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ウェアラブル電子機器、プリンテッドエレクトロニクス 、フレキシブル電子機器、折り畳み電子機器、伸縮性電子機器の世界市場

The Global Market for Wearable, Printed, Flexible, Foldable and Stretchable Electronics

出版日: | 発行: Future Markets, Inc. | ページ情報: 英文 680 Pages | 110 Tables, 186 Figures | 納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは

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価格表記: GBPを日本円(税抜)に換算
本日の銀行送金レート: 1GBP=145.88円
ウェアラブル電子機器、プリンテッドエレクトロニクス 、フレキシブル電子機器、折り畳み電子機器、伸縮性電子機器の世界市場
出版日: 2020年11月10日
発行: Future Markets, Inc.
ページ情報: 英文 680 Pages | 110 Tables, 186 Figures
納期: 即納可能 即納可能とは
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 目次
概要

スマートウェアラブルおよび統合電子デバイスの急速なブームにより、高性能、マイクロサイズ、機械的柔軟性、および柔軟・伸縮性ディスプレイ、ヘルスモニタリング、人間のモーションキャプチャ、電子スキンなど、スマートテキスタイルとしてのアプリケーション向けの高温安定性を備えた高度なインテリジェントシステムの需要が高まっています。

当レポートは、世界のウェアラブル電子機器、プリンテッドエレクトロニクス 、フレキシブル電子機器、折り畳み電子機器、伸縮性電子機器市場について調査しており、カテゴリー別の市場分析(市場成長要因、動向、用途、市場規模、課題、企業プロファイルなど)の情報を提供しています。

企業プロファイル(ウェアラブル電子機器):BeBop Sensors、dorsaVi Ltd.、Epicore Biosystems、Equivital Inc.、FeelIT、Hitachi、Ltd.、Holst Centre、Magic Leap、miomovesroなど

企業プロファイル(ウェアラブル電子機器) 1drop Inc.、Abbott、AerBetic、Inc.、Alertgy、Aura Devices、Biobeat、BioIntelliSense、Cardiomo、CareWear、cosinuss、Dexcom、Embr Labs、Eccrine Systems、Gentag、i-Sens、WBD101など

企業プロファイル(電子テキスタイル):Ambiotex、BloomerTech、Chronolife、clim8、Emglare、Formosa Taffeta、Healthwatch Technologies、Hexoskin、Inuheat、Litex、Myant、SankiConsys Co.、Ltdなど

企業プロファイル(エネルギー貯蔵・環境発電): Bionic Power、BrightVolt、Canatu Oy、ChivoTech、Enfucell Oy、Jenax、LG Chemなど

企業プロファイル(フレキシブル電子機器、伸縮性電子機器): C3Nano、Cambrios、iBeam、CurveSYS GmbH、Etulipa、Futaba、Kyulux、Samsungなど

企業プロファイル(導電性インク):Ash Chemical、Cemedine、DuPont、EMS / Nagase、Henkel、Jujo Chemical、Panasonic、Taiyo、Toyobo、VFP InkTechnologiesなど

目次

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

  • エレクトロニクスの進化
  • 柔軟・伸縮性電子機器とは何か?
  • 柔軟・伸縮性電子機器市場の成長

第2章 調査手法

第3章 ウェアラブル電子機器

  • 市場の成長要因と動向
  • 用途
    • スマートウォッチ
    • スポーツおよびフィットネストラッカー
      • 睡眠トラッカーとウェアラブルモニター
    • スマートグラスとヘッドマウントディスプレイ(VR、AR、MR、視力障害、アイトラッカー)
    • 軍事
    • 産業および職場のモニタリング
    • ウェアラブルにおける柔軟・伸縮性電子機器
    • 伸縮性人工皮膚
  • 世界の市場規模
  • 市場の課題
  • 企業プロファイル(企業プロファイル60社)

第4章 医療およびヘルスケアセンサーとウェアラブル電子機器

  • 市場の成長要因
  • 現在の最先端技術
    • COVID-19症状を追跡するためのモニタリングソリューション
  • 用途
    • 企業と製品
    • 電子皮膚パッチ
    • ナノマテリアルベースのデバイス
    • ウェアラブルヘルスアラートおよび監視デバイス
    • 持続血糖測定(CGM)
    • 心臓血管
    • 妊娠と新生児のモニタリング
    • ウェアラブル温度監視
    • 水分補給センサー
    • ウェアラブル汗センサー(医療およびスポーツ)
    • ウェアラブルドラッグデリバリー
    • 化粧品パッチ
  • スマートシューズ
  • スマートコンタクトレンズ
  • スマート創傷ケア
  • ウェアラブル外骨格
  • 医療用ヒアラブル
  • 世界の市場規模
  • 市場の課題
  • 企業プロファイル(企業プロファイル134社)

第5章 電子テキスタイルとスマートテキスタイル

  • 市場の成長要因
  • 材料とコンポーネント
    • 伸縮・導電性備えた糸
    • 導電性高分子
    • 導電性コーティング
    • 導電性インク
    • ナノマテリアル
      • 相変化材料
  • 用途:市場および製品
    • スマート衣料品
    • 温度の監視と調整
  • 伸縮性のあるEファブリック
    • 治療薬
    • スポーツ・フィットネス
    • スマートシューズ
    • 軍事/防衛
    • 医療・ヘルスケア
    • 産業・職場の監視
    • フレキシブル・ウェアラブルのディスプレイ広告
    • テキスタイルベースの照明
    • 抗菌テキスタイル
    • スマートおむつ
    • 防護服
    • 自動車インテリア
    • Eテキスタイルへの電力供給
  • 世界の市場規模
  • 市場の課題
  • 企業プロファイル(企業プロファイル102社)

