表紙:マイクロカーの世界市場
市場調査レポート
商品コード
275358

マイクロカーの世界市場

Microcars

出版日: | 発行: Global Industry Analysts, Inc. | ページ情報: 英文 153 Pages | 納期: 即日から翌営業日

価格
価格表記: USDを日本円(税抜)に換算
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=115.72円

ご注意:Single user licenseはDRM(デジタル著作権管理システム)付PDFとなります。
PDFの閲覧には Adobe Digital Editions (無償)のインストールが必要となります。
認証されたPC上のみでの閲覧と、1回のプリントアウトが可能となっております。

マイクロカーの世界市場
出版日: 2022年01月01日
発行: Global Industry Analysts, Inc.
ページ情報: 英文 153 Pages
納期: 即日から翌営業日
担当者のコメント
本レポートは最新情報反映のため適宜更新し、内容構成変更を行う場合があります。ご検討の際はお問い合わせください。
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 目次
概要

当レポートでは、マイクロカー(軽自動車:日本での定義とはやや異なる車両区分)の世界市場に注目し、2016-2024年の期間を対象に販売台数の推移を米国、日本、欧州、その他の地域別に予測するほか、過去5年にわたる市場動態データや大小参入企業31社のプロフィールなど現在の競合環境に関する調査・分析情報をまとめています。

第1章 イントロダクション、調査方法、製品の定義

  • 調査の信頼性とレポートの限界
  • 免責事項
  • データの解釈とレポート作成レベル
    • 定量技法と分析
  • 製品の定義と調査範囲

第2章 エグゼクティブサマリー

  • 産業概要および分析
    • マイクロカー - 歩調を上げて世界の自動車事情を変革へ
    • 目前に迫る過疎化問題
    • 革新的技術の出現で需要を増す持続可能な車両
    • 企業のマイクロカー活用ニーズ
    • 消費者意識 - マイクロカー利用を妨げる大きな障害
    • 少量生産と高コストに起因する高価格
    • 交通への意識変化がマイクロカーの吉兆に
    • 主要成長推進要因を寸見する
    • 高額な燃料価格
    • 行政の取り組み
    • 先進技術プラグイン
    • 自動車メーカーの取り組み
    • 主な市場抑制要因
    • 安全機能
    • 都市・辺境環境
    • 展望
  • 世界の自動車産業 - 検証
    • はじめに
    • 成長軌道にある世界の自動車生産量
    • 機会指標
    • 自動車産業 - 地域的色合いを含む世界市場
    • 自動車産業を支える新興市場
    • アジア太平洋州で拡大する自動車生産
    • 重要な役割を担う中国とインド
    • 中国市場の成長は沈静化も健全成長率を維持
    • インド - 小型車の有望市場
  • 競合環境
    • マイクロカー - ニッチセグメント
    • マイクロカーの主要モデルを寸見する
  • 動向と課題
    • 電動化に向かうマイクロカー
    • 小型・低速電気自動車に向かう潮流の広がり
    • 注目度を増す燃費・排ガス基準
    • 短期的には競争に留まるハイブリッド車
    • 行政府優遇措置がマイクロ電気自動車セグメントの追い風に
    • 設計変更に影響する機動性トレンドの変化
    • 消費者間で高い優先度に留まる安全性
    • きびしいエコ基準と安全規定から高価格化するマイクロカー
    • インドネシアで導入に弾みを増すE-Trike(電動三輪車)
    • イスラエルで攻勢に出るクワドリシクル(四輪自転車)型マイクロカー
    • 安定需要に支えられる小型エンジン搭載のコンパクトカー
    • コンバージェンス - 際立つ特徴
    • ドライビング体感の変革に向けて進化する技術
    • 車内インターネット接続機能 - 次のメガトレンド
    • 自動車バリューチェーンにおける顕著な変化
  • 製品概要
    • 定義
    • 歴史と進化
    • マイクロカーの微笑ましい利点
  • 製品発売・技術革新
  • 最新産業動向
  • 主要参入企業
  • 世界市場見通し

第3章 市場

  • 米国
  • 日本
  • 欧州
  • その他の地域
目次
Product Code: MCP-7800

Abstract:

Global Microcars Market to Reach US$50.3 Billion by the Year 2026

Microcars are compact fuel-efficient automobiles that are smaller in size than standard cars. Global automotive industry has undergone significant transformation in the past few decades in terms of vehicle design, features, production costs and affordability. The resultant upsurge in vehicle population and the rise in fuel prices have compelled governments to impose strict regulations and manufacturers to seek alternative options which led to the efforts to commercialize electric vehicles and other alternatives, though they have been in use since long. As the number of cost conscious customers rises and vehicular traffic becomes more congested, automotive manufacturers are rethinking business plans focused on smaller and efficient vehicles to address some of these issues. Amidst the scenario, the automotive industry globally has been looking towards microcars, which are beneficial in terms of higher fuel economy and lower carbon footprints. Rapid industrialization, increasing urbanization and expansion of construction industry would also promote market growth, especially for microcars capable of transporting cargo, particularly in countries like Japan, China and the US. Gradually reducing space for parking is also contributing to market growth. The pandemic also led to increased interest among public in owning cars instead of using public transport.

Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Microcars estimated at US$44.5 Billion in the year 2020, is projected to reach a revised size of US$50.3 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 2.1% over the analysis period. Electric, one of the segments analyzed in the report, is projected to grow at a 2.6% CAGR to reach US$22.6 Billion by the end of the analysis period. After a thorough analysis of the business implications of the pandemic and its induced economic crisis, growth in the Hybrid segment is readjusted to a revised 1.8% CAGR for the next 7-year period. Hybrid cars would continue to witness popularity in the next few years compared to electrified cars owing to their high fuel efficiency and longer driving range. Though adoption of pure-battery operated electric vehicles is expected to increase in the long run, but for immediate future, hybrid cars are likely to fare better than electric vehicles. As a result, manufacturers are rolling out a combination of electric motor and conventional combustion engine to develop a micro hybrid car. Along with full-electric and hybrid cars of standard size, electric microcars can be seen making their presence felt across the global markets owing to the growing interest of commuters, especially those in Europe and East Asia, in micro mobility. Subsidies and tax incentives offered by government bodies for ramping up production of EVs is also a major contributing factor for growth of the market for microcars, especially electric microcars.

The U.S. Market is Estimated at $3.8 Billion in 2021, While China is Forecast to Reach $5.6 Billion by 2026

The Microcars market in the U.S. is estimated at US$3.8 Billion in the year 2021. The country currently accounts for a 8.5% share in the global market. China, the world`s second largest economy, is forecast to reach an estimated market size of US$5.6 Billion in the year 2026 trailing a CAGR of 2.8% through the analysis period. Among the other noteworthy geographic markets are Japan and Canada, each forecast to grow at 1.9% and 1.6% respectively over the analysis period. Developing economies in Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Middle East will continue to be a prominent regional market for automobiles. Asia-Pacific in particular represents a major market for passenger cars. China and India in particular, have been displaying high demand for new cars, primarily due to continued industrialization, growth in GDP, rising employment levels, improving standard of living, increase in discretionary spends, and development of road infrastructure.

Petrol/Diesel Segment to Reach $1.3 Billion by 2026

In the global Petrol/Diesel segment, USA, Canada, Japan, China and Europe will drive the 1.5% CAGR estimated for this segment. These regional markets accounting for a combined market size of US$8.6 Billion in the year 2020 will reach a projected size of US$9.5 Billion by the close of the analysis period. China will remain among the fastest growing in this cluster of regional markets. Led by countries such as Australia, India, and South Korea, the market in Asia-Pacific is forecast to reach US$882.8 Million by the year 2026, while Latin America will expand at a 1.7% CAGR through the analysis period.

Select Competitors (Total 57 Featured) -

  • Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.
  • Daimler AG
  • Groupe PSA
  • Mahindra Electric Mobility Limited
  • Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
  • Piaggio & C. Spa
  • Renault S.A.
  • Suzuki Motor Corporation
  • Tata Motors Limited
  • Toyota Motor Corporation

