市場調査レポート

世界のエネルギー貯蔵装置用ウルトラキャパシタ(据置型・工業用・産業用・民生用・交通機関用)の産業・市場の分析

Ultracapacitors for Stationary, Industrial, Consumer and Transport Energy Storage -- A Global Industry and Market Analysis

発行 Innovative Research and Products (iRAP) 商品コード 276922
出版日 ページ情報 英文 189 Pages
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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世界のエネルギー貯蔵装置用ウルトラキャパシタ(据置型・工業用・産業用・民生用・交通機関用)の産業・市場の分析 Ultracapacitors for Stationary, Industrial, Consumer and Transport Energy Storage -- A Global Industry and Market Analysis
出版日: 2013年06月03日 ページ情報: 英文 189 Pages
概要

世界のウルトラキャパシタ市場の規模は、2013年に6億2500万米ドルの規模に達し、更に2018年までに14億米ドルにまで拡大すると予想されています。また、この間の年平均(CAGR)市場成長率は17.5%と推計されています。地域別に見ると、北米が最大の市場で、日本・中国・欧州・韓国がそれに続きます。また用途別に見ると、交通機関用(主に電気自動車用)が最大のシェアを占め、その後に据置型(主に再生可能エネルギー貯蔵用)、民生用、産業用と続きます。

当レポートでは、全世界のウルトラキャパシタ市場について分析し、市場の構造や技術的特徴、市場規模・シェアの動向(過去の実績値と今後5年間の予測値)、技術開発の詳細動向、特許情報、主要企業のプロファイルなどを調査して、その結果を概略以下の構成でお届けします。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 エグゼクティブ・サマリー

第3章 産業の概要

  • 産業概要
  • ウルトラキャパシタの背景と開発
  • 種類と用途
  • 主力市場
  • 据置型エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 産業用エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 民生用エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 交通機関用エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 市場の内訳

第4章 ウルトラキャパシタの代替品としてのリチウムイオン電池

  • ウルトラキャパシタの代替製品としてのリチウム電池−−費用上・ビジネス上の課題
  • 材料費
  • コスト比較
  • リチウムイオン電池に関する課題
  • ケーススタディ:TAVRIMA CANADA INC.

第5章 市場規模・シェア

  • 市場規模・シェア
  • 据置型エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 産業用エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 民生用エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 交通機関用エネルギー貯蔵装置
  • 地域別の市場規模
  • フォームファクタ別の市場規模
  • 技術別の市場規模

第6章 ウルトラキャパシタの技術と製品

  • ウルトラキャパシタの技術と製品
  • 定義
  • ウルトラキャパシタ技術の基本的な側面
  • ウルトラキャパシタ VS. バッテリー
  • ウルトラキャパシタ VS. キャパシタ(コンデンサ)
  • ウルトラキャパシタ の利点と限界
  • 典型的な対称型EDLC(電気二重層キャパシター)の機能
  • ウルトラキャパシタ用の現在の素材
  • 新たな素材:カーボンナノチューブ・ウルトラキャパシタ
  • ウルトラキャパシタの急速な静電容量増加・電圧上昇
  • ウルトラキャパシタのサイジング(出力別・形状別)
  • ウルトラキャパシタ用セル
  • ウルトラキャパシタのシリーズ
  • モジュール
  • ウルトラキャパシタの認証と技術規格

第7章 産業構造

  • 産業構造
  • 原材料サプライヤー
  • 市場のダイナミクス
  • 競争と市場の動向
  • 事業提携
  • 企業ランキング

第8章 特許と特許分析

  • 特許と特許分析
  • 特許の一覧(全89件)

第9章 企業プロファイル

  • 企業プロファイル
  • ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • アドバンスト・キャパシタ・テクノロジーズ(ACTジャパン)
  • VINA TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD./VINATECH KOREA
  • WIMA
  • YUNASKO LTD.
  • START MATERIAL SUPPLIERS
  • ANGSTRON MATERIALS INC.
  • GRAPHENE ENERGY INC
  • XG SCIENCES
  • Y-CARBON, INC.
目次
Product Code: ET-115

Abstract

Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs or ECs), also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, as well as their sister product, asymmetrical electrochemical double-layer capacitors (AEDLCs), are already mature technologies with a growing range of applications in electric vehicles, mobile phones, energy harvesting, renewable energy and other products of the future.