第6章 プリンテッドエレクトロニクス、柔軟・伸縮性エネルギー貯蔵と環境発電

  • 市場の成長要因と動向
  • 現在の最先端技術
    • 製品
    • ナノマテリアル
  • 用途
    • 電子機器の柔軟・伸縮性バッテリー
    • 柔軟・伸縮性スーパーキャパシタ
    • 3Dプリントバッテリー
    • 伸縮性ヒーター
    • 柔軟・伸縮性太陽電池
    • 伸縮性ナノ発電機
    • 太陽光発電ソーラーテキスタイル
  • 世界の市場規模
  • 市場の課題
  • 企業プロファイル(企業プロファイル33社)

第7章 プリンテッドエレクトロニクス、柔軟・伸縮性ディスプレイと家庭用電化製品

  • 市場の成長要因
  • 現在の最先端技術
    • プリンテッドエレクトロニクス、柔軟・伸縮性回路基板と相互接続
    • プリンテッドエレクトロニクス、柔軟・伸縮性トランジスタ
  • 用途
    • フレキシブルAMOLED
    • フレキシブルPMOLED(パッシブマトリックスOLED)
    • 折りたたみ式および回転式のOLEDスマートフォン
    • 折りたたみ式および回転式のOLEDディスプレイ
    • 透明ディスプレイ
    • 湾曲した自動車用ディスプレイ
    • フレキシブル・ウェアラブルなディスプレイ広告
    • フレキシブルOLED照明
    • フレキシブル量子ドットディスプレイ
    • フレキシブル電気泳動ディスプレイ
    • エレクトロウェッティングディスプレイ
    • エレクトロクロミックディスプレイ
    • フレキシブル有機液晶ディスプレイ(OLCD)
  • 世界の市場規模
  • 市場の課題
  • 企業プロファイル(47企業プロファイル)

第8章 導電性インク

  • 市場の成長要因
  • 導電性インクタイプ
    • 導電性インク素材
  • 印刷方法
    • ナノ粒子インク
  • 焼結
  • 導電性フィラメント
  • 導電性フィルム、ホイルおよびグリッド
  • フレキシブルエレクトロニクスでのインクジェット印刷
  • 皮膚に描かれた電子機器
  • 現在の最先端技術
    • 現在の製品
  • 用途
    • 比較特性
    • 導電性インクのナノ材料
    • RFID
    • スマートラベル
    • スマート衣類と電子テキスタイル
    • 印刷されたセンサー
    • 印刷されたバッテリー
    • インモールドエレクトロニクス
    • プリントトランジスタ
  • 世界の市場規模
  • 企業プロファイル(企業プロファイル98社)

第9章 プリンテッドエレクトロニクス 、柔軟・伸縮性電子材料および複合材料

  • 透明導電性フィルム(TCF)
  • カーボンナノチューブ
  • 導電性高分子(CP)
  • グラフェン
  • 金網
  • シルバーインク(フレーク、ナノ粒子、ナノワイヤー、イオン)
  • コッパーインク
  • ナノセルロース
  • ナノファイバー
  • グラフェン量子ドット
  • 電場応答性高分子(EAPS)
  • ペロブスカイト量子ドット(PQD)
  • その他のタイプ
  • その他の2Dマテリアル

第10章 参考文献

目次
Product Code: WEAR3ED20

The rapid boom in smart wearable and integrated electronic devices has stimulated demand for advanced intelligent systems with high performance, micro size, mechanical flexibility, and high-temperature stability for application as flexible and stretchable displays, personal health monitoring, human motion capturing, smart textiles, electronic skins and more.

Wearable technology, wearables, or wearable devices is incorporation electronics into clothing or accessories that can be worn on a user's body. The purpose of wearable technologies is to provide entertainment, healthcare, and education in people's daily lives. Wearable electronics encompasses the incorporation of technological components in clothing accessories or objects we carry. The development of next-generation, wearable flexible electronics relies on novel materials that are:

  • Mechanically flexible.
  • Low-cost.
  • Electrically conductive.
  • Optically transparent.

There is increasing demand for wearable electronics from industries such as:

  • Medical and healthcare monitoring and diagnostics.
  • Sportswear and fitness monitoring (bands).
  • Consumer electronics such as smart watches, smart glasses and headsets.
  • Military GPS trackers, equipment (helmets) and wearable robots.
  • Smart apparel and footwear in fashion and sport.
  • Workplace safety and manufacturing.

The development of printed, flexible and stretchable conductors over the last decade has resulted in commercialization of flexible and stretchable sensors, circuits, displays, and energy harvesters for next-generation wearables and soft robotics. These systems must be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics.

The electronics industry is moving at a fast pace from standard, inflexible form factors to stretchable and conformable devices. Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics products are increasing weekly from wearables for healthcare to smart packaging, sensors, automotive tail lights and displays, flexible displays, photovoltaics and more.

Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings. These technologies will drive innovation in smart medical technology, automotive, smart manufacturing, Internet of Things (IoT) and consumer electronics.

In the flexible displays market, electronics giants such as Samsung and LG Electronics are rolling our flexible, foldable and rollable smartphone and tablet products. LGs rollable LG Signature's OLED TV R will be available in 2020 and foldable smartphones have already come to market.

