市場調査レポート

中国におけるグリッドスケールエネルギー貯蔵の技術および市場

China Grid-Scale Energy Storage: Technologies & Markets, 2012-2016

発行 Greentech Media Inc. 商品コード 247578
出版日 ページ情報 英文
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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中国におけるグリッドスケールエネルギー貯蔵の技術および市場 China Grid-Scale Energy Storage: Technologies & Markets, 2012-2016
出版日: 2012年07月16日 ページ情報: 英文
概要

2012年、中国の電力網は設備発電容量と発電量で世界最大の規模となる見通しです。また、同国は風力発電のインストールベースも世界最大の規模であり、再生可能エネルギーについても、世界最大規模の投資を行っていると発表しています。中国のエネルギー貯蔵容量は世界のわずか4%を占めるに過ぎませんが、上述の内容から、中国はエネルギー貯蔵についても大変魅力的な市場といえるでしょう。

当レポートでは、中国のグリッドスケールのエネルギー貯蔵技術とその市場について調査分析し、中国の電力市場の状況、政府による関連支援政策、エネルギー貯蔵の各種技術の概要および比較、エネルギー貯蔵の導入先、エネルギー貯蔵の導入によるメリット、実装の例、設備貯蔵容量およびシステム売上の予測、主要企業のプロファイルなどをまとめ、概略以下の構成でお届けいたします。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 電力市場・政策的背景

  • 概要
  • 中国独自の貯蔵のニーズ
    • 負荷の増大
    • 負荷の変更
    • 再生可能エネルギーの統合
    • 柔軟性のない発電
    • 農村部の電化
  • 電力市場の背景
    • 中国の発電構成の展望
    • 市場の規制緩和と再編
    • 地域をまたいだ電力供給
    • 卸売エネルギー市場
    • アンシラリーサービス
    • T&Dシステム内でのサービスへの支払い
    • 揚水式電気貯蔵の代償
    • 小売電力料金
    • 中国の電力需要の構成の変化
    • 発電構成の変化
    • さらなる電力市場の改革の見通し
  • 政策
    • 再生可能エネルギー政策
    • エネルギー貯蔵を直接支援する政策
    • エネルギー貯蔵のデモンストレーション・R&Dプロジェクト
    • エネルギー貯蔵政策の展望

第3章 エネルギー貯蔵技術

  • 技術概要
  • 技術
    • 揚水式電気エネルギー貯蔵
    • 圧縮空気エネルギー貯蔵
    • フロー電池
    • 従来型鉛酸蓄電池
    • 高度鉛酸蓄電池
    • ナトリウム硫黄(NaS)電池
    • リチウムイオン電池
    • 高速フライホイール
  • 技術比較
  • エネルギー貯蔵技術のトレードオフ
    • エネルギー vs 発電容量
    • 資本コスト vs 運転コスト
    • 電池寿命 vs 利用の割合
    • コスト vs 技術実績
  • 技術の軌跡
  • システムレベルの競合
  • ディスカッション

第4章 エネルギー貯蔵の用途

  • 概要
  • イントロダクション
  • 発電本位の用途
    • バルク電力のタイムシフティング
    • システム固定価格
    • アンシラリーサービス
  • 送配電用途
    • 送電サポート
    • 送電混雑の解消
    • 送配電のアップグレード遅延
  • 再生可能エネルギーの統合
    • 再生可能エネルギープラントの縮小回避
    • 再生可能エネルギーのタイムシフト
    • 再生可能分散型発電の統合
  • エンドユーザーによる用途
    • 小売TOUの従量電力量料金
    • 小売需要電力料金
    • 電力の信頼性(停電回避)
    • 電力の品質(電力の変動回避)

第5章 導入のメリットと実装例

  • 概要
  • 手法
  • エネルギー貯蔵の評価アプローチ
  • 実装の例
    • バルク電力のタイムシフティング + 負荷追従 + 固定料金 + ブラックスタート
    • 発電所のESからのAGCサービス
    • 大規模な再生可能エネルギーの統合
  • 送配電のアップグレード遅延
  • 商用・産業用エネルギー管理
    • 実装例
  • その他の実装
    • 風力・太陽光・エネルギー貯蔵の発電モデル
    • マイクログリッド
    • 分散型発電とエネルギー貯蔵による農村部の電化
    • 複合型EV充電・エネルギー貯蔵ステーション