Supercapacitors have properties intermediate between those of batteries and traditional capacitors, but they are being improved more rapidly than either. That includes improvement in cost, and the cost reductions result in their use to enhance batteries and even to replace batteries and capacitors in an increasing number of applications, from renewable energy to microscopic electronics. For example, today a smart mobile phone may have better sound and flash that works at ten times the distance because a supercapacitor has taken over these functions from conventional capacitors.

For many applications, the relatively high cost of ECs is currently the primary reason they are not the energy storage technology of choice. Despite their high level of performance, these capacitors are simply too expensive to compete against the other available approaches. For some applications, potential users find ECs of interest but conclude that their energy density is too low. Hence, increasing energy density and lowering cost are the primary challenges facing EC developers. This must be done without sacrificing the high cycle life and exceptional high-rate performance that sets ECs apart from batteries

Between 2009 and 2013, much research has been done on the use of graphene in electrodes to boost energy storage and increase voltage in supercapacitors. These priority research directions for supercapacitors, if followed, should lead to major performance improvements in energy storage and voltage, keeping price objectives on top priority.

Two major forces will shape market dynamics that are quite favorable for technology adoption in the supercapacitors business:

  • rapidly advancing ultracapacitor technology, which will improve price/performance ratio; and
  • quickly evolving "green energy" applications for which the ultracapacitors are becoming key enabling technology.

In a few more years, ultracapacitors are expected to become a mainstream technology, along with established electrochemical battery energy storage. The market for ultracapacitor products is growing rapidly and becoming more diverse as new applications are developed and commercialized.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This study focuses on key ultracapacitor products, the impact of new materials such as grapheme-based electrodes, carbide-derived carbon (CDC), ionic electrolytes, and new configurations such as lithium supercapacitors, nickel/carbon supercapacitors, asymetrical and hybrid supercapacitors. A major goal of the study is to provide the size and growth of the ultracapacitors markets, industry trends, company profiles, recent patents and review of new partnerships. Another goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive mult-client study of the markets in North America, Europe, Japan, China, Korea and the rest of the world (ROW) for ultracapacitors, as well as provide potential business opportunities in the future.

The objectives include thorough coverage of underlying economic issues driving the ultracapacitor business, as well as assessments of new, advanced ultracapacitors that nearly sixty companies are developing in 2013. Also covered are current legislative pressures for more safety and environmental protection, as well as users' expectations for economical ultracapacitors. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for ultracapacitors through 2018.

Ultracapacitor users in developed markets must contend with twin pressures - to innovate and, at the same time, to reduce costs. Cost continues to be one of the main factors seriously restricting further propagation of supercapacitors. While being challenged by batteries and conventional capacitors, the product is slowly finding its way in various industries. In spite of the applicability of the supercapacitor from the technical standpoint, it will be always frowned on if the subsequent cost is high. Therefore the study also looks at the cost considerations of ultracapacitors in competition with other energy storage devices.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

New applications for ultracapacitors have been proposed in recent years. The popularity of these devices is due to their long cycle life and high power density relative to batteries. Ultracapacitors exhibit, in principle, unlimited cycle life and maintenance-free operation as an alternative to batteries in power circuits. New, promising applications for ultracapacitors are battery-less, low power, harvested wireless sensor networks, as well as pulse-power sources in fuel cell and hybrid vehicle applications and power tools. The pulse-power source provides peak power during acceleration and stores regenerative energy during braking in hybrid vehicles.

The ultracapacitor business is currently undergoing a major structural shift caused by several developments in nano-structured carbon, carbon nanotubes, low-cost graphitic carbon, barium titanate ceramic electrodes, nano-graphene platelet (NGP) electrodes, and research on new asymetricals (nickel hydroxides, ruthenium oxide) and new hybrid technologies (lithium-ion supercapacitors, or LICs, nickel carbon supercapacitors, and CDC-based electrodes, that challenge the status quo. These developments are targeted toward boosting the energy density and reducing cost to create preference for the products, with or without battery, among application engineers.

As prices of ultracapacitors drop, better commercial viability and growing dissatisfaction with existing energy storage solutions are expected to steer customers toward this emerging technology. Application in combination with large batteries, in stationary renewable energy power stations such as wind and solar, "green" mobile applications such as battery-less, short-range city buses running purely on supercaps, and in hybrid electric cars in combination with batteries, are a few strong areas of growth. This will be especially true as continuous product enhancements and value-added features such as on-line gaming and Wi-Fi accessibility in consumer electronics necessarily require more power. Multi-functionality is driving change in the energy storage landscape. The consumer electronics industry has changed drastically in the past few years. Portable devices are increasingly becoming multi-functional, not only in phones, which currently work for many purposes (e.g., making calls, sending SMS, internet navigation, email, video playing), but also in cameras and other devices as well. Supercapacitors fit well into the emerging energy storage landscape.