Wearable and mobile health monitoring technologies have recently received enormous interest worldwide due to the rapidly aging global populations and the drastically increasing demand for in-home healthcare. Commercially available and near commercial wearable devices facilitate the transmission of biomedical informatics and personal health recording. Body worn sensors, which can provide real-time continuous measurement of pertinent physiological parameters noninvasively and comfortably for extended periods of time, are of crucial importance for emerging applications of mobile medicine. Wearable sensors that can wirelessly provide pertinent health information while remaining unobtrusive, comfortable, low cost, and easy to operate and interpret, play an essential role.

Battery and electronics producers require thin, flexible energy storage and conversion devices to power their wearable technology. The growth in flexible electronics has resulted in increased demand for flexible, stretchable, bendable, rollable and foldable batteries and supercapacitors as power sources for application in flexible and wearable devices.

Many major companies have integrated conductive and electronic ink and materials in applications ranging from photovoltaics to smart packaging. There are over 100 companies with products in this space for RFID, smart clothing, sensors, antennas and transistors. As well as advancing product security and consumer interaction, the use of smart inks and coatings in active and intelligent packaging can help reduce food waste and improve medical compliance-which would have significant environmental benefits.

Report contents include:

  • Current applications, state of the art, market and products (including producers, functionalities, prices) in wearable electronics, medical and healthcare monitoring, electronics and smart textiles, energy for wearables, flexible, foldable and stretchable displays and conductive inks.
  • Advanced materials used in wearables, displays, printed, flexible, foldable and stretchable electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and flexible displays.
  • Market figures for printable, flexible and stretchable electronics, by markets, materials and applications to 2027. Market impact of COVID-19 assessed.
  • Profiles of over 400 product developers.
  • 60 companies profiled in wearables including BeBop Sensors, dorsaVi Ltd., Epicore Biosystems, Equivital Inc., FeelIT, Hitachi, Ltd., Holst Centre, Magic Leap, miomove s.r.o and more. All smart watch and fitness tracker products profiled including functionalities and prices.
  • 134 companies profiled in medical and healthcare wearables including 1drop Inc., Abbott, AerBetic, Inc., Alertgy, Aura Devices, Biobeat, BioIntelliSense, Cardiomo, CareWear, cosinuss, Dexcom, Embr Labs, Eccrine Systems, Gentag, i-Sens, WBD101 and more.
  • 102 companies profiled in electronic textiles (E-textiles) including Ambiotex, BloomerTech, Chronolife, clim8, Emglare, Formosa Taffeta, Healthwatch Technologies, Hexoskin, Inuheat, Litex, Myant, SankiConsys Co., Ltd. and more.
  • 32 companies profiled in energy storage and harvesting including Bionic Power, BrightVolt, Canatu Oy, ChivoTech, Enfucell Oy, Jenax, LG Chem and more.
  • 57 companies profiled in printed, flexible and stretchable displays including C3Nano, Cambrios, iBeam, CurveSYS GmbH, Etulipa, Futaba, Kyulux, Samsung and more.
  • 98 companies profiled in conductive ink including Ash Chemical, Cemedine, DuPont, EMS/Nagase, Henkel, Jujo Chemical, Panasonic, Taiyo, Toyobo, VFP Ink Technologies, and more.

Table of Contents

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • 1.1 The evolution of electronics
    • 1.1.1 The wearables revolution
    • 1.1.2 Wearable market leaders
    • 1.1.3 Flexible, stretchable, thin, and large-area form factors
  • 1.2 What are flexible and stretchable electronics?
    • 1.2.1 From rigid to flexible and stretchable
    • 1.2.2 Organic and printed electronics
    • 1.2.3 New conductive materials
    • 1.2.4 Foldable smartphones and tablets
  • 1.3 Growth in flexible and stretchable electronics market
    • 1.3.1 Recent growth in Printed, flexible and stretchable products
    • 1.3.2 Future growth
    • 1.3.3 Nanotechnology as a market driver
    • 1.3.4 Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3 WEARABLE ELECTRONICS

  • 3.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS
  • 3.2 APPLICATIONS
    • 3.2.1 Smartwatches
      • 3.2.1.1 Main smart watch producers and products
    • 3.2.2 Sports and fitness trackers
      • 3.2.2.1 Products
      • 3.2.3 Sleep trackers and wearable monitors
      • 3.2.3.1 Products
    • 3.2.4 Smart glasses and head-mounted displays (VR, AR, MR, vision loss and eye trackers)
      • 3.2.4.1 Products
    • 3.2.5 Military 76
    • 3.2.6 Industrial and workplace monitoring
    • 3.2.7 Flexible and stretchable electronics in wearables
    • 3.2.8 Stretchable artificial skin
  • 3.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE
  • 3.4 MARKET CHALLENGES
  • 3.5 COMPANY PROFILES 86 (60 company profiles)

