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暗視画像システム (NVIS) 照明用LEDの世界市場予測

LEDs in Night Vision Imaging System Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast 2015-2022

発行 ElectroniCast 商品コード 243965
出版日 ページ情報 英文 298 Pages
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暗視画像システム (NVIS) 照明用LEDの世界市場予測 LEDs in Night Vision Imaging System Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast 2015-2022
出版日: 2016年04月11日 ページ情報: 英文 298 Pages
担当者のコメント
エレクトロニキャストは、エレクトロニクス、光ファイバー、発光ダイオード(LED)、先進フォトニクス、集積回路(IC)、マイクロ波/無線、ネットワーク通信などの分野を専門とする市場調査会社です。本レポートは、2021年までの世界市場予測を図表や製品の画像を交えながら丁寧に分析しております。用途別に深く掘り下げ、詳細な分析を行っており、世界ならびに各地域ごとの市場予測のデータベース(エクセル)も付いた貴重な1冊です。
概要

暗視画像システム (NVIS) は、赤外線画像増幅管や波長が0.7〜300μmの電磁波を出す赤外線ライトなどで構成されており、主に軍などの非民生部門で使用されていますが、近年自家用の航空機や車両に搭載されるEVS (Enhanced Vision System) など民生用の製品も増えています。NVISは、波長が600nmから930nmの光に対して極めて高い感度を有するシステムであり、夜間の微弱な光をおよそ2000倍に増幅することができます。NIVS用の赤外線照明で使用されるLEDには、暗視装置の感度に悪影響を及ぼす近赤外線ノイズを出さないという条件が課されており、この条件を満たすことができるかどうかは設計段階で決まります。

当レポートは、暗視画像システム (NVIS) で使用されるLEDの市場を詳細に分析するとともに、2021年までの予測を示したもので、軍用機や艦艇、地上車両、地上部隊の指揮官が使用するシステムおよび法執行機関や救急サービスで使用される航空機や船舶、車両などに対応するシステムの市場を展望するとともに、主要企業のプロファイルも盛り込んでお届けします。

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

  • NIVSで使用されるLED - 概要
  • パッケージされていないLEDチップ - 概要

第2章 NVISで使用されるLED - 用途別市場予測

  • 概要
  • 市場予測:軍用機
  • 市場予測:艦艇
  • 市場予測:軍用車両 (M-ATVなど)
  • 市場予測:地上部隊の指揮官 (携帯型)
  • 市場予測:法執行機関と救急サービス用の航空機
  • 市場予測:法執行機関と救急サービス用の船舶
  • 市場予測:法執行機関と救急サービス用の地上車両
  • 市場予測:法執行機関と救急サービス用の現場指揮官 (携帯型)

第3章 過酷な環境に対応する製品 - 概要

第4章 LED - 技術の概要

第5章 ElectroniCastの市場調査手法

第6章 定義と標準

  • 定義 - 照明関連の頭字語、略語、一般的な用語
  • 米軍で使用されている頭字語と略語
  • 照明についての標準と協定/危険な場所の照明

第7章 ElectroniCast市場予測データベースの解説

  • 概要
  • 解説

付録

  • Excelデータベーススプレッドシート:世界市場予測
    • 詳細データ:各地地域における平均販売価格・数量・金額

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目次

This is the ElectroniCast forecast of global market consumption of packaged light emitting diodes (LEDs), also known as component-level bulbs, used in Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) compatible lighting for non-civilian use, such as military, law enforcement, emergency medical services (EMS) and related.

A night vision device (NVD) comprises of an Infrared (IR) image intensifier tube in a rigid casing, commonly used by military forces and other non-civilian sectors; however, night vision technology has become more widely available for civilian use, for example, EVS, or enhanced vision systems are finding their way into private aircraft and vehicles. Infrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 0.7 and 300 micrometers, which equates to a frequency range between approximately 1 and 430 terahertz (THz).

Night vision goggles (NVG) combined with magnification lenses constitutes night vision binoculars. Other types include monocular night vision devices with only one eyepiece, which may be mounted to firearms as night sights. NVG and EVS technologies are becoming standard operating products on helicopter operations to improve safety. Light emitting diodes used in Night Vision Imaging Systems must provide an environment that will not have near infrared (NIR) noise, which would interfere with the nighttime sensitivity of the NVGs. It is important to note that night vision compatibility (NVC) is only achieved when the design of the lighting equipment allows for proper use with and without the NVIS, at night or during the day.