第6章 産業の発展・予測

  • 概要
  • 中国のグリッドエネルギー貯蔵産業の発展
  • 中国のグリッドエネルギー貯蔵産業の現状
    • 市場競争と開放性
  • 産業の分布
    • 技術の分布
    • 地域的分布
    • 所有の内訳
  • インストールベース
    • 技術の内訳
    • ターゲットとする用途
    • 主な下位市場区分の詳細
  • 市場規模予測
  • 主な技術区分
    • リチウムイオン電池
    • バナジウム系レドックスフロー電池
    • 鉛酸蓄電池
  • サマリー

第7章 付録:企業プロファイル

図表

目次

Abstract

In 2012, China's electric grid will become the largest in the world in terms of both installed generation capacity and electricity produced. China also possesses the world's largest installed wind power base and the world's largest declared investment in renewable energy. These facts alone suggest that China is also the most attractive market for energy storage in the world, even though China currently has just 4% of the worldwide energy storage capacity.

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Whereas other markets have focused on power quality and ancillary services, China's grid energy storage market has developed with a focus on renewable energy integration, load-shifting and peak shaving. Azure International and GTM Research forecast that pumped hydro storage capacity will double or triple by 2016 to reach 40-60 GW, while other storage technologies will rise from currently insignificant levels to over 700 MW installed by 2016.

With strong government support and steadily improving technology, we anticipate the energy storage market will grow to a US$500 million per year market by 2016. In this 142-page report, we analyze the market's outlook with a realistic assessment of the policy, market and technical barriers that energy storage faces.

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Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1 Overview
  • 1.2 Findings
  • 1.3 Electricity Market and Policy Context
  • 1.4 Energy Storage Technologies Overview
  • 1.5 Energy Storage Applications Overview
  • 1.6 Application Benefi ts and Example Implementations
  • 1.7 Industry Overview
  • 1.8 Discussion

2. ELECTRICITY MARKET AND POLICY CONTEXT

  • 2.1 Overview
  • 2.2 China's Unique Need for Storage
    • 2.2.1 Load Growth
    • 2.2.2 Changing Load
    • 2.2.3 Renewable Integration
    • 2.2.4 Infl exible Generation
    • 2.2.5 Rural Electrifi cation
  • 2.3 Power Market Context
    • 2.3.1 China's Generation Mix in Perspective
    • 2.3.2 Market Deregulation and Restructuring
    • 2.3.3 Inter-Provincial and Inter-Regional Power Exchanges
    • 2.3.4 Wholesale Energy Market
    • 2.3.5 Ancillary Services
    • 2.3.6 Payment for Services within the T&D System
    • 2.3.7 Compensation for Pumped Hydroelectric Storage
    • 2.3.8 Retail Electricity Rates
    • 2.3.9 The Evolution of China's Power Demand Structure
    • 2.3.10 Changing Structure of Generation
    • 2.3.11 Prospects for Further Power Market Reform
  • 2.4 Policy
    • 2.4.1 Renewable Energy Policy
    • 2.4.2 Policies to Directly Support Energy Storage
    • 2.4.3 Energy Storage Demonstration and R&D Projects
    • 2.4.4 Prospects for Energy Storage Policy

3. ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

  • 3.1 Technology Overview
  • 3.2 Chapter Scope
  • 3.3 Technologies
    • 3.3.1 Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage
    • 3.3.2 Compressed Air Energy Storage
    • 3.3.3 Flow Batteries
    • 3.3.4 Conventional Lead Acid Batteries
    • 3.3.5 Advanced Lead Acid Batteries
    • 3.3.6 Sodium Sulfur (NaS) Batteries
    • 3.3.7 Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • 3.3.8 High-Speed Flywheels
  • 3.4 Technology Comparisons
  • 3.5 Energy Storage Technology Tradeoff s
    • 3.5.1 Energy vs. Power Capacity
    • 3.5.2 Capital vs. Operating Cost
    • 3.5.3 Lifetime vs. Percentage of Battery Used
    • 3.5.4 Cost vs. Technology Track Record
  • 3.6 Technology Trajectory
  • 3.7 System-Level Competition
  • 3.8 Discussion

4. ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS

  • 4.1 Overview
  • 4.2 Introduction
  • 4.3 Generation-Oriented Applications
    • 4.3.1 Bulk Electricity Time-Shifting
    • 4.3.2 System Capacity Payments
    • 4.3.3 Ancillary Services
  • 4.4 Transmission and Distribution Applications
    • 4.4.1 Transmission Support
    • 4.4.2 Transmission Congestion Relief
    • 4.4.3 Transmission and Distribution Upgrade Deferral
  • 4.5 Renewable Energy Integration
    • 4.5.1 Avoiding Renewable Energy Plant Curtailment
    • 4.5.2 Renewable Energy Time-Shift
    • 4.5.3 Renewable Distributed Generation Integration
  • 4.6 End-User Applications
    • 4.6.1 Retail TOU Energy Charge Management
    • 4.6.2 Retail Demand Charges
    • 4.6.3 Power Reliability (Avoided Power Outages)
    • 4.6.4 Power Quality (Avoiding Power Fluctuations)

5. APPLICATION BENEFITS AND EXAMPLE IMPLEMENTATIONS

  • 5.1 Overview
  • 5.2 Methodology
  • 5.3 Energy Storage Valuation Approaches
  • 5.4 Example Implementations
    • 5.4.1 Bulk Electricity Time-Shifting + Load Following + Capacity Payments + Black Start
    • 5.4.2 AGC Service From ES Co-Located With Generation
    • 5.4.3 Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration
  • 5.5 Transmission &Distribution Upgrade Deferral
  • 5.6 Commercial and Industrial Energy Management
    • 5.6.1 Example Implementations
  • 5.7 Other Implementations
    • 5.7.1 Wind Solar and Energy Storage Generation Model
    • 5.7.2 Micro-Grid
    • 5.7.3 Rural Electrifi cation Through Distributed Generation and Energy Storage
    • 5.7.4 Combination EV Charging and Energy Storage Station

6. INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT AND PROJECTIONS

  • 6.1 Overview
  • 6.2 Grid Energy Storage Industry Development in China
  • 6.3 Current Status of Grid Energy Storage Industry in China
    • 6.3.1 Market Competition and Openness
  • 6.4 Industry Distribution
    • 6.4.1 Technology Distribution
    • 6.4.2 Geographical Distribution
    • 6.4.3 Ownership Breakdown
  • 6.5 Installed Base
    • 6.5.1 Technology Breakdown
    • 6.5.2 Targeted Applications
    • 6.5.3 Selected Sub-Market Details
  • 6.6 Market Size Projections
  • 6.7 Key Technology Segments
    • 6.7.1 Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • 6.7.2 Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
    • 6.7.3 Lead Acid Batteries
  • 6.8 Summary

7. APPENDIX: COMPANY PROFILES

  • 7.1 Amperex Technology Limited (ATL)
  • 7.2 Anhui Meineng
  • 7.3 Boston-Power (China)
  • 7.4 BYD
  • 7.5 Chengde Wanlitong
  • 7.6 China Aviation Lithium Battery (CALB)
  • 7.7 China BAK Battery
  • 7.8 CITIC Guoan Mengguli (MGL)
  • 7.9 Dalian Rongke Power
  • 7.10 Desay Battery
  • 7.11 Sail Battery (Fengfan Co., Ltd)
  • 7.12 Golden Energy Fuel Cell
  • 7.13 Horizon Batteries China (Horizon Haode)
  • 7.14 Tianjin Lishen
  • 7.15 Prudent Energy
  • 7.16 RealForce Enterprises Co., Ltd (RFE)
  • 7.17 Huanyu Power Source Company
  • 7.18 Wanxiang Group
  • 7.19 Yingli Solar
  • 7.20 Zhuhai Yintong Energy