Demand from the industrial sector is also expected to increase. Heavy-lifting cranes and heavy usage in power tools are emerging applications of supercapacitors. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) and DC power systems are looking at incorporating ultracapacitors as the primary energy storage solution to boost power reliability. Small form factor supercapacitors are increasingly preferred for battery-less, ultra-low power wireless networks.

iRAP conducted a study on ultracapacitors in 2009. Since then, many new developments have taken place in technology, industry and markets, such as more new-generation electric and hybrid vehicles, new material technologies, and many new entrants to the market. Therefore, iRAP felt a need to conduct a detailed study in order to better understand both the technology and market dynamics. The report identifies and evaluates market potential in stationary, industrial, consumer and transport segments.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

This study provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market development taking place in ultracapacitors throughout the world. This, in turn, contributes to a determination of what kind of strategic response companies may adopt in order to compete in this dynamic market.

The study provides the most complete accounting of ultracapacitor market growth in North America, Europe, Japan, China, Korea and the rest of the world. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in emerging markets for stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage. The study also covers new usage of ultracapacitors in automatic power metering, energy harvesting devices for wireless networking, and hard disc drives of notebooks. This quantification, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kinds of strategic responses suppliers may adopt in order to compete in these dynamic markets.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The present survey focuses on four major markets - stationary energy storage, industrial energy storage, consumer electronics energy storage and transport energy storage. It also covers seven distinct technologies - activated carbon, hybrid/asymmetrical, pseudocapacitors, carbon aerogels, barium titanate, carbide derived carbon (CDC) and graphene/nanostructured carbon-based electrodes.

The market data contained in this report quantify opportunities for ultracapacitors. In addition to product types, this report also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the ultracapacitor business, including corporate strategies, information technologies, and the means for providing these highly advanced product and service offerings.

The supply chain is of keen interest, including both carbon cloth and powder. The need for higher voltages per cell and automation are addressed. Lower raw materials prices are crucial to reaching price targets of $0.01 to $0.005 per farad by 2015.

This report also covers in detail the economic and technological issues regarded by many as critical to the industry's current state of change. It provides a review of the ultracapacitor industry and its structure, and of the many companies involved in providing these products. The competitive positions of the main players in the market and the strategic options they face are also discussed, along with such competitive factors as marketing, distribution and operations.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

This study addresses the global market for electric double-layer carbon (EDLC) supercapacitors, which demonstrate the unique characteristic of having extremely high capacitance (in the farad range) in low voltage cells (1.2Vdc to 2.5Vdc in large quantities).

The study looks at this fledging market, the players, the technical challenges, and technical threats; the activated carbon supply chain; and the end markets in which these devices are consumed - stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage. It further focuses on coin cells and large can supercapacitors and the rapid growth of large can designs in variable speed drives, and heavy trucks and buses.

Audiences for this study include marketing executives, business unit managers, and other decision makers in ultracapacitor companies, as well as in companies peripheral to this business.

The study will benefit existing manufacturers of capacitors who seek to expand revenues and market opportunities by moving to new technology such as ultracapacitors, which are positioned to become a preferred solution for many energy-storage and power-delivery applications. Also, this study will benefit users of ultracapacitors who deal with new power-hungry electronic products such as wireless communications devices, the increasing use of electric power in vehicles, and the growing demand for highly reliable, maintenance-free backup power. These demands are creating significant markets for new and improved energy-storage and power-delivery solutions. For example, sizing the primary power source to meet transient peak-power requirements, rather than average- power requirements, is costly and inefficient. Primary energy sources can be designed to be smaller, lighter and less costly if they are coupled with specialized power components, such as ultracapacitors, that can deliver or absorb brief bursts of high power on demand for periods of time ranging from fractions of a second to several minutes.

REPORT SUMMARY

Ultracapacitors, once a technological novelty, are now in mainstream and are showing significant sales volumes. The ultracapacitor industry is complex and fast-moving, with large variations in technology adopted, material composition and configuration. Around the world, consumers are demanding high power density as well as extremely long cycle life (although ultracapacitor energy density is small compared with that of batteries). Focusing on different market segments, manufacturers increasingly are adopting a truly global view of the market, attempting to achieve growth through company mergers and acquisitions and by implementing global strategies.

