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分散型エネルギー貯蔵:商業エネルギー向けアプリケーションおよび機会

Distributed Energy Storage 2014: Applications and Opportunities for Commercial Energy

発行 Greentech Media Inc. 商品コード 294997
出版日 ページ情報 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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分散型エネルギー貯蔵:商業エネルギー向けアプリケーションおよび機会 Distributed Energy Storage 2014: Applications and Opportunities for Commercial Energy
出版日: 2014年02月06日 ページ情報: 英文
概要

過去数年にわたる断続的な再生可能発電源(ソーラーPVなど)の急増は、ユーティリティ、グリッドオペレーターおよびプロジェクトディベロッパーへ一連の新しい課題と機会を提示しており、その多くは分散型エネルギー貯蔵によって対応が可能です。

当レポートでは、電力供給の新しいパラダイムとしての分散型エネルギー貯蔵について調査し、市場成長促進因子・阻害因子、貯蔵のインセンティブと規制、およびホールセール市場の機会を分析しており、分散型エネルギー貯蔵市場・2次市場における予測と将来の機会をまとめ、概略下記の構成でお届けいたします。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー:主な調査結果

第2章 イントロダクション

  • 新しい電力供給
  • 分散型エネルギー経済の課題とソリューション
  • エネルギー貯蔵の価値命題
  • 我々は現在どこにいるのか?

第3章 分散型エネルギー貯蔵市場の促進因子

  • 回避:コスト機会
  • 収益生成の機会
  • 新しいオーナーシップ・財務モデル

第4章 貯蔵のインセンティブ・規制

  • 連邦規制
  • FERC (連邦エネルギー規制委員会) による規則:オーダー 745
  • FERC (連邦エネルギー規制委員会) による規則:オーダー 755
  • FERC (連邦エネルギー規制委員会) による規則:オーダー 784
  • 連邦の税務政策
  • 州のインセンティブ

第5章 ホールセール市場の機会

  • PJM Interconnection
  • NYISO
  • CAISO
  • ERCOT
  • MISO
  • ISO-NE

第6章 市場障壁

  • 資本へのアクセスおよびバンカビリティ
  • 分散型太陽光発電量の認識
  • ホールセール市場への参入不能
  • 正味エネルギーメータリング

第7章 予測

  • エグゼクティブサマリー
  • 予測

第8章 将来の機会

  • ビークル・ツー・グリッド

第9章 結論

図表

目次

Because electricity supply must match demand on a second-by-second basis, ensuring that demand is met requires costly planning and investments from grid operators throughout the energy supply chain, as well as critical ancillary services which ensure the stability of the electrical grid. While deregulation introduced competition to the generation portion of the electricity supply chain in some states, distribution of electricity has remained a regulated monopoly. However, the proliferation of intermittent, renewable generating sources (such as solar PV) over the last several years has presented utilities, grid operators, and project developers with a new set of challenges and opportunities - many of which can be addressed through the deployment of distributed energy storage.

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Historically, regulators at both the state and federal level have struggled to fully recognize and quantify the value of the services provided by energy storage since storage can provide bidirectional system level benefits irrespective of geographic location. While there are more than 20 discrete value streams for storage, depending on the point at which it is interconnected, the greatest potential opportunity for layering of these values streams tends to be for systems interconnected closest to customer load.

This comprehensive new report explores distributed energy storage as a new paradigm of electricity supply, delving into the market drivers and barriers, storage incentives and regulations, and wholesale market opportunities. It also provides a forecast and details future opportunities in the distributed energy storage market and sub markets.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary: Key Findings

  • 1.1 Commercial Energy Storage Market Drivers
  • 1.2 Commercial Energy Storage Market Barriers

2. Introduction

  • 2.1 A New Kind of Electricity Supply
  • 2.2 Challenges and Solutions for a Distributed Energy Economy
  • 2.3 The Value Proposition of Energy Storage
  • 2.4 Where Are We Today?