4 MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES

  • 4.1 MARKET DRIVERS
  • 4.2 CURRENT STATE OF THE ART
    • 4.2.1 Monitoring solutions to track COVID-19 symptoms
      • 4.2.1.1 Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring
  • 4.3 APPLICATIONS
    • 4.3.1 Companies and products
    • 4.3.2 Electronic skin patches
    • 4.3.3 Nanomaterials-based devices
    • 4.3.4 Wearable health alert and monitoring devices
    • 4.3.5 Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)
      • 4.3.5.1 Minimally-invasive CGM sensors
      • 4.3.5.2 Non-invasive CGM sensors
      • 4.3.5.3 Companies and products
    • 4.3.6 Cardiovascular
      • 4.3.6.1 ECG sensors
      • 4.3.6.2 PPG sensors
    • 4.3.7 Pregnancy and newborn monitoring
    • 4.3.8 Wearable temperature monitoring
    • 4.3.9 Hydration sensors
    • 4.3.10 Wearable sweat sensors (medical and sports)
    • 4.3.10.1 Products
    • 4.3.11 Wearable drug delivery
    • 4.3.12 Cosmetics patches
  • 4.4 Smart footwear
  • 4.5 Smart contact lenses
  • 4.6 Smart wound care
  • 4.7 Wearable exoskeletons
  • 4.8 Medical hearables
  • 4.9 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE
  • 4.10 MARKET CHALLENGES
  • 4.11 COMPANY PROFILES (134 company profiles)

5 ELECTRONIC TEXTILES (E-TEXTILES) AND SMART TEXTILES

  • 5.1 MARKET DRIVERS
  • 5.2 MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    • 5.2.1 Conductive and stretchable yarns
    • 5.2.2 Conductive polymers
    • 5.2.2.1 PDMS
    • 5.2.2.2 PEDOT: PSS
    • 5.2.3 Conductive coatings
    • 5.2.4 Conductive inks
    • 5.2.5 Nanomaterials
      • 5.2.5.1 Nanocoatings in smart textiles
      • 5.2.5.2 Graphene
      • 5.2.5.3 Nanofibers
      • 5.2.5.4 Carbon nanotubes
      • 5.2.6 Phase change materials
      • 5.2.6.1 Temperature controlled fabrics
  • 5.3 APPLICATIONS, MARKETS AND PRODUCTS
    • 5.3.1 Smart clothing products 286
    • 5.3.2 Temperature monitoring and regulation
      • 5.3.2.1 Heated clothing
  • 5.4 Stretchable E-fabrics
    • 5.4.1 Therapeutic products
    • 5.4.2 Sport & fitness
    • 5.4.3 Smart footwear
    • 5.4.4 Military/Defence
    • 5.4.5 Medical and healthcare
      • 5.4.5.1 Wearable health monitoring
        • 5.4.5.1.1 Companies and products
      • 5.4.5.2 Monitoring solutions to track COVID-19 symptoms
      • 5.4.5.3 Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring
      • 5.4.5.4 Pregnancy and newborn monitoring
      • 5.4.5.5 Biometric monitoring
      • 5.4.5.6 ECG sensors
      • 5.4.5.7 Smart wound care
    • 5.4.6 Industrial and workplace monitoring
    • 5.4.7 Flexible and wearable display advertising
    • 5.4.8 Textile-based lighting
      • 5.4.8.1 OLEDs
    • 5.4.9 Antimicrobial textiles
      • 5.4.9.1 Nanosilver
      • 5.4.9.2 Zinc oxide
      • 5.4.9.3 Chitosan
    • 5.4.10 Smart diapers
    • 5.4.11 Protective clothing
    • 5.4.12 Automotive interiors
    • 5.4.13 Powering E-textiles
      • 5.4.13.1 Batteries
      • 5.4.13.2 Supercapacitors
      • 5.4.13.3 Energy harvesting
        • 5.4.13.3.1 Photovoltaic solar textiles
        • 5.4.13.3.2 Energy harvesting nanogenerators
          • 5.4.13.3.2.1 TENGs
          • 5.4.13.3.2.2 PENGs
        • 5.4.13.3.3 Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting
  • 5.5 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE
  • 5.6 MARKET CHALLENGES
  • 5.7 COMPANY PROFILES (102 company profiles)

6 PRINTED, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND HARVESTING

  • 6.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 413
  • 6.2 CURRENT STATE OF THE ART
    • 6.2.1 Products
    • 6.2.2 Nanomaterials
  • 6.3 APPLICATIONS
    • 6.3.1 Flexible and stretchable batteries in electronics
      • 6.3.1.1 Flexible and stretchable LIBs
        • 6.3.1.1.1 Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries
        • 6.3.1.1.2 Stretchable lithium-ion batteries
        • 6.3.1.1.3 Origami and kirigami lithium-ion batteries
      • 6.3.1.2 Flexible Zn-based batteries (ZIBs)
    • 6.3.2 Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors
      • 6.3.2.1 Materials
    • 6.3.3 3D Printed batteries
    • 6.3.4 Stretchable heaters
    • 6.3.5 Flexible and stretchable solar cells
    • 6.3.6 Stretchable nanogenerators
      • 6.3.6.1 TENGs
      • 6.3.6.2 PENGs
    • 6.3.7 Photovoltaic solar textiles
  • 6.4 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE
  • 6.5 MARKET CHALLENGES
  • 6.6 COMPANY PROFILES (33 company profiles)

7 PRINTED, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE DISPLAYS AND CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 461