The ultracapacitor market is an attractive market characterized by very high production volumes of units that must be both extremely reliable and low in cost. At hundreds of millions of dollars, the market is still growing. This growth continues to be driven by increasing demands for these devices as energy storage in combination with battery in stationary renewable sources of energy like wind and solar power stations, transport vehicles such as green buses, heavy cranes, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, industrial systems, power tools and consumer electronics. Existing products will continue to find new applications, and new products will emerge to improve functionality.

There are four major markets where ultracapacitors are needed, each having its own specific requirements. These are stationary, industrial, consumer and transport energy storage power management. A wide range of ultracapacitor applications, such as uninterruptible power supplies, clean energy, backup power and automobiles, will see market growth.

  • The stationary energy storage market needs ultracapacitors for short duration applications of energy storage, which are characterized by the need for high power for short periods of time. These include power quality ride-through applications, power stabilization, adjustable speed drive support, temporary support of distributed resources during load steps, voltage flicker mitigation and many other applications. Most of these will involve anywhere from only a few seconds of energy storage up to 20 minutes or so. Other applications are: backup power (uninterruptible power supply) and power management systems used in distributed generation and wind and solar energy generating stations.
  • The industrial market needs ultracapacitors for power quality, handling power surges and short-term power loss. Since electricity is transmitted at 60Hz or 120Hz, this market also needs high-frequency devices, based on aqueous electrodes, on a much larger scale.
  • The consumer electronics and computer market needs small high-frequency devices in order to reduce battery size.
  • Based on potential volumes, the transportation industry represents the largest market opportunity for ultracapacitors. The transport energy storage market wants to use ultracapacitors as load-leveling devices with batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles. Transportation applications include braking energy recuperation and torque augmentation systems for hybrid-electric buses, trucks and autos and electric rail vehicles, vehicle power network smoothing and stabilization, engine starting systems for internal combustion vehicles, and burst power for idle stop-start systems.

Emerging applications, including increasing use of electric power in vehicles, wireless communication systems and growing demand for highly reliable, maintenance-free, backup power for telecommunication information technology and industrial installations are creating significant opportunities for more efficient and reliable energy storage and power delivery products.

The ultracapacitor business is currently undergoing a major structural shift caused by several developments in nanostructured carbon, carbon nanotubes, low-cost graphitic carbon, barium titanate ceramic electrodes and nano-graphene platelets (NGP) electrodes. Research on new asymmetrical ultracapacitors (nickel hydroxides, ruthenium oxide) and new hybrid technologies - lithium-ion supercapacitors (LIC) and nickel carbon supercapacitors - challenges the status quo. The high capacitance associated with graphene appears to be an edge effect, and it is predicted that by 2018, cost-effective manufacturing of grapheme-based electrodes will be a reality.

The report has estimated the markets according to applications, form factors and regions. In terms of the industry structure, there are more than sixty companies involved in the development and manufacturing of ultracapacitors, and there is a surprising range of products available. The study also identified a dozen electrode material/finished electrode suppliers.

While in 2013, industrial applications such as large uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), OEM equipment, cranes, electric forklifts, power tools, AGVs, clean tech for commercial and other industrial uses constitute the largest application, by 2018 hybridized transportation energy storage application (autos, trains, transit vehicles, buses, trucks), power device net, HEVs and Evs will have the largest share.

In terms of size (form factor), large-sized rectangular or cylindrical jelly-rolled, more than ten farad up to 5000 farad, sold as single cells or in modules or in banks with varying voltage and farad requirements will have the largest share and will continue to hold on the share during the forecast period.

Major findings of this report are:

In 2013, the global market is estimated to reach US$625 million, and it is expected to grow to over US$1.4 billion by 2018. The compound annual average growth rate (CAGR) is estimated to be 17.5% from 2013 to 2018.

North American will continue to maintain its share in the next five years. North American market will be followed by Japan, China, Europe and Korea. China and Korea will see larger growth rates of above 20% annually.

From 2013 to 2018, transportation applications, which are mostly automotive applications, will show the highest growth rate, followed by stationary energy including sources storage for renewable energy power, consumer electronics and industrial applications.