In this study report, we provide a detailed 2015-2022 market forecast for LEDs that
have night vision compatibility in relationship to night vision imaging systems (NVIS)

NVIS are passive systems, which have a very high sensitivity to radiation in the approximate region of 600nm to 930nm (orange to near infrared). The NVIS work by converting photons from the outside night scene onto a micro-displayed visible image. The NVIS will amplify the nighttime scene approximately 2000 times. To protect the image intensifier assembly, the systems are equipped with an automatic gain control (AGC), which will aperture down the NVIS when exposed to bright lights in the region of approximately 600nm to 930nm. If displays or light sources are not NVIS compatible, the automatic gain control will activate and the NVIS will become proportionally less sensitive to nighttime objects outside of the cockpit.

The Department of Defense (United States) published the MIL-STD-3009 Standard for lighting, aircraft, night vision imaging system compatibility, which specifies the interface and performance requirements for aircraft lighting and display equipment that is intended to be used along with NVIS. This specification defines aircraft interior lighting standards for sources such as cockpit displays and caution / warning lights, for both day and nighttime operating conditions. NVIS filters designed for avionic applications must incorporate NIR attenuation properties, chromaticity, contrast for daylight readability and often EMI/RFI shielding. The MIL-STD-3009 superseded MIL-L-85762A standard. This standard also includes provisions for white light sources and for "leaky green" requirements.

The light emitting diodes in a display heavily influence its color, contrast, and NVIS radiance (NR) properties. White, green, and red light emitting diodes with certain spectral emission can be adjusted with filters to produce displays that comply with various NVIS color coordinates and NVIS Radiance (NR) specifications described in MIL-STD-3009. Meeting both color and Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) Radiance limits can be challenging. Each application is unique and always involves certain constraints, such as space limitations or production methods, that may require a specific approach in order meet compliance.

Filters are ideal for many commercial and military applications, including crew-station displays for aircraft and ground vehicles, as well as portable display systems in personal digital assistants (PDA), palmtops, laptops, etc. Plastic Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) filters are the ideal method for making virtually any light source compatible with NVIS, NVG, NVD, or any other night-vision apparatus. Plastic filters are extremely durable. Where all-glass filters might fracture, lightweight plastic material survives the most demanding real-world environments.

Market Forecast and Analysis by Application - The Night Vision Imaging System LED market is segmented into the following application categories:

Military

  • Aircraft
    • Cockpit / Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior Aircraft NVC Lighting
  • Ships/Watercraft
    • Bridge Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior NVC Lighting
  • Ground Vehicle
    • Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior NVC Lighting
  • Ground Field Command / Man-Portable Devices / Other
    • Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior NVC Lighting

Law Enforcement / EMS / Emergency Services / Other Non-Civilian

  • Aircraft
    • Cockpit / Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior Aircraft NVC Lighting Aircraft
  • Ships/Watercraft
    • Bridge Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior NVC Lighting
  • Ground Vehicle
    • Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior NVC Lighting
  • Ground Field Command / Man-Portable Devices / Other
    • Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
    • Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
    • Exterior NVC Lighting

Quantitative Analysis - LEDs face the challenge of creating definitive positions in the NVIS illumination market, as competing lighting solutions (technologies) are readily available and accepted. While this does not limit the potential success of LEDs, it does create some challenges. This report provides an independent examination and analysis of the changing market dynamics for LEDs used in selected end-use applications. The LED market forecast data are segmented by the following functions:

  • Consumption Value (US$, million)
  • Quantity (number/units)
  • Average Selling Prices (ASP $, each)

Regional Segmentation - The market data are segmented into the following geographic regions, plus a Global summary:

  • America
    • United States of America
    • The Rest of the American Region (ROA)
  • EMEA (Europe, Middle Eastern countries, plus Africa)
  • APAC (Asia Pacific)