  • 7.1 MARKET DRIVERS
  • 7.2 CURRENT STATE OF THE ART
    • 7.2.1 Printed, flexible and stretchable circuit boards and interconnects
    • 7.2.2 Printed, flexible and stretchable transistors
  • 7.3 APPLICATIONS
    • 7.3.1 Flexible AMOLEDs
    • 7.3.2 Flexible PMOLED (Passive Matrix OLED)
    • 7.3.3 Foldable and rollable OLED smartphones
    • 7.3.4 Foldable and rollable OLED displays
    • 7.3.5 Transparent displays
    • 7.3.6 Curved automotive displays
    • 7.3.7 Flexible and wearable display advertising
    • 7.3.8 Flexible OLED lighting
    • 7.3.9 Flexible quantum dot displays
      • 7.3.9.1 Quantum dot enhancement film (QDEF) for current QLEDs
      • 7.3.9.2 Quantum Dot on Glass (QDOG)
      • 7.3.9.3 Quantum dot colour filters
      • 7.3.9.4 Quantum dots on-chip
      • 7.3.9.5 Electroluminescent quantum dots
      • 7.3.9.6 QD-Micro-LEDs 477
    • 7.3.10 Flexible electrophoretic displays
    • 7.3.11 Electrowetting displays
    • 7.3.12 Electrochromic Displays
      • 7.3.12.1 Inorganic metal oxides
      • 7.3.12.2 Organic EC materials
      • 7.3.12.3 Nanomaterials
    • 7.3.13 Flexible organic liquid crystal displays (OLCD)
  • 7.4 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE
  • 7.5 MARKET CHALLENGES
  • 7.6 COMPANY PROFILES (47 company profiles)

8 CONDUCTIVE INKS

  • 8.1 MARKET DRIVERS
  • 8.2 CONDUCTIVE INK TYPES
    • 8.2.1 Conductive ink materials
  • 8.3 PRINTING METHODS
    • 8.3.1 Nanoparticle ink
  • 8.4 Sintering
  • 8.5 Conductive Filaments
  • 8.6 Conductive films, foils and grids 526
  • 8.7 Inkjet printing in flexible electronics
  • 8.8 Drawn-on-skin electronics
  • 8.9 CURRENT STATE OF THE ART
    • 8.9.1 Current products
  • 8.10 APPLICATIONS 528
    • 8.10.1 Comparative properties 528
    • 8.10.2 Nanomaterials in conductive inks
      • 8.10.2.1 Graphene conductive inks
    • 8.10.3 RFID
      • 8.10.3.1 Printed RFID antennaes
    • 8.10.4 Smart labels
    • 8.10.5 Smart clothing and electronic textiles
    • 8.10.6 Printed sensors
      • 8.10.6.1 Strain sensors
    • 8.10.7 Printed batteries
    • 8.10.8 In-mold electronics
    • 8.10.9 Printed transistors
  • 8.11 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE
  • 8.12 COMPANY PROFILES (98 company profiles)

9 PRINTED, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES

  • 9.1 TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE FILMS (TCFs)
  • 9.2 CARBON NANOTUBES
    • 9.2.1 Properties
    • 9.2.2 Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
      • 9.2.2.1 Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)
      • 9.2.2.2 Double-walled carbon nanotubes
    • 9.2.3 Applications in printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
  • 9.3 CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)
    • 9.3.1 Properties
      • 9.3.1.1 PDMS
      • 9.3.1.2 PEDOT: PSS
        • 9.3.1.2.1 Transparency
    • 9.3.2 Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.3.3 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
  • 9.4 GRAPHENE
    • 9.4.1 Properties
    • 9.4.2 Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.4.3 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
      • 9.4.3.1 Electrodes
      • 9.4.3.2 Sensors 603
  • 9.5 METAL MESH
    • 9.5.1 Properties
    • 9.5.2 Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.5.3 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
  • 9.6 SILVER INK (Flake, nanoparticles, nanowires, ion)
    • 9.6.1 Silver flake
    • 9.6.2 Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink
      • 9.6.2.1 Conductivity
    • 9.6.3 Silver nanowires
    • 9.6.4 Prices
      • 9.6.4.1 Cost for printed area
  • 9.7 COPPER INK
    • 9.7.1 Silver-coated copper
    • 9.7.2 Copper (Cu) nanoparticle ink
    • 9.7.3 Prices
  • 9.8 NANOCELLULOSE
    • 9.8.1 Properties
    • 9.8.2 Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
      • 9.8.2.1 Cellulose nanofibers CNF
      • 9.8.2.2 Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)
    • 9.8.3 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
      • 9.8.3.1 Nanopaper
      • 9.8.3.2 Paper memory
      • 9.8.3.3 Conductive inks
  • 9.9 NANOFIBERS
    • 9.9.1 Properties
    • 9.9.2 Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.9.3 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
  • 9.10 GRAPHENE QUANTUM DOTS
    • 9.10.1 Synthesis
    • 9.10.2 Recent synthesis methods
  • 9.11 ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS (EAPS)
    • 9.11.1 Properties
  • 9.12 PEROVSKITE QUANTUM DOTS (PQDs)
    • 9.12.1 Properties
    • 9.12.2 Comparison to conventional quantum dots
    • 9.12.3 Synthesis methods
    • 9.12.4 Applications
      • 9.12.4.1 Displays
  • 9.13 OTHER TYPES
    • 9.13.1 Gold (Au) nanoparticle ink
    • 9.13.2 Siloxane inks
    • 9.13.3 Copper nanowires
  • 9.14 OTHER 2-D MATERIALS
    • 9.14.1 BOROPHENE
      • 9.14.1.1 Properties
      • 9.14.1.2 Applications
    • 9.14.2 BLACK PHOSPHORUS/PHOSPHORENE
      • 9.14.2.1 Properties
      • 9.14.2.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.3 GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)
      • 9.14.3.1 Properties
      • 9.14.3.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.4 GERMANENE
      • 9.14.4.1 Properties
      • 9.14.4.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.5 GRAPHDIYNE
      • 9.14.5.1 Properties
      • 9.14.5.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.6 GRAPHANE
      • 9.14.6.1 Properties
      • 9.14.6.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.7 HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE
      • 9.14.7.1 Properties
      • 9.14.7.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.8 MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)
      • 9.14.8.1 Properties
      • 9.14.8.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.9 RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)
      • 9.14.9.1 Properties
      • 9.14.9.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.10 SILICENE
      • 9.14.10.1 Properties
      • 9.14.10.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.11 STANENE/TINENE
      • 9.14.11.1 Properties
      • 9.14.11.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.12 TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE 651
      • 9.14.12.1 Properties
      • 9.14.12.2 Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics
    • 9.14.13 ANTIMONENE
      • 9.14.13.1 Properties
      • 9.14.13.2 Applications
    • 9.14.14 INDIUM SELENIDE
      • 9.14.14.1 Properties
      • 9.14.14.2 Applications