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION XX - XXVI

  • INTRODUCTION XX
  • STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES xxi
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY xxi
  • CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY xxii
  • SCOPE AND FORMAT xxiii
  • METHODOLOGY xxiii
  • INFORMATION SOURCES xxiv
  • WHOM THE STUDY CATERS TO xxv
  • AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS xxvi

2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY XXVII - XXXII

  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xxviii
  • SUMMARY TABLE - GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 XXXI
  • SUMMARY FIGURE - ILLUSTRATION OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 XXXII

3. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 1 - 46

  • INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 1
  • BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF ULTRACAPACITORS 4
  • TYPES AND APPLICATIONS 7
  • TABLE 1 - BROAD APPLICATION AREAS AND POSSIBLE ENERGY/POWER FUNCTIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS 10
  • TABLE 2 - BROAD APPLICATION AREAS AND POPULARLY USED ULTRACAPACITORS 11
  • MARKET DOMAINS 12
  • TABLE 3 - APPLICATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS BY MARKET DOMAIN 12
  • STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE 13
  • Stationary Substation Battery Replacement 13
  • Substation Battery Replacement for Long Duration Outages 15
  • Mitigating Electric Service Voltage Fluctuations Produced by Pulsing Customer Loads 16
  • Distributed Generation 16
  • Wind Energy Storage 17
  • Solar Power 17
  • INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE 18
  • Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) 18
  • OEM Equipment 19
  • OEM Equipment Retrofits 19
  • Telecommunication 19
  • Electric Fork Trucks 20
  • TABLE 4 - BATTERY COST V/S ULTRACAPACITOR COST COMPARISON IN CLASS-1 LIFT TRUCKS 21
  • Rubber-Tire Gantry Cranes (RTGCs) 21
  • FIGURE 1 - TYPICAL LOAD CYCLE OF RUBBER-TIRED
  • GANTRY CRANE 22
  • Power Tools 23
  • CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ENERGY STORAGE 23
  • Computer Solid State Drives (SSDs) 25
  • Mobile Phone Camera Flash and Power Management 26
  • Automotive Meter Reading 27
  • Other Consumer Applications 28
  • Toys 28
  • Home Appliances (Small UPS) 28
  • Office Equipment 29
  • Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networking (WSN) 29
  • FIGURE 2 -APPLICATION OF ULTRACAPACITORS IN
  • VIBRATIONAL ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSORS NETWORK MODULE 31
  • TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 32
  • Distributed Power 32
  • Power Actuators 33
  • MARKET SEGMENTS 34
  • Storage of Regenerated Braking Energy in HEVs, PHEVs, EVs 34
  • Auto Engine Cranking Engines 69
  • Power Backup for Electromechanical Brakes of Hybrid Passenger Cars: 36
  • Capture of Regenerated Braking Energy in Heavy Duty Trucks, Transit Buses and Delivery Vans: 37
  • Capture of Regenerated Braking Energy in Electric Trains/Trams 38
  • Boardnet Stabilization, 42V Distributed Pwer Modules in High
  • End Cars 72
  • Integrated Starting Alternators 74
  • Integration With Fuel Cells 74
  • Integration with Battery-Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Combination: 41
  • FIGURE 3 -FUNCTIONING OF AN ULTRACAPACITOR USED WITH A BATTERY 42
  • FIGURE 4 - FUNCTIONING OF AN ULTRACAPACITOR, BATTERY AND BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER IN REGENERATING BRAKING ENERGY IN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS 43
  • TABLE 5 - TARGET PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS - DOE GUIDELINES 45
  • Hybrid Battery/Ultracap Combination with Electric Steering, Electromechanical Braking, and LED Front Lighting: 45
  • FIGURE 5 - ILLUSTRATION OF ULTRACAPACITORS USED IN A 42V SYSTEM TO MEET SPECIFICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS 46

4. LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ULTRACAPACITORS 47 - 52

  • LITHIUM BATTERIES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ULTRACAPACITORS - COST AND BUSINESS ISSUES 47
  • Cost Issues 47
  • COST OF MATERIALS 48
  • TABLE 6 - TYPICAL PRICE STRUCTURE OF LARGE-FORMAT ULTRACAPACITORS AND UNIT CELL 49
  • COST COMPARISON 50
  • CHALLENGE FROM LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES 51
  • TABLE 7-COMPARISON OF ULTRACAPACITORS AND LI-ION BATTERIES 51
  • CASE STUDY -TAVRIMA CANADA INC. 52

