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OTT規制:平等な競争条件・プライバシー・課税・ネット中立性・プラットフォーム・競争

OTT Regulation - Hot Topics: Level Playing Field, Privacy, Taxation, Net Neutrality, Platform and Competition

発行 IDATE DigiWorld 商品コード 329395
出版日 ページ情報 英文 150 Pages
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OTT規制:平等な競争条件・プライバシー・課税・ネット中立性・プラットフォーム・競争 OTT Regulation - Hot Topics: Level Playing Field, Privacy, Taxation, Net Neutrality, Platform and Competition
出版日: 2017年07月24日 ページ情報: 英文 150 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、世界におけるOTTサービスに対する規制上の課題について取り上げ、課税、プライバシー、競争ルール、ネット中立性、およびOTT通信に関連する問題、地域・主要国における状況などについて、分析しています。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 OTTコンセプト・市場のイントロダクション

  • OTTの定義
  • 平等な競争条件
  • OTTのダイナミクス・主な特徴
  • 潜在的OTT規制向け主要トピックの特定

第3章 プライバシー

  • 総論
  • 主な利害関係:個人情報はこれまでにないレベルで利用可能になったものの、さまざまなプライバシーリスクが発生
  • 欧州におけるイニシアチブ・反応
  • 南北アメリカにおけるイニシアチブ・反応
  • APAC

第4章 プラットフォーム・競合

  • 総論
  • Uberの勇敢な展開への注目
  • 主な利害関係
  • EU
  • 英国
  • フランス
  • ドイツ
  • イタリア
  • スペイン
  • オランダ
  • カナダ
  • 香港
  • 米国
  • ブラジル
  • インド
  • 日本

第5章 税制

  • 総論
  • 主な利害関係:多国籍企業および大手企業は、さまざまな課税制度の完全な支払いを「回避」
  • 租税回避スキームへの反応
  • 付録

第6章 ネット中立性

  • 総論
  • 主な利害関係
  • EU
  • フランス
  • 英国
  • ドイツ
  • イタリア
  • スペイン
  • オランダ
  • カナダ
  • 香港
  • 米国
  • ブラジル
  • インド
  • 日本

図表一覧

地域・企業

  • アジア太平洋
    • 香港
    • インド
    • 日本
  • 欧州
    • フランス
    • ドイツ
    • イタリア
    • オランダ
    • スペイン
    • 英国
  • 北米
    • カナダ
    • 米国
  • ラテンアメリカ
    • ブラジル

調査対象企業

  • ACM
  • AGCM
  • AGCOM
  • Airbnb
  • Akamai
  • Alibaba
  • Amazon Kindle
  • Amobee
  • ANRT
  • AOL
  • Apple
  • ARCEP
  • AT&T
  • Baidu
  • Bell Mobility
  • BEREC
  • BlaBlaCar
  • BNetzA
  • Bobsled
  • Boku
  • Booking
  • BskyB
  • BT
  • Cell C
  • Cisco
  • CNMC
  • CNMT
  • Comcast
  • CRTC
  • DataSparks
  • DBA
  • Dell
  • Deutsche Telekom
  • Didi Chuxing
  • Dropbox
  • Evernote
  • Everything Everywhere
  • Expedia
  • Facebook
  • FreeBeeData
  • FREETEL
  • GE
  • Google
  • H3G
  • Hulu
  • ITunes
  • ジェイコム
  • JD.com
  • Kayak
  • KDDI
  • Level 3
  • LINE
  • LoveFilm
  • Meetic
  • Microsoft
  • MTN
  • Nest
  • Netflix
  • NTT ドコモ
  • O2
  • Ofcom
  • Orange
  • PriceMinister
  • Rakuten
  • Rogers
  • Salesforce
  • Samsung
  • SingTel
  • Skype
  • Spotify
  • Sprint
  • Starbucks
  • TalkTalk
  • Tango
  • Telecom Egypt
  • Telecom Italia
  • Telefonica
  • Telkom
  • Telstra
  • Telus
  • Tencent
  • The Priceline Group
  • Three
  • T-Mobile
  • T-Mobile USA
  • TRAI
  • Trivago
  • Twitter
  • Uber
  • Verizon
  • Viber
  • Vimpelcom
  • Virgin Media
  • Vodacom
  • Vodafone
  • Waze
  • WeChat
  • WhatsApp
  • Wikipedia
  • Xfinity
  • Yahoo!
  • YouTube