LED Level Quantified in the ElectroniCast Study - A Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a solid-state semiconductor device that converts electrical energy directly into light. On its most basic level, the semiconductor is comprised of two regions. The p-region contains positive electrical charges while the n-region contains negative electrical charges. When voltage is applied and current begins to flow, the electrons move across the n region into the p region. The process of an electron moving through the p-n junction releases energy. The dispersion of this energy produces photons with visible wavelengths. Below, are four levels (or "food chain") of LEDs. For the purposes of THIS ElectroniCast study, we quantify and provide a market forecast for "Level 2"

  • Level 1 - The chip or die
  • Level 2 - Packaged LED - single or multiple-die packaged LED
  • Level 3 - LED array; may include optics, heat sink and/or power supply
  • Level 4 - LED luminaire

Ship/Watercraft Leads in Consumption - The use of LEDs in Night Vision Imaging System compatible lighting will continue to be dominated by the Military market sector. The market forecast, by ElectroniCast Consultants, provides second-level (or sub-level) applications under the Military and the Law Enforcement/EMS application sectors. The next-level of detailed is provided in the report text, as well as in the Microsoft Excel database worksheets found in the addendum of the study report. During the forecast period, as the luminous efficacy techniques improve (Lumens per Watt: lm/W), the LED is being considered for more than (just) indicator lighting.

The conversion of interior lights in aircraft cockpits and cabins to meet MIL Specifications and civil CASA standards can involve the following conversion techniques, based on cost effectiveness and operational requirement:

  • Replacement of instrument panel glass with filter material
  • Installation of filter material to warning, caution and annunciator indicators
  • Replacement of existing lamps with LED based modular lamps
  • Installation of NVIS compatible bridge and bezel lighting
  • NVG compatible floodlights

These same techniques are also used for the conversion of vehicle driving instruments, ships' bridge, navigational and control lighting and communication equipment.

Exterior lighting for ships, aircraft and vehicles can be made Night Vision Goggles (NVG) friendly or dual mode Convert/NVG friendly through:

  • Replacement of bulbs with form and fit compatible LEDs
  • Installation of solid state LED based navigation and anti-collision lights
  • Fitting filters to existing light fittings
  • Addition of Infra Red LEDs for covert navigation and formation lights only visible through NVIS

This study is based on analysis of information obtained continually over the past several years, but updated through the beginning of April 2015. During this period, ElectroniCast analysts performed interviews with authoritative and representative individuals in the LED manufacturing (materials, chips, packaging, devices, associated parts/pieces, fittings/fixtures, NVIS filters) and military/aerospace, law enforcement, communication, automotive, emergency medical services, R&D, and government regulating authorities. The interviews were conducted principally with:

  • Engineers, marketing personnel and management at manufacturers of LEDs as well as other technologies.
  • Design group leaders, engineers, marketing personnel and market planners at major users and potential users of LEDs used in Night Vision Compatible Lighting applications.
  • Other industry/sector experts, including those focused on standards activities, trade associations, and investments.

The interviews covered issues of technology, R&D support, pricing, contract size, reliability, documentation, installation/maintenance crafts, standards, supplier competition and other topics.

In analyzing and forecasting the complexities of the American and other world region markets for light emitting diode products, it is essential that the market research team have a good and a deep understanding of the technology and of the industry. ElectroniCast members who participated in this report were qualified.

Bottom-up Methodology - ElectroniCast forecasts, as illustrated in the forecast data structure, are developed initially at the lowest detail level, then summed to successively higher levels. The background market research focuses on the amount of each type of product used in each application in the base year (2015), and the prices paid at the first transaction from the manufacturer. This forms the base year data.

ElectroniCast analysts then forecast the growth rates in component quantity use in each application, along with price trends, based on competitive, economic and technology forecast trends, and apply these to derive long term forecasts at the lowest application levels. The usage growth rate forecasts depend heavily on analysis of overall end user trends toward equipment usage and economic payback.

About ElectroniCast

ElectroniCast, founded in 1981, specializes in forecasting technology and global market trends in fiber optics communication components and devices, as well providing market data on light emitting diodes used in lighting.

As an independent consultancy we offer multi-client and custom market research studies to the world's leading companies based on comprehensive, in- depth analysis of quantitative and qualitative factors. This includes technology forecasting, markets and applications forecasting, strategic planning, competitive analysis, customer-satisfaction surveys and marketing/sales consultation. ElectroniCast, founded as a technology-based independent consulting firm, meets the information needs of the investment community, industry planners and related suppliers.