LIST OF FIGURES

  • Figure 1-1: Worldwide Energy Storage Market Share (MW Installed)
  • Figure 1-2: Beijing Corona Energy Storage Project in Yushu, Qinghai
  • Figure 1-3: China Overall Installed Capacity (MW), 2011-2016
  • Figure 1-4: Selected Energy Storage Benefi ts for China, 2012
  • Figure 2-1: Investment in New Generation versus Electricity Consumption (2008-2011)
  • Figure 2-2: International Comparison - Power Consumption per Capita
  • Figure 2-3: China's Grid-Connected Wind Power Capacity, 2001-2011
  • Figure 2-4: Image of 1000 MW Huaneng Qinbei Ultra-Supercritical Power Plant
  • Figure 2-5: PV and Energy Storage System Installed in Hunan Province
  • Figure 2-6: China Installed Capacity by Generation Type, 2010
  • Figure 2-7: U.S. Installed Capacity by Generation Type, 2010
  • Figure 2-8: China Electricity Production by Generation Type, 2010
  • Figure 2-9: U.S. Electricity Production by Generation Type, 2010
  • Figure 2-10: Division of State Power Grid Assets
  • Figure 2-11: Installed Generation Capacity by Grid Region, 2010
  • Figure 2-12: 2010 Regional Grid Electricity Mix (Installed Capacity in GW)
  • Figure 2-13: Oversight Structure of China's Electric Power Industry
  • Figure 2-14: China Regional Power Grid Clusters
  • Figure 2-15: Wholesale Electricity Prices by Region 2010
  • Figure 2-16: Energy Saving Dispatch Rule Priority Ranking
  • Figure 2-17: Transmission and Distribution Prices by Region, 2010
  • Figure 2-18: Fixed T&D Price for Direct Bidding Pilot Program
  • Figure 2-19: Retail Electricity Rates in Beijing (for 10-kV level)
  • Figure 2-20: Average Retail Electricity Rates by Region, 2010
  • Figure 2-21: Load Growth Comparison by Load Type, 2005-2011
  • Figure 2-22: Projected Electricity Consumption Growth by Load Type, 2011-2020
  • Figure 2-23: China-U.S. Load Comparison for 2010
  • Figure 2-24: National Policies Related to Energy Storage
  • Figure 2-25: Important Provincial and City-Level Policies
  • Figure 3-1: Diagram of Pumped Hydroelectric Plant
  • Figure 3-2: Conventional CAES Plant Schematic based on McIntosh Plant
  • Figure 3-3: Diagram of Flow Battery System
  • Figure 3-4: Diagram of Lead Acid Battery System
  • Figure 3-5: Eff ect of Temperature on the Expected Life of Pb-Acid Batteries
  • Figure 3-6: Ultrabattery and Asymmetric Lead-carbon Capacitor Diagrams
  • Figure 3-7: NaS Cell and Module Schematic
  • Figure 3-8: 20 MW Li-ion Energy Storage Plant from Zhuhai Yintong
  • Figure 3-9: Diagram of Beacon Power 4th Generation Flywheel Energy Storage System
  • Figure 3-10: Technology Characterizations of Grid Applications
  • Figure 3-11: Zhangbei Wind Solar and Energy Storage Demonstration Project Costs
  • Figure 3-12: Cost Estimates Given by China Guodian, 2011
  • Figure 3-13: Energy Storage Costs based on U.S. EPRI Estimates
  • Figure 3-14: Expected Lifecycles based on State of Charge for Xtreme Power Cell
  • Figure 4-1: Application Requirements by Size and Discharge Capacity
  • Figure 4-2: Application Requirements by Discharge Capacity and Grid Location
  • Figure 4-3: Stakeholder Breakdown for China Electric Power Grid
  • Figure 4-4: Power Producer Market Share, 2010
  • Figure 4-5: Energy Storage Applications by Grid Location
  • Figure 4-6: Load Leveling Versus Peak Shaving
