID tags in USD cents
- 20.1. Screen Printable Silver Paste
- 20.2. Other Silver Pastes
- 20.3. Inkjet Printable Inks
- 20.4. Applied Nanotech products
- 20.5. Ferro's metal products
- 20.6. Outline of Noritake product list
- 20.7. Silver and carbon pastes offered by Toyobo
- 20.8. Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions
- 1.1. Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by application
- 1.2. Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
- 1.3. Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
- 1.4. Ten-year market forecast for micron-sized (non nano) conductive inks and pastes split by application
- 1.5. Ten-year market forecasts for silver nanoparticle conductive inks and pastes split by application
- 1.6. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in touch screens
- 1.7. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in the automotive sector as de-foggers, seat heaters and occupancy sensors.
- 1.8. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes as piezoresistive and glucose sensors.
- 1.9. Conductive inks and pastes used in printing UHF RFID antennas in value and tonne
- 1.10. Conductive inks and pastes used in printing HF RFID antennas in value and tonne
- 1.11. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in 3D antennas
- 1.12. Ten-year market forecasts for IME conductive inks and pastes in the automotive sector
- 1.13. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in ITO replacement
- 1.14. Ten-year market forecasts for stretchable conductive inks and pastes in e-textiles
- 1.15. Ten-year market forecasts for stretchable conductive inks and pastes in 3D printed electronics.
- 2.1. Different morphologies of micron-sized silver particulates used in conductive paste/ink making
- 2.2. The process flow for making a conductive pastes.
- 2.3. These charts show the curing behaviour of PTFTs using a box oven and UV heater.
- 2.4. These charts show a typical firing profile for firing-type conductive pastes.
- 2.5. Typical equipment used in curing silver PTFs
- 2.6. A roll-to-roll photosintering machine by Novacentrix
- 2.7. A Xenon photosetting machine as well as its lamp
- 2.8. This images show SEM images of flake and spherical Ag pastes after heat and photo curing.
- 2.9. Images comparing the packing of flake-based and nanoparticle-based conductive lines.
- 2.10. Conductivity values of different sputtered and printed conductive materials.
- 2.11. This measured data shows that silver nanoparticle inks can form lines that are both thinner and more conducting.
- 2.12. Melting temperature as a function of gold particle size
- 2.13. Current and projected roadmap for the curing temperature and resistivity level of silver nanoparticle inks.
- 2.14. Data showing the thermal curing behaviour of silver nanoparticle inks. It is observed that silver nanoparticle inks require curing temperatures comparable to PTF pastes.
- 4.1. Spot price of silver as a function of year
- 4.2. The annealing method is a key step in creating conductive tracks from copper.
- 4.3. Apparatus and process for curing printed copper lines using Toyobo's superheated steam.
- 4.4. Creative copper conductive traces using reactive agent metallization
- 4.5. Various photosintering machines
- 4.6. Comparing an ideal silver-coated copper vs the ones typically produced.
- 5.1. Left: price history of silicon PV cells. Right: price levels and production volumes of crystalline silicon PV. The price levels are now around 30 cents per watt or less.
- 5.2. List of companies that went bankrupt, closed, restructured or sold equity at discount prices during the consolidation period.
- 5.3. Shipped production for the top 10 suppliers of solar cells.
- 5.4. The industry has dramatically changed over the years. US Japan and Europe have lost their leading positions at various times whereas Japan has risen.
- 5.5. Comparing production volumes, measured in megawatts, of different solar cells technologies in 2013(red bars) and 2014 (blue bars).
- 5.6. Cost breakdown of a typical wafer-based silicon solar cells.
- 5.7. The cost of silver conductive paste as an overall portion of the energy-generation cost of a silicon PV (in cents per watt peak) as a function of time.
- 5.8. Screen printed conductive lines on a typical wafer-based silicon PV.
- 5.9. The production process for a silicon PV showing when metallization and curing (firing) takes place
- 5.10. Typical curing profile of firing-type conductive pastes used in the photovoltaic industry.
- 5.11. Silver content per cell as a function of time. These are IDTechEx projections and underpin our market forecasts
- 5.12. The reduction in the silver content is made by possible by innovation in inks.
- 5.13. Survey results showing what the industry expected in the next decade
- 5.14. Predicted trend for minimum as-cut wafer thickness
- 5.15. Benefits of a silicon ink in improving solar cell efficiency
- 5.16. Current efficiency of select commercial PV modules.
- 5.17. Market share of different silicon solar cell architectures/technologies
- 5.18. Comparing the BSF and PERC cell architecture
- 6.1. Existing and emerging use cases of conductive inks in the interior and exterior of cars
- 6.2. Comparing the performance of a standard conductive paste as a de-froster when deposited on a PC and a glass substrate.