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. METHODOLOGY

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1. MARKET OVERVIEW
    • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic and Looming Global Recession
    • 2020: A Year of Disruption & Transformation
    • As the Race between the Virus & Vaccines Intensifies, Where is the World Economy Headed in 2021?
    • EXHIBIT 1: World Economic Growth Projections (Real GDP, Annual % Change) for 2020 through 2022
    • How the Automotive Industry was Impacted by the Pandemic & What's the New Normal?
    • EXHIBIT 2: Car Production YoY % Growth in 2020 Across Major Regional Markets
    • Pandemic Impacts Demand for Microcars
    • Increased Use of Mask-Vacation Pods at Workspaces, An Opportunity for Microcars
    • An Introduction to Microcars
    • Microcars: Promising Alternative to Traditional Vehicles
    • Global Market Prospects & Outlook
    • Developing Regions to Witness High Growth
    • Competition
    • Recent Market Activity
  • 2. FOCUS ON SELECT PLAYERS
  • 3. MARKET TRENDS & DRIVERS
    • Growing Challenges of Urban Transportation Enhance Importance of Microcars
    • EXHIBIT 3: World Urban Population in Thousands: 1950-2050P
    • EXHIBIT 4: Degree of Urbanization Worldwide: Urban Population as a % of Total Population by Geographic Region for the Years 1950, 1970, 1990, 2018, 2030 and 2050
    • Growing Road Congestion and Restricted Parking Spaces Fuel Need for Smaller Microcars
    • Urbanization and Emergence of Smart Cities Spurs Demand for Light Vehicles, Microcars to Benefit
    • EXHIBIT 5: Global Smart Cities Market: Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2020 and 2027
    • Rise in Two-Wheeler Accidents Turns Consumers towards Microcars
    • Regulatory Pressures to Reduce Carbon Emissions Drives Focus onto Micro-Electric Vehicles
    • Trend towards Small and Low-Speed Electric Vehicles
    • Hybrid Cars to Remain in Race in Near Term
    • Government Support for Electric Vehicles: Micro-Electric Vehicles Market to Benefit
    • Micro-Mobility Trend Fuels Importance of Microcars
    • EXHIBIT 6: Global Micromobility Market Size (in $ Billion) for 2020, 2023 and 2026
    • Could Microcars Emerge as the Future of Shared Mobility Services?
    • Microcars Proved to be Successful for Car Sharing even before Pandemic
    • The Advantage of License-free Driving Bodes Well for Microcars Market
    • Changing Mobility Trends Affect Design Changes
    • Motorized Quadricycles Market: Poised for Healthy Growth
    • Safety Aspect Remains High Priority among Consumers
    • Stringent Eco-Norms and Safety Rules to Increase Prices of Microcars
    • Small Engine Compact Cars to Witness Robust Demand
    • Solar Electric Microcar - A New Development
    • Consumer Perceptions: A Major Hindrance for Adoption of Microcars
  • 4. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE
    • TABLE 1: World Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 2: World Historic Review for Microcars by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 3: World 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets for Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 4: World Current & Future Analysis for Electric by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 5: World Historic Review for Electric by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 6: World 12-Year Perspective for Electric by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 7: World Current & Future Analysis for Hybrid by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 8: World Historic Review for Hybrid by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 9: World 12-Year Perspective for Hybrid by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 10: World Current & Future Analysis for Petrol / Diesel by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 11: World Historic Review for Petrol / Diesel by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 12: World 12-Year Perspective for Petrol / Diesel by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 13: World Current & Future Analysis for Personal by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 14: World Historic Review for Personal by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 15: World 12-Year Perspective for Personal by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 16: World Current & Future Analysis for Commercial by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 17: World Historic Review for Commercial by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 18: World 12-Year Perspective for Commercial by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World for Years 2015, 2021 & 2027

III. MARKET ANALYSIS

  • UNITED STATES
    • Microcars for Car Sharing in the US
    • Market Analytics
    • TABLE 19: USA Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 20: USA Historic Review for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 21: USA 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Fuel Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 22: USA Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 23: USA Historic Review for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 24: USA 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Personal and Commercial for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
  • CANADA
    • TABLE 25: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 26: Canada Historic Review for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 27: Canada 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Fuel Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 28: Canada Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 29: Canada Historic Review for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 30: Canada 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Personal and Commercial for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
  • JAPAN
    • Market Overview
    • EXHIBIT 7: Japanese Minicars Market Breakdown by Leading Manufacturers (In %) for 2020
    • Increased Prominence of EVs: Implications for Keis Market
    • Market Analytics
    • TABLE 31: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 32: Japan Historic Review for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 33: Japan 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Fuel Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 34: Japan Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 35: Japan Historic Review for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 36: Japan 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Personal and Commercial for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
  • CHINA
    • Market Overview
    • Carbon Credits Program to Expand Micro Vehicles Market in China
    • Market Analytics
    • TABLE 37: China Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 38: China Historic Review for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 39: China 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Fuel Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 40: China Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 41: China Historic Review for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 42: China 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Personal and Commercial for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
  • EUROPE
    • Market Overview
    • Market Analytics
    • TABLE 43: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 44: Europe Historic Review for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 45: Europe 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Fuel Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 46: Europe Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 47: Europe Historic Review for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 48: Europe 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Personal and Commercial for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
  • ASIA-PACIFIC
    • Promising Potential for Microcars Market in India
    • Market Analytics
    • TABLE 49: Asia-Pacific Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 50: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 51: Asia-Pacific 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Fuel Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 52: Asia-Pacific Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 53: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 54: Asia-Pacific 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Personal and Commercial for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
  • REST OF WORLD
    • TABLE 55: Rest of World Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 56: Rest of World Historic Review for Microcars by Fuel Type - Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 57: Rest of World 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Fuel Type - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Electric, Hybrid and Petrol / Diesel for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027
    • TABLE 58: Rest of World Current & Future Analysis for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for the Years 2020 through 2027 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 59: Rest of World Historic Review for Microcars by Application - Personal and Commercial Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2015 through 2019 and % CAGR
    • TABLE 60: Rest of World 12-Year Perspective for Microcars by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Personal and Commercial for the Years 2015, 2021 & 2027

IV. COMPETITION

  • Total Companies Profiled: 57