  • Figure 4-7: Load-Following Capacity and Load-Following Payments
  • Figure 4-8: Frequency Regulation Diagram
  • Figure 4-9: Load-following and Regulation Technology Requirements Comparison
  • Figure 4-10: Transmission and Distribution Deferral Diagram
  • Figure 4-11: Anhui TOU Pricing for Industrial 10kV Load
  • Figure 4-12: Illustration of Demand Reduction for Commercial Cooling Load
  • Figure 5-1: Selected Energy Storage Benefi ts for China 2012
  • Figure 5-2: Energy Storage Benefi t Estimates for the U.S. Market
  • Figure 5-3: Comparison of Benefi ts for China vs. U.S. - End-User Applications
  • Figure 5-4: Comparison of Benefi ts for China vs. U.S. - Ancillary Services
  • Figure 5-5: Comparison of Benefi ts for China vs. U.S. - T&D Upgrade Deferral
  • Figure 5-6: Comparison of Benefi ts for China vs. U.S. - Bulk Electricity Applications
  • Figure 5-7: Relationship between Benefi t Stacking and Operational Requirements
  • Figure 5-8: Combined Implementation for Generation Sited, Energy-oriented System
  • Figure 5-9: Combined Implementation for Generation Sited, Energy-oriented System
  • Figure 5-10: AGC Service Implementation
  • Figure 5-11: AGC Service Implementation
  • Figure 5-12: Renewable Integration Implementation: Avoiding Wind Curtailment
  • Figure 5-13: Renewable Integration Implementation: Avoiding Wind Curtailment
  • Figure 5-14: Diminishing Benefi ts of Multi-year T&D Deferral
  • Figure 5-15: T&D Upgrade Deferral Implementation
  • Figure 5-16: T&D Upgrade Deferral Implementation Benefi ts
  • Figure 5-17: Commercial and Industrial Energy Management Implementation
  • Figure 5-18: Commercial and Industrial Energy Management Benefi ts
  • Figure 6-1: Energy Storage System Value Chain
  • Figure 6-2: Number of Manufacturers Targeting Each Technology Type
  • Figure 6-3: Installed Capacity by Technology Type
  • Figure 6-4: Number of Manufacturers by Location of Headquarters
  • Figure 6-5: Ownership Breakdown of Energy Storage Manufacturers
  • Figure 6-6: Worldwide Energy Storage Market Share(MW Installed)
  • Figure 6-7: China 2011 Installed Capacity by Technology Type
  • Figure 6-8: Installed Capacity (MW) BY Primary Application
  • Figure 6-9: Pumped Hydroelectric Storage Installed Capacity 1990-2020
  • Figure 6-10: Centralized, Power-Oriented Energy Storage Installed Capacity (MW) 2011-2016
  • Figure 6-11: Centralized, Energy-oriented Energy Storage Installed Capacity (MW) 2011-2016
  • Figure 6-12: Distributed, Energy-oriented Energy Storage Installed Capacity (MW) 2011-2016
  • Figure 6-13: China Overall Installed Capacity (MW) 2011-2016
  • Figure 6-14: Annual Energy Storage System Sales (MW) 2011-2016
  • Figure 6-15: Annual Energy Storage System Sales (million US$/yr) 2011-2016
  • Figure 6-16: Installed Lithium Ion Projects by Manufacturer (2012E)
  • Figure 6-17: Installed Flow Battery Projects by Manufacturer (2012E)
  • Figure 7-1: Overview of Companies Profi led
  • Figure 7-2: Companies by Technology Type and Development Stage
  • Figure 7-3: ATL Energy Storage Projects
  • Figure 7-4: BYD Energy Storage Projects
  • Figure 7-5: CALB Energy Storage Projects
  • Figure 7-6: Dalian Rongke Energy Storage Projects
  • Figure 7-7: Prudent Energy Projects
  • Figure 7-8: Wanxiang Energy Storage Projects
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