Proprietary Statement

All data and other information contained in this data base are proprietary to ElectroniCast and may not be distributed or provided in either original or reproduced form to anyone outside the client's internal employee organization, without prior written permission of ElectroniCast.

ElectroniCast, in addition to multiple-client programs, conducts proprietary custom studies for single clients in all areas of management planning and interest. Other independent consultants, therefore, are considered directly competitive. ElectroniCast proprietary information may not be provided to such consultants without written permission from ElectroniCast Consultants.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1 LEDs in Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS)-Overview
  • 1.2 Unpackaged and Packaged LEDs - Overview

2. LEDs in Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS)-Application Market Forecast

  • 2.1 Overview
  • 2.2 Market Forecast: Military Aircraft
  • 2.3 Market Forecast: Military Ships/Watercraft
  • 2.4 Market Forecast: Military Ground Vehicles (M-ATV and Others)
  • 2.5 Market Forecast: Military Ground Field Command, Man-Portable
  • 2.6 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Aircraft
  • 2.7 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Ship/Watercraft
  • 2.8 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Ground Vehicles
  • 2.9 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Ground Field Command, Man-Portable

3. Military/Harsh Environments - Overview

4. LEDs - Technology Overview

5. ElectroniCast Market Research Methodology

6. Definitions and Standards

  • 6.1 Definitions - Acronyms, Abbreviations and General Terms in General Lighting
  • 6.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations in U.S. Army
  • 6.3 Lighting Standards and Protocols/ Hazardous Location Lighting

7. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base Explanation

ADDENDUM

  • Excel Data Base Spreadsheets (Global Market Forecast
    • Detailed Data: ASP ($, each); Quantity (Million); Value ($, Million) for all Regions

List of Tables

  • 1.1.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Region ($Million)
  • 1.1.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Region (Quantity/Units)
  • 1.1.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America Market Forecast ($Million)
  • 1.1.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America Forecast (Quantity/Units)
  • 1.1.5 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Application ($Million)
  • 2.1.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Application ($Million)
  • 2.2.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, Military Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.2.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America, Military Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.2.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting EMEA Forecast, Military Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.2.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting APAC Forecast, Military Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.3.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, Military Ship/Watercraft ($Million)
  • 2.3.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America, Military Ship/Watercraft
  • 2.3.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting EMEA Forecast, Military Ship/Watercraft ($Million)
  • 2.3.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting APAC Forecast, Military Ship/Watercraft ($Million)
  • 2.4.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, Military Ground Vehicle ($Million)
  • 2.4.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America, Military Ground Vehicle
  • 2.4.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting EMEA Forecast, Military Ground Vehicle ($Million)
  • 2.4.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting APAC Forecast, Military Ground Vehicle ($Million)
  • 2.5.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million)
  • 2.5.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million)
  • 2.5.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million)
  • 2.5.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million)
  • 2.6.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.6.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.6.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.6.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million)
  • 2.7.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft
  • 2.7.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft
  • 2.7.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft
  • 2.7.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft
  • 2.8.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle
  • 2.8.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle
  • 2.8.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle
  • 2.8.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle
  • 2.9.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Command/Portable
  • 2.9.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground/Portable
  • 2.9.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Command/Portable
  • 2.9.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Command/Portable
  • 4.1 LED Color Variety - Selected Examples
  • 4.2 LED Color Chart
  • 7.1 ElectroniCast Market Forecast and Analysis by Application