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目次
Product Code: M17150MRA

This report addresses the emerging debates regarding regulation for OTT services. Indeed, as seen with Google Shopping or Apple taxes and sharing economy specific rules in many countries, the initiatives from public stakeholders are becoming more and more important.

Hot topics are so far around taxation, privacy and more recently competition rules. In the context of level playing field, often promoted by telecom operators, the regulations around Net Neutrality and OTT communications are also under the spotlight.

This report provides an overall analysis of the key topics mentioned above and a benchmark of developments at the European level, on 6 European countries (France, UK ,Germany, Netherlands, Italy, Spain) 3 American countries (USA, Canada, Brazil) and 3 Asian countries (Japan, India, Hong Kong)

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

2. Introduction on OTT concepts and markets

  • 2.1. Definitions of OTT
    • 2.1.1. Scope issues
    • 2.1.2. European framework not directly addressing OTT 12
    • 2.1.3. The BEREC approach
  • 2.2. Level Playing Field
    • 2.2.1. Traffic impacts
    • 2.2.2. Traditional telecom market impacts
    • 2.2.3. Other elements for the level playing field; Europe vs International
    • 2.2.4. Relationships between telcos and OTT
  • 2.3. OTT dynamics and key characteristics
    • 2.3.1. OTT revenue models
    • 2.3.2. OTT value chains
    • 2.3.3. OTT markets
  • 2.4. Identification of major topics for potential OTT regulation

3. Privacy

  • 3.1. Synthesis
  • 3.2. Key stakes: personal data now available at unprecedented levels, but with it come various privacy risks
    • 3.2.1. A contrasting approach to privacy between EU and US
    • 3.2.2. Trans-Atlantic data transfer evolves from Safe harbour to Privacy Shield
  • 3.3. Initiatives and reactions in Europe
    • 3.3.1. At the EU level: Reform of EU data protection rules
    • 3.3.2. France
    • 3.3.3. UK
    • 3.3.4. Germany
    • 3.3.5. Netherlands
    • 3.3.6. Italy
    • 3.3.7. Spain
  • 3.4. Initiatives and reactions in the Americas
    • 3.4.1. The US approach to data protection
    • 3.4.2. Canada
    • 3.4.3. Brazil
  • 3.5. APAC
    • 3.5.1. Japan
    • 3.5.2. Hong Kong
    • 3.5.3. India

4. Platform and competition

  • 4.1. Synthesis
  • 4.2. Focus on Uber's embattled expansion
    • 4.2.1. Europe
    • 4.2.2. Americas
    • 4.2.3. Asia-Pacific
  • 4.3. Key stakes
  • 4.4. European Union
  • 4.5. UK
    • 4.5.1. Independent review of the collaborative economy
    • 4.5.2. NRA and NCA opinions
  • 4.6. France
  • 4.7. Germany
    • 4.7.1. White book Digital regulatory policy for growth, innovation, competition and participation
    • 4.7.2. Bundeskartellamt
    • 4.7.3. Other initiatives
  • 4.8. Italy
    • 4.8.1. Sharing Economy Act
    • 4.8.2. AGCM
  • 4.9. Spain
    • 4.9.1. Transportation and ride sharing
    • 4.9.2. CNMC investigation
  • 4.10. Netherlands
    • 4.10.1. Ministry of Economic Affairs
    • 4.10.2. ACM platform investigation
  • 4.11. Canada
    • 4.11.1. Policy and regulation
    • 4.11.2. Canadian Competition Bureau
  • 4.12. Hong Kong
    • 4.12.1. A difficult regulatory environment
    • 4.12.2. Recommendations by the Hong Kong Consumer Council
  • 4.13. USA
  • 4.14. Brazil
  • 4.15. India
    • 4.15.1. TRAI OTT consultation
    • 4.15.2. Supreme Court hearing on privacy
    • 4.15.3. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways on ride-sharing
  • 4.16. Japan

