C-RAN & LTE Advanced:「本当の4G」とその先への道

C-RAN & LTE Advanced: The Road to "True 4G" & Beyond

発行 Heavy Reading 商品コード 288660
出版日 ページ情報 英文 29 Pages
納期: 即日から翌営業日
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=102.18円で換算しております。
Back to Top
C-RAN & LTE Advanced:「本当の4G」とその先への道 C-RAN & LTE Advanced: The Road to "True 4G" & Beyond
出版日: 2013年10月28日 ページ情報: 英文 29 Pages

C-RANは次世代無線アクセスネットワーク(RAN)の重要なプラットフォームとして浮上しています。C-RANのコンセプトは、高度化RAN(Centralized RAN )およびクラウドRAN(Cloud RAN)の双方を意味し、多くの分散型無線アクセスノードを供給する集中化ベースバンドプロセッシングプールの考えに基づいています。


第1章 イントロダクション&主な調査結果

第2章 クラウドRAN:目的は?

  • C-RANの目的
  • ネットワーク緻密化およびHetNet
  • クラウドRANのコンセプト
  • 現状

第3章 C-RANにおける主要企業

  • マーケットメーカー
  • オペレーターの展望
  • ベンダーの展望

第4章 クラウドRANのアーキテクチャー

  • リモートラジオヘッド(RRH)からクラウドRANまで
  • C-RAN:高度化RAN?クラウドRAN?
  • ソフトウェア定義無線
  • 利用例&規模
  • ピーク対平均利用
  • フロントホール&デジタルRFオーバーファイバー
  • レイヤー1プロセッシング&モバイルコントロールプレーン

第5章 モバイルフロントホール

  • モバイルフロントホール:新しい用語
  • モバイルフロントホールの要件&限界
  • 光トランスポートネットワーク上のフロントホール
  • CPRIの発展
  • フロントホールオプティマイザー





C-RAN is an emerging as an important platform for next-generation radio access networks (RANs). Standing for both centralized RAN and cloud RAN, the C-RAN concept is based around the idea of a centralized baseband processing pool serving n number of distributed radio access nodes.

Centralized baseband processing is primarily useful because it enables better (faster, more granular) coordination of radio resources across distributed access nodes than a classic macro cell architecture. In systems such as LTE and LTE Advanced (LTE-A), where coordinated processing is essential to performance improvements, the capability to manage this centrally rather than via an external X2 interface between base stations could generate important performance gains.

Arguably, the hyper-densification of RAN will, in time, require some form centralized, collaborative processing to reduce and manage inter-cell interference between neighboring cells and across access layers in heterogeneous networks. Looking further ahead toward 5G and to the concept of integrated management of cloud and radio resources, the C-RAN model could become more attractive still.

There are also several secondary benefits to C-RAN. Most notable, from an operator perspective, is reduced opex. With a simpler cell site installation there may be an opportunity to reduce lease costs at the site, for example. And with a centralized server pool there is potential to reduce maintenance and upgrade costs. These are very much second-order benefits, however, and in many markets are not sufficiently useful to justify the complexity of C-RAN. Performance is king.

A major outstanding question is the extent to which baseband processing can be virtualized and ported to general-purpose CPUs - typically x86-based Intel processors, and perhaps also ARM processors in future. How this is achieved, and the series of interim steps toward this objective, is at the heart of "cloud" part of the C-RAN discussion. Parts of the baseband processing can be ported to general-purpose CPUs today, but Layer 1 functions require DSPs, and will continue to do so for some time.

C-RAN & LTE Advanced: The Road to "True 4G" & Beyond analyzes the C-RAN opportunity and the challenges the industry must overcome for the technology to emerge as a mainstream next-generation radio access platform.

The report also identifies 21 C-RAN technology leaders** that are leading the market and explores operator and vendor perspectives on C-RAN.

The C-RAN concept is shown in the excerpt below. The baseband pool is centralized at a location with required backhaul, security, operational staff and so on. The RRUs are distributed to wherever capacity is needed and connected back to the baseband pool by fiber optics - either over dark fiber or using a wavelength service. Centralized baseband processing, in theory, can help with advanced interference management where signal from RRUs overlaps.

Excerpt 1: Cloud RAN Concept

Source: China Mobile

C-RAN is being driven by Asian operators, and by China Mobile in particular. The operator is acutely aware of the ambitious nature of its C-RAN project and of the benefits of building a support ecosystem around the concept. The excerpt below shows a hierarchy (of sorts) of the companies driving C-RAN development, with those having the most influence and committing the most R&D resources at the top.