List of Figures

  • 1.1.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, By Top-Level Application ($Million)
  • 1.1.2 Chromaticity Limits for NVIS Colors, NVIS White and NVIS Blue
  • 1.1.3 NVIS Response Curves
  • 1.1.4 NVIS Colors Allowed in a "Class A" Cockpit
  • 1.1.5 NVIS Colors: Type I Class B
  • 1.1.6 Aircraft Cockpit Display as seen with Night Vision Goggles
  • 1.1.7 Night Vision Display Test and Measurement System
  • 1.1.8 Night Vision Display Test and Measurement System
  • 1.2.1 Diagram of a Typical LED Chip
  • 1.2.2 Diagram of a Typical LED Chip
  • 1.2.3 LED Chip Cross-Sectional Structure
  • 1.2.4 Chip On Glass Cross-Sectional Structure
  • 1.2.5 ESD Protection Diodes
  • 1.2.6 Electrostatic Discharge Example
  • 1.2.7 Chip-on-Board LED Technology
  • 1.2.8 Single-die LED: 1000 lm at 100 lm/W at 3A
  • 1.2.9 Four-die LED with Primary Optics
  • 1.2.10 Example of LED Packaged Chip (Component-Level) Bulb
  • 1.2.11 Example of LED Packaged Chip (Component-Level) Bulb
  • 1.2.12 Example of LED Packaged Chip (Component-Level Bulb) Surface Mount Variations
  • 1.2.13 Example of LED Packaged Chip: Flux (Component-Level Bulb)
  • 1.2.14 Example of High Brightness LED Packaged Chip (Component-Bulb)
  • 1.2.15 Surface Mounted Device (SMD) LED
  • 1.2.16 Chip-On-Board and Multi-Chip On Board (COB/MCOB) LED
  • 2.1.1 Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) Computer and Display
  • 2.1.2 TADS and PNVS Mounted on an Apache Helicopter
  • 2.1.3 Rotary Wing Aircraft Cockpit Display
  • 2.1.4 Long Range Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV)
  • 2.1.5 HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Prince of Wales (United Kingdom Aircraft Carriers)
  • 2.1.6 Varyag Aircraft Carrier
  • 2.1.7 USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78)
  • 2.1.8 USS John F Kennedy (CVN-79)
  • 2.1.9 Exterior Night Vision Compatible LED Military Solution (Example)
  • 2.1.10 NVIS-Friendly Exterior Aircraft Lighting
  • 2.1.11 LED Utility Cockpit Lights
  • 2.2.1 MC-130W with NVG-Compatible Lighting Operational (Interior)
  • 2.2.2 Line Drawing: NVIS General Area Floodlight for Aviation Use
  • 2.3.1 LED-Base Wave-Off Light System for Aircraft Carriers
  • 2.3.2 Helicopter Visual Approach System
  • 2.4.1 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC)
  • 2.4.2 Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV)
  • 2.4.3 L-ATV (Light Combat Tactical All-Terrain Vehicle)
  • 2.4.4 Military All Terrain Vehicle
  • 2.4.5 Military Mine Protected Vehicle
  • 2.4.6 Flyer (Next-Generation Vehicle)
  • 2.7.1 Law Enforcement Watercraft (Source: USIA Marine)
  • 4.1 Green light emission from RPCVD p-GaN layers grown on MOCVD
  • 4.2 ATEX & IECEx Certified Explosion- Proof LED Light
  • 4.3 Highest-Performing Single-Die LED
  • 4.4 LEDs on a Metal Core Linear Flexible Printed Circuit Board
  • 4.5 LED Chromatic Chart
  • 4.6 Evolution of Research Emphasis During Technology Life Cycle
  • 4.7 Wire-Bondable Silicon ESD Diode Chip in Gel-Packs
  • 4.8 LED Chip: Metal Layer (Thin Film Technology)
  • 4.9 AC LED Technology on a Wafer
  • 4.10 UV LED Chip Packages (Sample)
  • 4.11 Fully Printed Halide Perovskite LEDs with Silver Nanowire Electrodes
  • 4.12 Ultra High Bright LED Chip
  • 4.13 LED Chip Design with Copper Alloy Thermal Conductivity
  • 4.14 LED Chip Design - Sapphire vs. Copper Alloy
  • 4.15 Ultra-Thin LED
  • 4.16 Solid-State Lighting LED
  • 4.17 LED Module with High Light Quality
  • 4.18 LED Module with Low-Profile Rectangular Shape
  • 4.19 Lumiramic Phosphor Technology: Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) technology
  • 4.20 Next-Generation Light Emitting Diode Module
  • 4.21 4-Leaded RGB LED
  • 4.22 Basic Structure of a Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diode
  • 4.23 Vertically Conducting Advanced LED Structure
  • 4.24 AlGaInP LED Efficacy
  • 4.25 Red Nitride Phosphors
  • 5.1 ElectroniCast Market Research & Forecasting Methodology
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