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中国における環境保護政策

Environmental Protection in China

発行 CCM 商品コード 203870
出版日 ページ情報 英文 152 Pages
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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中国における環境保護政策 Environmental Protection in China
出版日: 2010年08月16日 ページ情報: 英文 152 Pages

当商品の販売は、2016年07月01日を持ちまして終了しました。

概要

高度経済成長の裏で、中国の環境問題は深刻化が進んでいます。現在、中国政府は環境保護法案や汚染物質規制・管理を強力に展開してますが、その実施状況は地方や産業、都市の規模によって大きな開きがあります。

当レポートでは、中国における環境保護政策の策定・実施状況について詳細に調査し、中央政府による包括的あるいは個別産業向けの環境保護政策の策定・実施状況や、各地方における環境政策の実施状況、各産業に与える影響などについて分析して、その結果を概略以下の構成でお届けします。

エグゼクティブ・サマリー

イントロダクション

第1章 中国における環境保護規制

  • 中央政府の規制の分析
    • 国家の環境保護規制の概要
    • 主な国家規制の説明
      • 環境規制法
      • 大気汚染防止・管理法
      • 大気汚染防止・管理法の施行規制
      • 水質汚染防止・管理法
      • 水質汚染防止・管理法の実施規則
      • 騒音防止・管理法
      • 固形廃棄物汚染防止法
      • クリーン生産推奨法
      • エネルギー保全法
      • 非効率な生産設備の除去活動:2010年
      • 外資系企業へのガイドライン一覧(2007年改訂)
      • 資源の総合的利用方法の一覧
      • 汚染排出費の徴収・管理に関する布告
      • 2010年中央政府予算案布告:汚染排出関連の主な支出項目
      • 水質汚染物質の排出許可の管理に関する指標:淮河・太湖地域
      • 水質汚染防止・管理提案の印刷布告・配布:淮河・海河・遼河・巣湖・テン池・長江上流・中流
      • 旧式製造企業除去通告:製紙・アルコール・化学調味料・クエン酸
      • 旧式生産設備除去通告:製紙・アルコール・化学調味料・クエン酸
      • 規制強化通告:サッカリン製造・販売
      • 食品安全法
      • 湖沼・貯水池の富栄養化防止・保護規制
      • 食品添加物の製造・監督・管理規則
      • 食品添加物の衛生の管理手法
      • 水質汚染物の排出基準と、発酵製品を取り扱う医薬品産業
      • 化学調味料産業におけるクリーン生産基準
      • 化学調味料産業における排出基準
      • クエン酸産業における産業汚染物排出基準
      • 排出基準を達成していないクエン酸企業への生産・輸出禁止措置
      • トウモロコシ加工産業での、健全な発展の促進のための指導
      • 発酵産業でのクリーン生産実施フレームワーク
      • 発酵産業でのクリーン生産の評価指標システム(試行)
      • 汚水排出統合基準
      • 大気汚染物質排出基準:石炭・石油・天然ガスボイラー
      • 食品栄養強化剤向け衛生管理基準
      • 食品添加物メーカー向け衛生基準
      • 大気汚染物質排出統合基準
      • 抽出生産を伴う医薬品産業向けの、水質汚染物質排出基準
      • 化学合成生産を伴う医薬品産業向けの、水質汚染物質排出基準
  • 地方政府の規制の分析
    • 主な地域的規制の説明
      • 長江デルタ地域
      • 珠江デルタ地域
      • 華北地方
      • 華中地方
      • 中国西部地方
      • 山東省
      • 寧夏回族自治区
      • 遼寧省
      • 吉林省
      • 黒龍江省
      • 内モンゴル自治区
    • 各地域での罰則と推進策の例
  • 各規制の耐久性の分析
    • 規制の変化:過去・現在・未来
    • 規制の耐久性に関する結論と見通し
  • 昨今の規制の変動と今後の傾向
  • 技術に大きな影響力を持つ規制の分析
  • 各産業への規制の影響:食料・食品添加物の健康成分の問題
  • 産業規制

