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グリッドリソースとしての電気自動車:市場規模、イニシアチブおよびリソースの可能性

Electric Vehicles as a Grid Resource: Market Size, Initiatives and Resource Potential

発行 Greentech Media Inc. 商品コード 382836
出版日 ページ情報 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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グリッドリソースとしての電気自動車:市場規模、イニシアチブおよびリソースの可能性 Electric Vehicles as a Grid Resource: Market Size, Initiatives and Resource Potential
出版日: 2016年11月03日 ページ情報: 英文
概要

Energy Information Administration (EIA) の予測によると、2010年から2015年の間に米国では5万7,000台の電気自動車 (EV) が使用され、EV売上台数は40万台を上回り、金額ベースで150億米ドルを示す見込みです。

当レポートでは、米国における電気自動車 (EV) 市場について取り上げ、グリッドリソースとしての可能性について調査しており、現在・これまでのEV・EVインフラ市場、負荷軽減のための需要応答または分散型エネルギー資源プログラムへの参加におけるEVの可能性、市場構造・パイロットプログラムの評価、イノベーション・EV統合の促進を目的とした最近のイニシアチブ、およびEV導入・リソース可能性の市場予測などについてまとめています。

目次

第1章 EV市場の概要・導入

  • EV累積販売台数・金額
  • 全自動車販売と比較したEV販売
  • 州ごとの累積販売・EV登録台数
  • EV導入を支える連邦・州のインセンティブ
  • 3つの主要自動車のライフタイムコスト
  • 価格・エネルギーコストの分析 (EV・PHEV・CV)
  • CO2同等排出量:車種別
  • EV導入の障壁
  • EV充電インフラの構成要素
  • EV充電器の種類・コスト
  • EV充電器の種類
  • 米国の充電スタンド:年度別
  • 米国の充電スタンドマップ
  • EV・EV充電スタンド:州別
  • EV市場:モデル別
  • EV販売:モデル別
  • EV販売:OEM別
  • 米国の自動車総販売に占めるEV販売の比率:4大OEM

第2章 グリッドリソースとしてのEV

  • DR・EV DR活動の概要
  • 市場参入構造のマトリクス
  • V2Gのコンセプト
  • V1G・V2G:障壁・緩和
  • 各ロケーション・充電器種類別による充電性質
  • TOU、非TOU および平均充電態度の比較
  • 主な米国エネルギー市場におけるEV・TOU比率の発生
  • EVの市場潜在性の定量化 (MW) 、ほか

第3章 ケーススタディ:成長するEV市場のイニシアチブ

  • Clean Cities Coalition のマップ
  • ユーティリティ主導活動のサマリー
  • ニューヨークのEV登録マップ概要

第4章 EV導入、影響およびリソース可能性の予測

  • EV導入予測の基本ケース:EV台数
  • EV市場規模
  • 充電スタンド数予測
  • EV導入シナリオ
  • EV市場規模シナリオ
  • ISOレベルのEV導入シナリオ、ほか
  • 第5章 付録
目次

The electrification of passenger vehicles has become an increasing part of decarbonization conversations in energy policy and business. Prior to 2010, Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated a total of 57,000 electric vehicles (EVs) in use in the U.S. Between 2010 and 2015, EV sales surpassed 400,000 vehicles with a value of $15 billion.

If technology and infrastructure continue to improve, EV sales could increase to 12 million vehicles. This market growth will have a significant impact on current and planned grid infrastructure, creating opportunities for existing stakeholders and new market players who can create integrated solutions for the EV driver, electric utility, wholesale energy market and aggregators.

Relative Size of EVs as a Demand Resource in 2015

                     Source: GTM Research, ISONE, CAISO, ERCOT, PJM, SPP, MISO, NYISO, FERC, EIA.

Each of our reports in this two-part series on EVs provides background on the current market and serves as an analytical toolkit presenting modeling and scenario analysis extending through 2025. The analysis looks into the resource potential that EVs can provide to load, demand, distribution and transmission in specific geographies and nationwide.