5. MARKET SIZE AND SHARE 53 - 72

  • MARKET SIZE AND SHARE 53
  • TABLE 8 SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 56
  • FIGURE 6- SUMMARY OF GLOBAL MARKET FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 57
  • STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE 58
  • TABLE 9 -GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, BY CATEGORY OF STATIONARY APPLICATIONS 58
  • INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE 59
  • TABLE 10 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY CATEGORY OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS 60
  • CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ENERGY STORAGE 60
  • TABLE 11 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION IN CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 61
  • TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 61
  • TABLE 12 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY APPLICATION IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 62
  • KEY POINTS IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 63
  • AREAS FOR POTENTIAL GROWTH IN TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 63
  • Hybrid Transit Buses, Postal Vans, Urban Shuttles Delivery Vans and Heavy Hybrid Vehicles 63
  • Hybrid cars 65
  • Integrated Starting Alternators 65
  • MARKET SIZE BY REGION 65
  • TABLE 13 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY REGION, 2013 AND 2018 66
  • FIGURE 7 - REGIONAL PERCENTAGES OF MARKET SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS, 2013 AND 2018 67
  • MARKET SIZE BY ULTRACAPACITOR FORM FACTOR 67
  • TABLE 14 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY SIZE, 2013 AND 2018 68
  • FIGURE 8 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY SIZE, 2013 AND 2018 69
  • MARKET SIZE BY TECHNOLOGY 70
  • TABLE 15 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 AND 2018 71
  • FIGURE 9 - GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 AND 2018 72

6. ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS 73 - 105

  • ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS 73
  • DEFINITIONS 73
  • BASIC ASPECTS OF ULTRACAPACITOR TECHNOLOGY 76
  • ULTRACAPACITORS VS. BATTERIES 77
  • Ultracapacitors vs. Lithium-Ion Batteries 79
  • ULTRACAPACITORS VS. CAPACITORS 80
  • TABLE 16 - COMPARISON OF ULTRACAPACITOR AND BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS 81
  • FIGURE 10 - RAGONE PLOTS FOR AN ARRAY OF ENERGY STORAGE AND ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES 81
  • ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF ULTRACAPACITORS 82
  • WORKING OF A TYPICAL SYMMETRIC EDLC (PURE EDLC USING AQUEOUS ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR) 82
  • CURRENT MATERIALS FOR ULTRACAPACITORS 83
  • TABLE 17 - CURRENT MATERIALS USED IN ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS (EDLCS) BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 84
  • EMERGING MATERIALS: CARBON NANOTUBE ULTRACAPACITORS 90
  • FIGURE 11- EMERGING MATERIALS STRATEGIES AIMED
  • AT INCREASING CAPACITANCE AND VOLTAGE IN
  • ULTRACAPACITORS 91
  • TABLE 18 - EMERGING MATERIALS USED IN EDLCS 92
  • SIZING OF ULTRACAPACITORS 95
  • FIGURE 12 - INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION OF CYLINDRICAL ULTRACAPACITOR SINGLE CELLS 96
  • FIGURE 13 - ELECTRODE, SEPARATOR AND ELECTROLYTE INTERACTION IN A CYLINDRICAL ULTRACAPACITOR 97
  • SIZING ACCORDING TO POWER 97
  • Low Voltage (Less than 10V) 97
  • FIGURE 14 - DIFFERENT FORM FACTORS OF COMMERCIAL ULTRACAPACITORS 98
  • High Voltage (More than 10V) 98
  • Very Low Voltage2.7 volt 99
  • SIZING ACCORDING TO SHAPES 99
  • Compact Cells 99
  • TABLE 19 - TYPICAL SIZES OF COMPACT
  • ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS 99
  • Coin Type 100
  • TABLE 20 - TYPICAL SIZES OF COIN ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS 100
  • Large-Size Module 100
  • ULTRACAPACITORS IN SERIES 100
  • FIGURE 15 - ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS IN SERIES TO FORM
  • A MODULE 101
  • Modular Configurations 102
  • TABLE 21 - TYPICAL SIZES OF LARGE-SIZE MODULES OF ULTRACAPACITOR CELLS 103
  • QUALIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR ULTRACAPACITORS 104

7. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 106 - 119

  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 106
  • TABLE 22 - ULTRACAPACITOR PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE, 2013 108
  • TABLE 23 - ULTRACAPACITORS-RELATED PARTS SUPPLIERS, MANUFACTURERS, SYSTEM INTEGRATORS PRODUCT LINE REFERENCE 109
  • RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS 111
  • MARKET DYNAMICS 112
  • MARKET DYNAMICS IN THE TRANSPORT SEGMENT 113
  • Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) 113
  • Suppliers 113
  • Small medium enterprises 114
  • COMPETITION AND MARKET TRENDS 115
  • ALLIANCES 116
  • TABLE 24 - ACQUISITIONS AND MERGERS OF COMPANIES MANUFACTURING ULTRACAPACITORS, 2009 TO JANUARY 2013 117
  • RANKING OF MARKET PLAYERS 119
  • TABLE 25 TOP MANUFACTURERS OF ULTRACAPACITORS FOR TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE IN 2013 119

8. PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS 120 - 157

  • PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS 120
  • LIST OF PATENTS 120
  • ELECTRODE FOR ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE WITH MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES 120
  • METHOD OF PROCESSING HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS 120
  • ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 121
  • ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE HAVING A COLLECTOR PLATE 121
  • METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE AND INORGANIC PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES 122
  • SPACER-MODIFIED NANO GRAPHENE ELECTRODES FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 122
  • METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED INORGANIC
  • PLATELETS 123
  • PRODUCTION OF CHEMICALLY FUNCTIONALIZED NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS 123
  • MASS PRODUCTION OF PRISTINE NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS 123
  • PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISPERSIBLE AND CONDUCTIVE NANO GRAPHENE PLATELETS FROM NON-OXIDIZED GRAPHITIC MATERIALS 124
  • LOW-TEMPERATURE METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES 124
  • PROCESS FOR PRODUCING DISPERSIBLE NANO GRAPHENE PLATELETS FROM OXIDIZED GRAPHITE 125
  • METHOD OF CHARGING DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS 125
  • MULTI ELECTRODE SERIES CONNECTED ARRANGEMENT SUPERCAPACITOR 126
  • CONDUCTIVE ELECTRODE USING CONDUCTING METAL OXIDE FILM WITH NETWORK STRUCTURE OF NANOGRAINS AND NANOPARTICLES, PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF AND SUPERCAPACITOR USING THE SAME 126
  • DRY PARTICLE BASED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE PRODUCT 126
  • METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN ELECTRODE OR CAPACITOR PRODUCT 127
  • ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES WITH SEPARATOR BETWEEN ELECTRODES AND METHODS FOR FABRICATING THE DEVICES 127
  • METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN ELECTRODE PRODUCT 128
  • CAPACITOR START-UP APPARATUS AND METHOD WITH FAIL-SAFE SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION 128
  • GRAPHITE-CARBON COMPOSITE ELECTRODE FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 128
  • METHOD OF PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE AND INORGANIC PLATELETS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES 129
  • PROCESS FOR PRODUCING NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELET NANOCOMPOSITE ELECTRODES FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 129
  • ELECTRODE FOR USE WITH DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS HAVING HIGH SPECIFIC PARAMETERS 130
  • POWER SUPPLY THAT USES A SUPERCAPACITIVE DEVICE 130
  • ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 131
  • THERMAL INTERCONNECTS FOR COUPLING ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 131
  • METHOD FOR FABRICATING SELF-ALIGNING ELECTRODE 131
  • MULTI ELECTRODE SERIES CONNECTED ARRANGEMENT SUPERCAPACITOR 132
  • METHOD OF PRODUCING EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE, FLEXIBLE GRAPHITE, AND NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS 132
  • ACTIVE VOLTAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 132
  • ULTRACAPACITOR ELECTRODE WITH CONTROLLED SULFUR CONTENT 133
  • METHOD OF MANUFACTURING A CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR A DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER CAPACITOR 133
  • DRY PARTICLE BASED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE PRODUCT 134
  • PARTICLE BASED ELECTRODES AND METHODS OF MAKING
  • THE SAME 134
  • NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATELETS WITH A HIGH
  • LENGTH-TO-WIDTH ASPECT RATIO 134
  • TERMINAL CONNECTOR 135
  • MASS PRODUCTION OF NANO-SCALED PLATELETS AND