10 REFERENCES

Tables

  • Table 1. Types of wearable devices and applications.
  • Table 2. Wearable market leaders by market segment.
  • Table 3. Advanced materials for Printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages. 51
  • Table 4. Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE).
  • Table 5. Foldable smartphones and tablets, on or near market.
  • Table 6. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable electronics for wearables and IoT.
  • Table 7. Main smart watch producers and products.
  • Table 8. Wearable sensors for sports performance.
  • Table 9. Wearable sensor products for monitoring sport performance.
  • Table 10. Wearable sleep tracker products.
  • Table 11. Smart glasses companies and products.
  • Table 12.Wearable electronics applications in the military.
  • Table 13. Applications in printed, flexible and stretchable electronics, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 14. Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by product type, billions $. 83
  • Table 15.Market challenges in wearable electronics and IoT.
  • Table 16. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.
  • Table 17. Examples of wearable medical device products.
  • Table 18. Medical wearable companies applying products to COVID-19 monitoring and analysis. 129
  • Table 19. Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 20. Wearable bio-signal monitoring devices.
  • Table 21. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection-advantages and disadvantages.
  • Table 22. Commercial devices for non-invasive glucose monitoring not released or withdrawn from market.
  • Table 23. Minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose monitoring products.
  • Table 24. Companies developing wearable swear sensors.
  • Table 25. Wearable drug delivery companies and products.
  • Table 26. Companies and products, cosmetics and drug delivery patches.
  • Table 27.Companies and products in smart footwear.
  • Table 28.Companies and products in smart contact lenses.
  • Table 29. Companies and products in smart wound care.
  • Table 30. Companies developing wearable exoskeletons.
  • Table 31. Companies and products in hearables. 170
  • Table 32. Global medical and healthcare wearables market, 2017-2027, billions $, by product.
  • Table 33. Market challenges in medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.
  • Table 34. Market drivers for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic electronic textiles. 262
  • Table 35. Types of smart textiles.
  • Table 36. Examples of smart textile products.
  • Table 37. Types of smart textiles.
  • Table 38. Examples of smart textile products.
  • Table 39. Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.
  • Table 40. Typical conductive ink formulation.
  • Table 41. Comparative properties of conductive inks.
  • Table 42. Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 43. Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.
  • Table 44. Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel. 279
  • Table 45. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials. 282
  • Table 46. Applications and markets for e-textiles.
  • Table 47. Commercially available smart clothing products.
  • Table 48. Electronic textiles products.
  • Table 49. Heated jacket and clothing products.
  • Table 50. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.
  • Table 51.Companies and products in smart footwear.
  • Table 52.Wearable electronics applications in the military.
  • Table 53. Examples of wearable medical device products.
  • Table 54. Medical wearable companies applying products to COVID-19 monitoring and analysis. 308
  • Table 55. Companies and products in smart wound care.
  • Table 56. Antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs in different bacterial species. 319
  • Table 57. Companies developing smart diaper products. 321
  • Table 58: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 59: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.
  • Table 60. Comparison of prototype batteries (flexible, textile, and other) in terms of area-specific performance. 329
  • Table 61. Global electronic textiles and smart clothing market 2017-2030, revenues (billions USD).
  • Table 62. Market challenges in E-textiles.
  • Table 63. Market drivers and trends for Printed, flexible and stretchable electronic energy storage and harvesting.
  • Table 64. Wearable energy storage and energy harvesting products.
  • Table 65. Nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 66. Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 67. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.
  • Table 68. Global thin film, flexible and printed batteries market 2017-2027, revenues (millions USD) by applications.
  • Table 69. Market challenges in printed, flexible and stretchable energy storage. 435
  • Table 70. Market drivers for Printed, flexible and stretchable displays and electronic components.
  • Table 71. Printed, flexible and stretchable displays products.
  • Table 72. Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 73. Foldable display products and prototypes.
  • Table 74. Companies developing transparent display products.
  • Table 75. Companies developing curved automotive displays.
  • Table 76: QD colour filter options and advantages.
  • Table 77. Types of electrochromic materials and applications.
  • Table 78. Market challenges in printed, flexible and stretchable displays and consumer electronics.
  • Table 79. Market drivers and trends for Printed, flexible and stretchable conductive inks.
  • Table 80. Typical conductive ink formulation.
  • Table 81. Comparative properties of conductive inks.
  • Table 82. Characteristics of analog printing processes for conductive inks.
  • Table 83. Characteristics of digital printing processes for conductive inks.
  • Table 84. Printable electronics products.
  • Table 85. Comparative properties of conductive inks.
  • Table 86. Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof.
  • Table 87. Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology.
  • Table 88. Global market for conductive inks 2017-2027, revenues (million $), by ink types.
  • Table 89. Comparison of ITO replacements.
  • Table 90. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials. 589
  • Table 91. Market and applications for SWCNTs in transparent conductive films.
  • Table 92. Companies developing carbon nanotubes for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics.
  • Table 93. Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.
  • Table 94. Properties of graphene.
  • Table 95.Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors.
  • Table 96. Companies developing graphene for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics.
  • Table 97. Advantages and disadvantages of fabrication techniques to produce metal mesh structures.
  • Table 98.Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.
  • Table 99. Companies developing metal mesh for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics.
  • Table 100. Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components.
  • Table 101. Nanocellulose properties.
  • Table 102. Properties and applications of nanocellulose 616
  • Table 103. Properties of flexible electronics-cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper).
  • Table 104. Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films.
  • Table 105.Companies developing nanocellulose for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics. 621
  • Table 106. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs.
  • Table 107. Comparative properties of conventional QDs and Perovskite QDs.
  • Table 108. Applications of perovskite QDs.
  • Table 109. Properties of perovskite QLEDs comparative to OLED and QLED.
  • Table 110. Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.