5. Taxation

  • 5.1. Synthesis
  • 5.2. Key stakes: Multinational and major companies “avoiding” full payment of various taxation schemes
    • 5.2.1. “Double Irish and Dutch sandwich” system to shift value overseas
    • 5.2.2. The Luxembourg tax regime, revealed through LuxLeaks
    • 5.2.3. VAT and other discrepancies also cause for concern
    • 5.2.4. Income stashed overseas
  • 5.3. Reactions to tax avoidance schemes
    • 5.3.1. At the European level
    • 5.3.2. Brazil
    • 5.3.3. Canada
    • 5.3.4. France
    • 5.3.5. Germany
    • 5.3.6. Hong Kong
    • 5.3.7. India
    • 5.3.8. Italy
    • 5.3.9. Spain
    • 5.3.10. United States
    • 5.3.11. UK
    • 5.3.12. Japan
    • 5.3.13. Netherlands
  • 5.4. Appendix
    • 5.4.1. The six key measures proposed by the European Commission to fight tax avoidance
    • 5.4.2. Action Plan on VAT- Towards a single EU VAT area

6. Net neutrality

  • 6.1. Synthesis
  • 6.2. Key stakes
    • 6.2.1. Consumer impact
    • 6.2.2. Technical-economic issues
  • 6.3. European Union
    • 6.3.1. Legacy
    • 6.3.2. Net neutrality in the 2009 framework
    • 6.3.3. Net neutrality in the TSM
  • 6.4. France
    • 6.4.1. Regulator (ARCEP)
    • 6.4.2. Legislation
  • 6.5. UK
    • 6.5.1. Regulator (Ofcom)
    • 6.5.2. Legislation
  • 6.6. Germany
    • 6.6.1. Regulator (BNetzA)
    • 6.6.2. Legislation
  • 6.7. Italy
  • 6.8. Spain
  • 6.9. Netherlands
  • 6.10. Canada
  • 6.11. Hong Kong
  • 6.12. USA
  • 6.13. Brazil
  • 6.14. India
    • 6.14.1. Creating a legal framework for net neutrality
    • 6.14.2. Zero rating
  • 6.15. Japan