Excerpt 2: Key Players in C-RAN Development

Source: Heavy Reading

Report Scope & Structure

C-RAN & LTE Advanced: The Road to "True 4G" & Beyond is structured as follows:

Section I is an introduction to the report, with complete report key findings.

Section II examines the objectives of C-RAN, places C-RAN into a network technology context and discusses how it interacts with the three levers that operators have available to increase mobile network capacity: new spectrum, technology efficiency and spatial re-use. This section introduces the C-RAN concept and assesses the state of play in the industry today.

Section III looks at the key industry players, identifying the companies leading the market and providing analysis of operator and vendor perspectives on C-RAN.

Section IV investigates the C-RAN architecture and potential enhancements to it, discusses the differences and similarities between "centralized RAN" and "cloud RAN," and explores some emerging C-RAN use cases and the related scaling requirements.

Section V focuses on innovation in mobile fronthaul and discusses why it is such an important enabler for C-RAN. It covers how WDM optical networking can potentially replace point-to-point fiber and looks at the outlook for active network technologies to play role to connect baseband pools to distributed radio access nodes.

C-RAN & LTE Advanced: The Road to "True 4G" & Beyond is published in PDF format.

Table of Contents



  • 1.1. Key Findings
  • 1.2. Report Scope & Structure


  • 2.1. The Objectives of C-RAN
  • 2.2. Network Densification & HetNets
  • 2.3. Cloud RAN Concept
  • 2.4. State of Play Today


  • 3.1. Market Makers
  • 3.2. Operator Perspectives
  • 3.3. Vendor Perspectives


  • 4.1. From Remote Radio Heads to Cloud RAN
  • 4.2. C-RAN: Centralized RAN? Cloud RAN?
  • 4.3. Software-Defined Radio
  • 4.4. Use Cases & Scale
  • 4.5. Peak-to-Average Usage
  • 4.6. Fronthaul & Digital RF Over Fiber
  • 4.7. Layer 1 Processing & the Mobile Control Plane


  • 5.1. Mobile Fronthaul: A New Term
  • 5.2. Mobile Fronthaul Requirements & Limitations
  • 5.3. Fronthaul Over Optical Transport Networks
  • 5.4. Evolving CPRI
  • 5.5. Fronthaul Optimizer






  • Figure 2.1: 1,000-Fold Increase in Capacity by 2022
  • Figure 2.2: Hyper-Dense Network Deployment
  • Figure 2.3: Cloud RAN Concept


  • Figure 3.1: Key Players in C-RAN Development
  • Figure 3.2: C-RAN Operator Positioning


  • Figure 4.1: From Remote Radio Head to C-RAN
  • Figure 4.2: From Remote Radio Head to C-RAN
  • Figure 4.3: Centralized RAN
  • Figure 4.4: Cloud RAN
  • Figure 4.5: C-RAN at Different Scales
  • Figure 4.6: Large-Scale C-RAN for Macro Network Coverage
  • Figure 4.7: C-RAN Super Cell
  • Figure 4.8: Comparison of RAN Architectures - the "Add-On Cell"
  • Figure 4.9: Changing Demand Profiles With Time & Location


  • Figure 5.1: How Familiar Are You With the Term "Fronthaul" for Cloud RAN?
  • Figure 5.2: When Will a Cost-Effective Fronthaul Solution for Cloud RAN Be Viable?
  • Figure 5.3: Extending CPRI to Small Cells
  • Figure 5.4: CPRI Transmission Requirements
  • Figure 5.5: Passive Mobile Frontal Using CWDM
  • Figure 5.6: Active Mobile Frontal Using WDM
  • Figure 5.7: Compressed CPRI Over 1 Gbit/s Microwave
  • Figure 5.8: Fronthaul Optimizer


  • Alcatel-Lucent
  • ARM Ltd.
  • AT&T Inc.
  • Ceragon Networks Ltd.
  • China Mobile Ltd.
  • China Telecommunications Corp.
  • Deutsche Telekom AG
  • Ericsson AB
  • Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.
  • Intel Corp.
  • KT Corp.
  • Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN), a subsidiary of Nokia Corp.
  • NTT Docomo Inc.
  • Orange SA
  • Qualcomm Inc.
  • Samsung Group
  • SK Telecom Co. Ltd.
  • Transmode Systems AB
  • Verizon Wireless, a subsidiary of Verizon
  • Vodafone Group plc
  • ZTE Corp.

* All charts and figures in this report are original to Heavy Reading, unless otherwise noted.

Back to Top