- 6.3. Ten-year market forecast for conductive paste used in de-foggers
- 6.4. Structure of a typical printed seat heater
- 6.5. Resistance vs temperature behaviour of a PTF carbon ink
- 6.6. Ten-year market forecasts for the use of conductive inks (carbon plus silver) in car seat heaters
- 6.7. Operation of a FSR
- 6.8. Response curve of a typical FSR from IEE. Product name: CP 149 Sensor
- 6.9. Examples of FSR individual sensors from IEE
- 6.10. Ten-year market forecasts for the use of conductive inks and pastes as occupancy sensors in cars.
- 7.1. Ten-year market projections for 3D printing materials split by SLA/DLP, extrusion, metal powder, binder jetting, etc.
- 7.2. Plastic filaments used in 3D printing and suppliers thereof
- 7.3. Plastic powders used in 3D printing and suppliers therefore
- 7.4. Examples of embedded and metallized 3D printed objects.
- 7.5. Nascent Objects seeks to modularize electronic components so that they can placed inside 3D printed objects and upgraded (exchanged) when new versions arrive
- 7.6. A Voxel8 3D printed electronics machine
- 7.7. A 3D printed electronics object with embedded circuitry
- 7.8. A 3D printed quadcopter with 3D printed embedded circuit
- 7.9. (Left) Photonically-cured copper in and (right) nScrypt's patented SmartPump
- 7.10. 3D printed electronics objects by University of Texas
- 7.11. IDTechEx market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes
- 8.1. Schematic of a touch screen system and a close-up of printed edge electrodes
- 8.2. Table showing the linewidth resolution of various processes used in making touch screen bezels
- 8.3. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in value split by touch screen device type
- 8.4. Ten-year market forecasts for conductive inks and pastes in tonne split by touch screen device type
- 9.1. Examples of RFID tags
- 9.2. Typical examples of RFID antennas
- 9.3. The approximate cost breakdown of different components in a typical UHF RFID tag
- 9.4. RFID tag figures and ten-year forecasts by application in billion USD
- 9.5. Cost estimates for making RFID antennas using different production processes
- 9.6. A Suica transit card widely used in Japan's transport network. The antenna consist of a printed silver conductive track
- 9.7. Comparing the printing speed, thickness and applications of different printing techniques
- 9.8. Schematics of different printing processes used in RFID antenna production
- 9.9. Examples of printed RFID antennas.
- 9.10. Ten year market forecast for the use of conductive inks in UHF RFID antennas split by ink type.
- 9.11. Ten year market forecast for the use of conductive inks in HF RFID antennas split by ink type.
- 10.1. Typical construction and behaviour of piezoresistive force sensors.
- 10.2. The IDTechEx market and technology roadmap for piezoresistive sensors
- 10.3. Ten-year market projections for piezoresistive sensors at the device level
- 10.4. Different glucose test strips on the market.
- 10.5. The anatomy of a glucose test strip. The working electrode here is carbon based
- 10.6. Manufacturing steps of a Lifescan Ultra glucose test strip.
- 10.7. Benchmarking printing vs. sputtering in glucose test strip product. Here, 5 refers to the strongest or highest.
- 10.8. Printed glucose test trip market.
- 11.1. Many components in a typical consumer electronics device such as a mobile phone are or can potentially be printed.
- 11.2. Schematic showing the sales volume of phones.
- 11.3. The production process using LDS.
- 11.4. A typical smartphone antenna made using LDS.
- 11.5. Examples of LDS products on the market.
- 11.6. The aerosol deposition process and its key features.
- 11.7. The core components making up an aerosol deposition machine
- 11.8. Aerosol deposited 3D antennas directly on mobile phone components
- 11.9. Comparing the LDS vs aerosol processes.
- 11.10. (left) An antenna dispensing machine and (right) an antenna being printed (dispensed) directly on the phone case.
- 11.11. Ten-year market projections for the use of conductive inks (silver nano inks) in printing 3D antennas.
- 12.1. The process starts by printing on a flats or 3D substrate before being thermoformed into a 3D shape.
- 12.2. Comparison of overhead control panels
- 12.3. The formation of car overhead consoles using in-mould electronics is a multi-step process.
- 12.4. These images demonstrate the impact of ink formulation on its performance after being stretched.
- 12.5. Air conditioning controller unit for a car.
- 12.6. Examples of thermoformed products made using a CNT-on-PC film
- 12.7. Increase in resistance as a function of change in length.
- 12.8. Two prototype examples using PEDOT and CNT
- 12.9. Example of how in-mould electronics (here referred to as structural electronics) can result in the formation of simple and elegant designs.
- 12.10. Schematic showing how TactoTek makes its structural or in-mould electronics.
- 12.11. Ten-year market projections for IME consoles in the automotive sector
- 12.12. Ten-year market projections for IME conductive inks in the automotive sector.
- 13.1. Medium-term market projections for smart textiles.
- 13.2. Some examples of prominent e-textile products are shown in this slide.
- 13.3. Percentage of e-textile players using each material type
- 13.4. Microcracks and voids appear in a printed conductive lines under stretch causing it to lose its conductivity.