Use this second report to gain a comprehensive understanding of:

  • The current and historic market for EVs and EV infrastructure
  • The potential for EVs to participate in demand response or distributed energy resource programs to provide load reduction
  • Market structures and pilot programs evaluating V1G (smart charging of EV as demand response) and V2G (vehicle-to-grid) participation
  • Recent initiatives aimed at spurring innovation and EV integration
  • Market forecasts for EV adoption and resource potential

Table of Contents

  • 1. EV Market Overview and Adoption
  • 2. EVs as a Grid Resource
  • 3. Case Studies: Initiatives for Growing the EV Market
  • 4. Forecast of EV Adoption, Impact and Resource Potential
  • 5. Appendices

List of Figures

1. EV Market Overview and Adoption

  • EV Cumulative Sales, 2010-2015 (Number of Vehicles and $ Million
  • EV Sales Compared to All Vehicle Sales (2010-2015)
  • By State Cumulative Sales and EV Registrations per Thousand People 2014
  • Federal and State Incentives Supporting EV Adoption
  • Lifetime Cost of Three Select Vehicles - AFDC Calculator
  • Price and Energy Costs Analysis (EV, PHEV and CV)
  • CO2 Equivalents Emissions by Vehicle Type
  • Barriers to EV Adoption
  • EV Charging Infrastructure Components
  • EV Charger Types and Costs
  • Types of EV Chargers
  • U.S. Charging Outlets by Year
  • Map of U.S. Charging Stations
  • EVs and EV Charging Stations by State
  • EV Market by Model, 2015
  • EV Sales by Model, 2010-2015
  • EV Sales by OEM, 2010-2015
  • EV Sales as % of Total Vehicle Sales in U.S., by Four Major OEMs, 2012-2015

2. EVs as a Grid Resource

  • Overview of DR and EV DR Activities 1980-2015
  • Matrix of Market Participation Structures
  • V2G Concept
  • V1G and V2G - Barriers and Mitigations
  • Onzo's Load Disaggregation to Identify EVs
  • Charging Behavior by Various Locations and Charger Type (% of Total Load by Hour)
  • EV Project 'All' Line vs. 'Calculated' Line
  • Comparison of TOU, Non-TOU and Average Charging Behavior (kW
  • EV and TOU Rate Occurrence in Major U.S. Energy Markets
  • EV Market Potential Quantified (MW)
  • Relative Size of EVs as a Demand Resource
  • Market Participation Potential
  • Average Annual ISO Locational Marginal Prices, 2015
  • V1G and V2G Market Valuation (MWh and $ 000)
  • EV and Renewable Curtailment Interactions
  • Green Charge Networks EV Charging and Energy Storage
  • SDG&E EV TOU Experimental Rate Study Results

3. Case Studies: Initiatives for Growing the EV Market

  • Map of Clean Cities Coalition
  • Summary of Utility-Driven Activities
  • New York EV Registration Map Snapshot

4. Forecast of EV Adoption, Impact and Resource Potential

  • Base-Case EV Adoption Forecast - Number of EVs, 2010-2025
  • EV Market Value (Cumulative Sales - $ Million)
  • Charging Outlets Forecast (Number of Charging Outlets and $ Million Valuation)
  • EV Adoption Scenarios, 2010-2025
  • EV Market Size Scenarios (Cumulative Market Sales, 2016, 2020, 2025; $ Million)
  • ISO-Level EV Adoption Scenarios
  • Charging Behavior Scenariosit was a longshot
  • Broad-Range V1G Participation as a Market Resource by ISO (MW and $ 000)
  • Peak Shedding Market Potential (MW)
  • Peak Shedding Market Valuation ($ 000)
  • High-Value V2G and V1G Participation
  • Ancillary Market Valuation of EVs as a Resource ($ 000)

5. Appendices

  • EPRI Central Server Architecture
  • CAISO Market Participation Requirements
  • ERCOT Market Participation Requirements
  • NYISO Market Participation Requirements
  • PJM Market Participation Requirements
  • EV Adoption - Regression Results
  • V1G Resource Potential Scenarios (MW)
  • V2G Resource Potential Scenarios (MW)
  • Peak Hours by ISO
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