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Level of advancement of regulation and/or debate
  • Table 2: Common rules vs. ECS-specific regulations
  • Table 3: Regulatory Imbalances between Network Operators and Application Providers
  • Table 4: Current view on debates related to OTT communications
  • Table 5: Comparison of data protection legislation between the countries covered
  • Table 6: What will change in the European regulations on privacy protection
  • Table 7: French regulatory principles
  • Table 8: Major FTC regulations by area
  • Table 9: FTC's sector regulation
  • Table 10: Approaches for competition regulation of OTTs
  • Table 11: Examples of taxes targeting OTT players specifically
  • Table 12: Comparison of VAT rates on linear and on-demand audiovisual media services
  • Table 13: Tax/profit ratio paid by leading US Internet and non-Internet companies
  • Table 14: Offshore profits and tax haven subsidiaries of a selection of US giants
  • Table 15: Regulatory approaches for Net Neutrality in the benchmarked countries
  • Table 16: Allowable use of the word “unlimited” according to Ofcom
  • Table 17: Excerpt from CRTC's 2012-15 work plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: A potential classification of services
  • Figure 2: Tentative definition of OTT services
  • Figure 3: BEREC's OTT taxonomy
  • Figure 4: Comparison of global telco and OTT service market revenues, 2010-2020
  • Figure 5: IP traffic growth
  • Figure 6: Comparison of telco and OTT characteristics for communication services
  • Figure 7: Telefónica's approach to a level playing field in data and consumer protection
  • Figure 8: Issues of level playing field going beyond the traditional scope
  • Figure 9: Usual view of debates between telcos and OTTs
  • Figure 10: Real view of interactions between telcos and OTTs
  • Figure 11: The five parts of the Telco vs OTT equation
  • Figure 12: OTT as intermediate between ‘users' and ‘others'
  • Figure 13: Partnerships between OTTs and telcos
  • Figure 14: Telco OTT initiatives in communications
  • Figure 15: Telco as intermediary between ‘users' and large OTTs
  • Figure 16: Telco as intermediary between ‘users' and ‘others'
  • Figure 17: Operating profile of a telco
  • Figure 18: Current positioning of telcos on digital products
  • Figure 19: Time spent on the Internet in 2016
  • Figure 20: Correspondence between offline and online services and applications
  • Figure 21: Two sided models for OTTs
  • Figure 22: Platform approaches of OTT
  • Figure 23: Internet value chain
  • Figure 24: The evolution to a simpler disintermediated value chain
  • Figure 25: Breakdown of worldwide OTT markets
  • Figure 26: Breakdown of worldwide paid OTT markets
  • Figure 27: Worldwide revenues of digital content in 2013
  • Figure 28: Worldwide advertising markets breakdown in 2016 and 2020
  • Figure 29: Player shares of online advertising revenue, 2015
  • Figure 30: Global OTT competitive landscape
  • Figure 31: Estimated annual per-user revenue for Internet services worldwide, 2011-2015
  • Figure 32: Top Internet players all over the board in 2015
  • Figure 33: Bundling impacts on the map services
  • Figure 34: World's biggest security breaches, October 2015 and April 2017
  • Figure 35: Frequently used online services: comparison of their use and trust levels (2015 survey)
  • Figure 36: The EU-US Privacy Shield Fact Sheet
  • Figure 37: Evolution of consent
  • Figure 38: Examples of platform markets
  • Figure 39: Multisided vs product platforms vs resellers
  • Figure 40: Examples of external effects
  • Figure 41: Single- vs. multi-homing
  • Figure 42: Gatekeeper problems
  • Figure 43: EU agreement with Amazon to phase out “most favoured nation” clauses
  • Figure 44: Different rules for ECS and ISS
  • Figure 45: Amended definition of ECS as proposed by draft ECC
  • Figure 46: Number of VTC licences issued in Spain
  • Figure 47: The “Double Irish” and “Dutch sandwich” scheme
  • Figure 48: An overview of the Luxembourg tax scandal
  • Figure 49: Number of VoD providers situated in selected European countries
  • Figure 50: Comparison of regulatory and tax pressures on VoD businesses in select European countries
  • Figure 51: The European Commission's proposal to limit tax avoidance
  • Figure 52: Key VAT facts: the scale of VAT within the EU
  • Figure 53: The Action Plan on VAT, presented by the EC
  • Figure 54: Google News Spain's homepage
  • Figure 55: Share of Fortune 500 Companies with subsidiaries in the top tax havens, 2015
  • Figure 56: The Action Plan on VAT, presented by the EC
  • Figure 57: How the current EU cross-border VAT system works vs EC's proposed Single EU VAT area
  • Figure 58: The current EU VAT rates and EC's proposed new VAT rates
  • Figure 59: EC guideline on how VAT applies to EU cross-border online sales
  • Figure 60: DT Music Free
  • Figure 61: Key issues around Net Neutrality
  • Figure 62: Evolution of transit prices
  • Figure 63: Transit vs peering volume growth by region, 2013-2020
  • Figure 64: Evolution of traffic, cost and revenues in the telecom industry
  • Figure 65: Ofcom presentation on Net neutrality (2006)
  • Figure 66: Restrictions applied within the European Union
  • Figure 67: Leaked Council ‘non-paper' (May 2015)
  • Figure 68: The end of net neutrality? Not quite...
  • Figure 69: EU net neutrality: no blocking or throttling says EC
  • Figure 70: Number of contributions to NN guidelines consultation
  • Figure 71: Degrees of traffic management
  • Figure 72: StreamOn zero rating
  • Figure 73: Regulation in the Netherlands
  • Figure 74: CRTC letter to Rogers
  • Figure 75: Administrative net neutrality timeline India
  • Figure 76: TRAI transparency obligation template
  • Figure 77: LINE Mobile “Communication Free Plan” zero rating LINE, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram

Geographic area & Players

Asia-Pacific

  • Hong Kong
  • India
  • Japan

Europe

  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • Spain
  • United Kingdom

North America

  • Canada
  • United States

Latin America

  • Brazil

Actors

  • ACM
  • AGCM
  • AGCOM
  • Airbnb
  • Akamai
  • Alibaba
  • Amazon Kindle
  • Amobee
  • ANRT
  • AOL
  • Apple
  • ARCEP
  • AT&T
  • Baidu
  • Bell Mobility
  • BEREC
  • BlaBlaCar
  • BNetzA
  • Bobsled
  • Boku
  • Booking
  • BskyB
  • BT
  • Cell C
  • Cisco
  • CNMC
  • CNMT
  • Comcast
  • CRTC
  • DataSparks
  • DBA
  • Dell
  • Deutsche Telekom
  • Didi Chuxing
  • Dropbox
  • Evernote
  • Everything Everywhere
  • Expedia
  • Facebook
  • FreeBeeData
  • FREETEL
  • GE
  • Google
  • H3G
  • Hulu
  • ITunes
  • J:COM
  • JD.com
  • Kayak
  • KDDI
  • Level 3
  • LINE
  • LoveFilm
  • Meetic
  • Microsoft
  • MTN
  • Nest
  • Netflix
  • NTT DOCOMO
  • O2
  • Ofcom
  • Orange
  • PriceMinister
  • Rakuten
  • Rogers
  • Salesforce
  • Samsung
  • SingTel
  • Skype
  • Spotify
  • Sprint
  • Starbucks
  • TalkTalk
  • Tango
  • Telecom Egypt
  • Telecom Italia
  • Telefónica
  • Telkom
  • Telstra
  • Telus
  • Tencent
  • The Priceline Group
  • Three
  • T-Mobile
  • T-Mobile USA
  • TRAI
  • Trivago
  • Twitter
  • Uber
  • Verizon
  • Viber
  • Vimpelcom
  • Virgin Media
  • Vodacom
  • Vodafone
  • Waze
  • WeChat
  • WhatsApp
  • Wikipedia
  • Xfinity
  • Yahoo!
  • YouTube

Slideshow

Introduction on OTT services

  • Introduction: OTT concepts

Level Playing Field

  • Telco concerns with OTTs
  • Introduction: Level Playing Field
  • Level Playing Field: the case of communication
  • Level Playing Field: the case of communication

OTT dynamics

  • OTT markets
  • OTT concepts and markets
  • OTT market dynamics and competition: concerns on competition and privacy

OTT regulation hot topics

  • Where is the debate heating up?
  • Taxation: Internet giants “avoiding” full payment of corporate tax
  • Taxation: overall view in selected countries
  • Privacy: users concerned, but few of them taking action
  • Privacy: overall view in selected countries
  • Privacy: GDPR in Europe
  • Platforms: Internet giants and the unfair use of their dominance
  • Platforms: overall view in selected countries
  • Net neutrality: EU vs USA
  • Net Neutrality: Europe
  • Net Neutrality: overall view in selected countries
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