- 13.5. Stretchable inks containing only Ag flakes show great resistivity variations under stretch compared to inks containing a distribution of particle sizes.
- 13.6. Printing a typical conductor on a fabric or textile is currently a four-step process
- 13.7. Examples of stretchable conductive paste
- 13.8. Examples of wearable products employing conductive inks.
- 13.9. Ten-year market projections for stretchable conductive inks in e-textiles.
- 14.1. Left: example of pre-PCV electronics wit rats nest wiring. Right: example of early PCB.
- 14.2. Examples of through-hole (left) and SMD PCB (right).
- 14.3. Schematic using a typical construction of a double-layer (left) and multilayer (right) PCB.
- 14.4. Breakdown of the PCB market by the number of layers
- 14.5. Traditional PCBs are a mature technology
- 14.6. Production steps involved in manufacturing a multi-layer PCB.
- 14.7. PCB market by production territory
- 14.8. PCB design files are often sent to the other side of the world to be manufactured and shipped back
- 14.9. CNC machine create double-sided rigid PCB.
- 14.10. AgIC have developed a specially-coated PET substrate for inkjetting
- 14.11. Left: example of a desktop printed single-sided PCB on a plastic (flexible) substrate. Right: example of a Cartesian desktop PCB printer.
- 14.12. Example of a bot factory machine in the IDTechEx office
- 14.13. Professional multi-layer desktop PCB printer by NanoDimension
- 14.14. Example of a multi-layer professional PCB printed using a professional desktop PCB printers.
- 14.15. Classification and structure of FPCB
- 14.16. Example of a PCB manufactured using inkjet printed photoresist. Here, printing replaces photolithography
- 14.17. Comparison of different PCB techniques
- 15.1. Examples of application that use a transparent conductive layer (glass or film).
- 15.2. Market forecast for transparent conductive films split by TCF technology
- 15.3. The sheet resistance requirements scale with the display size.
- 15.4. Sheet resistance requirements and efficiency of organic photovoltaic.
- 15.5. Sheet resistance as a function of radius curvature for ITO films. ITO cracks and its sheet resistance goes up when the film is bent.
- 15.6. Sheet resistance as a function of bending cycle or angle for different TCF technologies such as metal mesh, PEDOT, silver nanowires and carbon nanotubes.
- 15.7. ITO film price drop from $35/sqm to $18/sqm in a space of two years
- 15.8. Comparing the market forecast for medium-sized (e.g., AIOs) touch screens pre and post 2012.
- 15.9. Quantitatively benchmarking different transparent conductive film technologies
- 15.10. The process flow for making TCFs developed by NanoGrid based in Suzhou
- 15.11. Printed silver nanoparticle inks and a large touch module
- 15.12. ClearJet inkjet prints drops of specially formulated silver nano inks, which then self-assemble into a pattern shown above to form a conductive network that is also transparent
- 15.13. Ten-year market projections for the use of silver nano inks as an ITO replacement
- 16.1. Conductive pattern drawn using an ink supplier by Electronics Inks. The pen shown in the photo is the conductive ink that Sakura and Electroninks jointly developed.
- 16.2. Examples of applications and performance levels of a conductive ink developed by Dream Inks in China.
- 16.3. Colloidal's ink curing and resistivity
- 16.4. Example of conductive pattern inkjet-printed using an Epson printed and Colloidal's inks.
- 17.1. Samsung to replace the etched digitizers with printed ones using silver nanoparticle inks
- 18.1. Commercial and prototype OLED vs existing (2013 data) LED performance levels
- 18.2. Examples of LED and OLED lighting installations showing that LED can achieve effective surface emission thanks to the use of waveguides.
- 18.3. Flexible, thin and light-weight OLED lighting products launched by LG Chem and Konica Minolta.
- 18.4. Cost projections in $/Klm as a function of year.
- 18.5. Examples of latest OLED lighting installations in museums, nightclubs, festivals and libraries.
- 18.6. Ten-year market projections for OLED lighting as a function of year segmented by end application
- 18.7. Structure of a typical OLED lighting device
- 18.8. Ten-year market projections for silver nanoinks in OLED lighting applications.
- 20.1. Properties of the low-melting-point alloy before and after melting (structure and conductivity)
- 20.2. Electron microscope images of the Napra-developed copper paste (left) and of commercially available resin silver paste (right)
- 20.3. Resistivity of silver and copper pastes (Commercially available copper pastes: A, B, and C; Napra-developed copper paste: D; and commercially available silver paste: E)
- 20.4. Resistivity vs. cure temperature for glass-coated silver nanoparticles
- 20.5. The annealing process and equipment used for Hitachi Chemical's inks and pastes
- 20.6. Performance of Hitachi Chemical's inks compared to printed circuit board solutions
- 20.7. The Pulse Forge principle
- 20.8. Copper pastes developed by Toyobo
- 20.9. Flexographic formulation of Vor-Ink from Vorbeck
- 20.10. Packaging Natralock® with Siren™ Technology