3. Distributed Energy Storage Market Drivers

  • 3.1 Avoided-Cost Opportunities
  • 3.2 Revenue Generating Opportunities
  • 3.3 New Ownership and Financing Models

4. Storage Incentives and Regulations

  • 4.1 Federal Regulations
  • 4.2 FERC Order 745
  • 4.3 FERC Order 755
  • 4.4 FERC Order 784
  • 4.5 Federal Tax Policy
  • 4.6 State Incentives

5. Wholesale Market Opportunities

  • 5.1 PJM Interconnection
  • 5.2 NYISO
  • 5.3 CAISO
  • 5.4 ERCOT
  • 5.5 MISO
  • 5.6 ISO-NE

6. Market Barriers

  • 6.1 Access to Capital and Bankability
  • 6.2 Recognition of Distributed Solar Capacity Value
  • 6.3 Inability to Participate in Wholesale Markets
  • 6.4 Net Energy Metering

7. Forecast

  • 7.1 Executive Summary
  • 7.2 Forecast

8. Future Opportunities

  • 8.1 Vehicle-to-Grid

9. Conclusion

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Executive Summary: Key Findings

2. Introduction

  • Cumulative U.S. Distributed PV Installations at Year End, 2000-2015E
  • Cumulative Installed Solar Capacity 2013
  • California Summer Generation Mix
  • Expected Changes in Net Load in California: The "Duck Chart"
  • California Independent System Operator Flexible Capacity Requirements
  • Hierarchy of Concerns for High-Penetration Distributed PV
  • Varying Locational Benefits of Energy Storage
  • Drivers for and Impediments to Deploying Energy Storage
  • Total Electric Consumers by Sector
  • Total Electric Revenue by Sector
  • Percent Change in Demand Charges Among California Utilities, 2008-2013
  • AB 2514 Procurement Targets (MW)
  • Map of Distributed Storage: Operational, Announced, and Under Construction
  • Selected Existing U.S. Commercial Energy Storage Deployments

3. Distributed Energy Storage Market Drivers

  • Storage Implementation Decision Process
  • Utility Bill Structure: Residential vs. Commercial
  • Select Utility Commercial Rate Structures With Demand Components ($/kW)
  • California Demand Charge Increases, 2008 -2013
  • Three Ownership Models for Energy Storage

4. Storage Incentives and Regulations

  • Summary of Key FERC Orders Pertaining to Energy Storage
  • Fossil Plant Regulation Response
  • Energy Storage Regulation Response
  • Original FERC Order 755 Implementation Timeline
  • Approximate Regulation Requirements of Regional Transmission Operators
  • Investment Tax Credit Private Letter Rulings
  • Self-Generation Incentive Program Structure
  • 2013 Self-Generation Incentive Program Budget
  • SGIP Applications by Technology, 2010-October 2013
  • SGIP Applications Capacity (kW) by Technology Class, 2012
  • SGIP Advanced Energy Storage Project Pipeline by Vendor, 2012-October 2013
  • AB 2514 Procurement Targets
  • NYSERDA PON 1219

5. Wholesale Market Opportunities

  • North American Independent System Operators and Regional Transmission Operators
  • Energy Market Structure Products
  • Behind-the-Meter Frequency Regulations Projects in PJM
  • PJM Regulation Requirements, January 2012-2013
  • RegA vs. RegD Mileage in PJM
  • Changes in the Frequency Regulation Market in PJM Post FERC Order 755
  • NYISO-EAST Regulation Clearing Prices, 2012-2013
  • NYISO-WEST Regulation Clearing Prices, 2012-2013
  • Day-Ahead Clearing Prices for Regulation Services, April 2009-March 2012
  • Response From Conventional and Fast-Responding Resources in ERCOT FRRS Pilot
  • Fast-Responding Regulation Signal Trial Clearing Prices
  • MISO Regulation Market Clearing Prices
  • Wind Energy Growth Rates in MISO, California, and Texas
  • MISO: Summary of Resource Participation
  • Resource Utilization in ISO-NE for Frequency Regulation

6. Market Barriers

  • Capacity Values of Solar Energy
  • Resource Valuation for Solar Energy
  • Comparison of Peaking Plant to Battery Storage
  • Net Metering Battlegrounds

7. Forecast

  • Baseline Commercial Capacity by Technology and ISO/RTO Region (MW)
  • Baseline Frequency Regulation and Bill Management by ISO/ RTO (MW)
  • Cumulative Installed Capacity by Region, 2014-2020

8. Future Opportunities

  • CAISO Vehicle-Grid Integration Roadmap

9. Conclusion

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