Figures

  • Figure 1. Evolution of electronics.
  • Figure 2. Wove Band.
  • Figure 3. Wearable graphene medical sensor.
  • Figure 4. Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics.
  • Figure 5. Xiaomi MIX Flex.
  • Figure 6. Baby Monitor.
  • Figure 7. Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors.
  • Figure 8. Applications of wearable flexible sensors worn on various body parts.
  • Figure 9. Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration.
  • Figure 10. Beddr SleepTuner.
  • Figure 11. Vuzix Blade.
  • Figure 12. NReal Light MR smart glasses.
  • Figure 13. Wearable gas sensor. 77
  • Figure 14.Stretchable transistor.
  • Figure 15. Artificial skin prototype for gesture recognition.
  • Figure 16. Global market for wearables, 2015-2027, by product type, billions US$.
  • Figure 17. Global market for hearables, 2017-2027, by product type, billions $.
  • Figure 18. Global market for wearables, 2015-2027, by market share of product type
  • Figure 19.Connected human body and product examples.
  • Figure 20. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products.
  • Figure 21. Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs.
  • Figure 22.Graphene medical patch.
  • Figure 23. Graphene-based E-skin patch.
  • Figure 24. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection.
  • Figure 25. Schematic of non-invasive CGM sensor.
  • Figure 26. Adhesive wearable CGM sensor.
  • Figure 27. VitalPatch.
  • Figure 28. Wearable ECG-textile.
  • Figure 29. Wearable ECG recorder.
  • Figure 30. Nexkin™.
  • Figure 31. Bloomlife.
  • Figure 32. Enfucell wearable temperature tag.
  • Figure 33. TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer.
  • Figure 34. Nanowire skin hydration patch.
  • Figure 35. NIX sensors. 157
  • Figure 36. Wearable sweat sensor.
  • Figure 37. Wearable sweat sensor.
  • Figure 38. Gatorade's GX Sweat Patch.
  • Figure 39. Sweat sensor incorporated into face mask.
  • Figure 40. Lab-on-Skin™.
  • Figure 41. D-mine Pump.
  • Figure 42.My UV Patch. 162
  • Figure 43. Overview layers of L'Oreal skin patch.
  • Figure 44. Digitsole Smartshoe. 164
  • Figure 45. Schematic of smart wound dressing.
  • Figure 46. REPAIR electronic patch concept. Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
  • Figure 47. Honda Walking Assist.
  • Figure 48. Nuheara IQbuds2 Max.
  • Figure 49. Global medical and healthcare wearables market, 2017-2027, billions $, by product.
  • Figure 50. Global market for medical and healthcare sensors and wearables, 2015-2027, by market share of product type.
  • Figure 51. Conductive yarns.
  • Figure 52. Conductive yarns.
  • Figure 53. SEM image of cotton fibers with PEDOT:PSS coating.
  • Figure 54. Applications of graphene in smart textiles and apparel.
  • Figure 55. PCM cooling vest.
  • Figure 56. EXO2 Stormwalker 2 Heated Jacket.
  • Figure 57. Flexible polymer-based heated glove, sock and slipper.
  • Figure 58. ThermaCell Rechargeable Heated Insoles.
  • Figure 59. Myant sleeve tracks biochemical indicators in sweat.
  • Figure 60. Flexible polymer-based therapeutic products.
  • Figure 61. iStimUweaR .
  • Figure 62. Digitsole Smartshoe.
  • Figure 63. Wearable medical technology.
  • Figure 64.Connected human body and product examples.
  • Figure 65. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products.
  • Figure 66. Bloomlife.
  • Figure 67. VitalPatch.
  • Figure 68. Wearable ECG-textile.
  • Figure 69. Wearable ECG recorder.
  • Figure 70. Nexkin™.
  • Figure 71. Schematic of smart wound dressing.
  • Figure 72. REPAIR electronic patch concept. Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
  • Figure 73. Wearable gas sensor. 315
  • Figure 74. Basketball referee Royole fully flexible display.
  • Figure 75: Anti-bacterial sol-gel nanoparticle silver coating.
  • Figure 76. Schematic of antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs.
  • Figure 77/ ABENA Nova smart diaper.
  • Figure 78: Omniphobic-coated fabric.
  • Figure 79. Textile-based car seat heaters.
  • Figure 80. Micro-scale energy scavenging techniques.
  • Figure 81. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
  • Figure 82 . 3D print piezoelectric material.
  • Figure 83. Global electronic textiles and smart clothing market 2017-2030, revenues (billions USD).
  • Figure 84. Global market for electronic textiles and smart clothing, 2017-2027, by market share of product type. 336
  • Figure 85. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer's breathing.
  • Figure 86. Descante Solar Thermo insulated jacket.
  • Figure 87. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey.
  • Figure 88. HiFlex strain/pressure sensor.
  • Figure 89. Electroskin integration schematic.
  • Figure 90. Smardii smart diaper. 397
  • Figure 91. Teslasuit.
  • Figure 92. Flexible batteries on the market.
  • Figure 93. Printed 1.5V battery. 417
  • Figure 94. Materials and design structures in flexible lithium ion batteries.
  • Figure 95. LiBEST flexible battery.
  • Figure 96. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs.
  • Figure 97. Electrochemical performance of materials in flexible LIBs.
  • Figure 98. Carbon nanotubes incorporated into flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries.