  • PRODUCTS 135
  • CONTINIOUS PRODUCTION OF EXFOLIATED GRAPHITE COMPOSITE COMPOSITIONS AND FLOW FIELD PLATES 135
  • NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE-REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME 136
  • NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTRODES 136
  • METHOD OF MAKING AND ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE FOR AN ULTRACAPACITOR ELECTRODE APPARATUS 137
  • HIGHLY CONDUCTIVE NANO-SCALED GRAPHENE PLATE NANOCOMPOSITES 137
  • ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 138
  • ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE HAVING A SEPARATOR BLOCKING PARASITIC IONS 138
  • THERMAL INTERCONNECTION FOR CAPACITOR SYSTEMS 138
  • SELF ALIGNING ELECTRODE 139
  • COUPLING OF CELL TO HOUSING 139
  • WET ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR 139
  • POWER SUPPLY 140
  • ELECTRODE FOR ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR (EDLC), MANUFACTURING METHOD, EDKLC AND
  • CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVE 140
  • CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR A DOUBLE ELECTRIC LAYER
  • CAPACITOR 141
  • ELECTRODE AND CURRENT COLLECTOR FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITOR 141
  • WET ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS 142
  • METHOD OF MAKING, APPARATUS, AND ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURING FOR AN ELECTRODE TERMINATION CONTACT INTERFACE 142
  • ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR, CONTROL METHOD THEREOF, AND ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM USING THE SAME 142
  • PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ELECTRODE OF ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR 143
  • METHOD OF MAKING A MULTI-ELECTRODE DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR HAVING HERMETIC ELECTROLYTE SEAL 143
  • ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR UTILIZING A MULTI-LAYER ELECTRODE STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME 143
  • ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR AND ELECTROLYTIC SOLUTION THEREFOR 144
  • ULTRACAPACITOR MODULE ASSEMBLY DESIGN 144
  • ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM 144
  • DENSIFICATION OF COMPRESSIBLE LAYERS DURING ELECTRODE LAMINATION 145
  • CHARGE STORAGE DEVICE 145
  • COMPOSITION FOR POLYELECTROLYTES, POLYELECTROLYTES, EDLC AND NONAQUEOUS ELECTROLYTE SECONDARY CELLS 146
  • ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR 146
  • ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR 147
  • PRETREATED POROUS ELECTRODE 147
  • ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITOR 148
  • ELECTROLYTE FOR AN ENERGY STORAGE DEVICE 148
  • PATENT ANALYSIS 148
  • TABLE 26 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED TO COMPANIES IN THE ULTRACAPACITOR (EDLC) DESIGN CATEGORY FROM 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012 150
  • FIGURE 16 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED TO TOP COMPANIES IN THE ULTRACAPACITOR (EDLC) DESIGN CATEGORY FROM 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012 151
  • INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY
  • IN ULTRACAPACITORS 151
  • TABLE 27 - NUMBER OF US PATENTS GRANTED FOR ULTRACAPACITORS BY ASSIGNED COUNTRY/REGION FROM JANUARY 2008 THROUGH DECEMBER 2012 152
  • METHOD FOR PRODUCING ELECTRODE PLATE GROUP UNIT FOR LITHIUM-ION CAPACITOR, AND LITHIUM-ION CAPACITOR 153
  • CONDUCTIVE GRAPHENE POLYMER BINDER FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL ELECTRODES 153
  • MASS PRODUCTION OF PRISTINE NANO GRAPHENE MATERIALS 153
  • MESOPOROUS METAL OXIDE GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITE 154
  • GRAPHENE/RU NANO-COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR SUPERCAPACITOR AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF 154
  • ULTRACAPACITORS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING 155
  • METHOD FOR PREPARING GRAPHENE-BASED FLEXIBLE SUPER CAPACITOR AND ELECTRODE MATERIAL THEREOF 155
  • ELECTRODE MATERIAL AND CAPACITOR 156
  • ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITOR 156
  • GRAPHENE/RU NANO-COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR SUPERCAPACITOR AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF 156

9. COMPANY PROFILES 158 - 189

  • COMPANY PROFILES 158
  • ADA TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 158
  • ADVANCED CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (ACT JAPAN) 158
  • VINA TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD./VINATECH KOREA 183
  • WIMA 184
  • YUNASKO LTD. 184
  • START MATERIAL SUPPLIERS 185
  • ANGSTRON MATERIALS INC. 185
  • GRAPHENE ENERGY INC 185
  • XG SCIENCES 188
  • Y-CARBON, INC. 189
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