  • Figure 99. (A) Schematic overview of a flexible supercapacitor as compared to conventional supercapacitor.
  • Figure 100. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor.
  • Figure 101. Origami-like silicon solar cells.
  • Figure 102. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
  • Figure 103. Global market for electronics and smart textiles, 2017-2027, by market share of product type.
  • Figure 104. Global thin film, flexible and printed batteries market 2017-2027, revenues (millions USD) by applications.
  • Figure 105. PowerWalk®.
  • Figure 106. Hitz all-solid-state lithium-ion battery.
  • Figure 107. ZincPoly™ Battery.
  • Figure 108. J.Flex.
  • Figure 109. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.
  • Figure 110. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.
  • Figure 111. Thin film transistor incorporating SWCNTs.
  • Figure 112. LG Signature OLED TV R.
  • Figure 113. Flexible display.
  • Figure 114. AMOLED schematic. 466
  • Figure 115. Mirage smart speaker with wraparound touch display.
  • Figure 116. Rollable display producers and products.
  • Figure 117. LG Display transparent OLED touch display.
  • Figure 118. Transparent display in subway carriage window.
  • Figure 119. Basketball referee Royole fully flexible display.
  • Figure 120. LG OLED flexible lighting panel.
  • Figure 121. Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight.
  • Figure 122. Quantum dot film schematic.
  • Figure 123: Quantum Dots on Glass schematic.
  • Figure 124: Samsung 8K 65" QD Glass.
  • Figure 125: QD/OLED hybrid schematic. 476
  • Figure 126: Electroluminescent quantum dots schematic.
  • Figure 127: The Wall microLED display.
  • Figure 128: Individual red, green and blue microLED arrays based on quantum dots.
  • Figure 129. Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots. 479
  • Figure 130. LECTUM® display.
  • Figure 131. Argil electrochromic film integrated with polycarbonate lenses.
  • Figure 132. Organic LCD with a 10-mm bend radius.
  • Figure 133. Global flexible, foldable and rollable OLED revenues, 2017-2030 (billion $).
  • Figure 134. Global foldable displays revenues by application, 2018-2030 (millions $).
  • Figure 135. BGT Materials graphene ink product.
  • Figure 136. Flexible RFID tag.
  • Figure 137. Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics.
  • Figure 138. Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive. 535
  • Figure 139. Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs.
  • Figure 140. Global market for conductive inks 2017-2027, revenues (million $), by ink types.
  • Figure 141. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint.
  • Figure 142. Transparent conductive switches-PEDOT.
  • Figure 143. CNT stretchable Resin Film.
  • Figure 144. Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube.
  • Figure 145. Flexible CNT CMOS integrated circuits with sub-10 nanoseconds stage delays.
  • Figure 146. Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics.
  • Figure 147. CNT transparent conductive film formed on glass and schematic diagram of its structure.
  • Figure 148. Stretchable carbon aerogel incorporating carbon nanotubes.
  • Figure 149. Graphene layer structure schematic.
  • Figure 150. Flexible graphene touch screen.
  • Figure 151. Graphene electrochromic devices.
  • Figure 152. Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film.
  • Figure 153. Large-area metal mesh touch panel.
  • Figure 154. Bending durability of Ag nanowires.
  • Figure 155. Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh.
  • Figure 156. Copper based inks on flexible substrate.
  • Figure 157. Cellulose nanofiber films.
  • Figure 158. Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper.
  • Figure 159. LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF.
  • Figure 160. Foldable nanopaper.
  • Figure 161. Foldable nanopaper antenna.
  • Figure 162. Paper memory (ReRAM).
  • Figure 163. A pQLED device structure.
  • Figure 164. Development roadmap for perovskite QDs.
  • Figure 165. Perovskite quantum dots under UV light.
  • Figure 166. Borophene schematic.
  • Figure 167. Black phosphorus structure.
  • Figure 168. Black Phosphorus crystal.
  • Figure 169. Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation.
  • Figure 170. Graphitic carbon nitride.
  • Figure 171. Schematic of germanene.
  • Figure 172. Graphdiyne structure.
  • Figure 173. Schematic of Graphane crystal.
  • Figure 174. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.
  • Figure 175. Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide.
  • Figure 176. SEM image of MoS2.
  • Figure 177. Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor.
  • Figure 178. Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge.
  • Figure 179. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide.
  • Figure 180. Silicene structure.
  • Figure 181. Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate.
  • Figure 182. Silicene transistor.
  • Figure 183. Crystal structure for stanene.
  • Figure 184. Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111).
  • Figure 185. Schematic of tungsten diselenide.
  • Figure 186. Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe).
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