第2章 各産業の主要企業の規制への反応:具体的な取り組みについて

  • Changchun Dacheng Industrial Group Co., Ltd.
  • Shandong Futaste Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
  • その他4社

第3章 結論:政策の影響がより強い部門

図表一覧

目次

Abstract

image1

Description:

Accompanied with China' s spectacular economic growth and industrial production expansion, environmental problems are mounting, with water pollution and water scarcity burdening the economy, rising levels of air pollution endangering the health of millions of Chinese, and much of the country' s land rapidly turning into desert.

Environmental protection industrialization started very late in China compared with developed countries. However, with rising environmental concerns from both domestic and global communities, Chinese government has realized the importance and urgency to improve its environmental protection, fully aware that pollution woes are impairing its economy, public health, social stability, and international reputation. It is now taking measures to balance its economy growth and environment protection, having released a series of laws, incentives, regulations and standards; requiring all production enterprises and construction projects to take actions, as most pollution are from production and construction.

Although environmental protection has been implemented all around the country, there are great variations in actual situation.

  • First, enforcement varies largely in different regions. In the north of China, enforcement on waste water discharge requirement is very rigid, due to insufficient water resources and local government' s strong supervision. In contrast, in the east and south, many enterprises may discharge waste water without treatment, due to weak supervision from local governments.
  • Second, the situation in large and small cities is different. Governmental supervision in large cities will be much more rigid than small cities and counties. If an enterprise wants to build a plant in large cities, it has to pass numerous environmental protection evaluations; while when the plant is set up in small cities or counties, there will be few checks from government institutions.
  • Third, cost for environmental protection varies largely from industry to industry. For example, such investment needed in agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries is much higher than that in biotechnology industry, as production of pesticides and drugs generates much virulent waste which needs deep treatment before discharged. The government requires these producers to be equipped with waste water deep treatment facilities, which cost much more than the common ones needed by biotechnology enterprises which do not generate such virulent waste. Besides, cost of waste gas treatment is much higher than that of waste water. Generally, cost of a set of flue gas desulfurization equipment is 10 times as much as that of common waste water treatment equipment. Therefore, for energy producers, such as thermal power enterprises, larger investment will be needed in environmental protection than other enterprises having to deal with only waste water, as thermal power enterprises have to deal with much waste gas.

Under rising pressure to reduce environmental impacts caused by their operations, many enterprises have to invest more than before in environmental protection to meet governmental requirements. How are enterprises in China dealing with environmental protection problems? What are they doing to save cost and survive? There are great differences by region, industry, enterprise type, scale, etc.

Most enterprises in China have their own methods to cope with environmental protection problem. Generally, those large state-owned and well-known foreign enterprises perform better in following the policies, building waste treatment projects according to related standards. For those small scale enterprises, however, they may just build simple waste treatment facilities to pass the check while never use them for environmental protection purpose. Some small private enterprises don' t invest in water treatment at all, and set the plants in remote regions, where supervision from local government is loose as some short-sighted local governments may turn a blind eye to the pollution, for a faster GDP growth.

Executive summary:

After more than 30 years of rapid economic growth and development, China is facing unprecedented challenges in its efforts to protect environment and natural resource. The rapid deterioration of the nation' s environmental quality and depletion of its natural resources are threatening the lives and health of most people in the world and the latent cause for sustained growth of the economy.

With the increasing sense of environmental protection, Chinese government pays more and more attention to environmental protection; as a result, Chinese government issues stricter environmental protection regulations and enhances the implementation of environmental protection. In addition, Chinese government also makes its resolution to control energy consumption. It is no doubt that such changes will influence each industry, especially the industries with high pollution and high energy consumption.

Now, China has implemented an environmental management system, whereby governments at all levels are responsible for the environmental quality of the areas within their jurisdiction, the competent administrative departments in charge of environmental protection have the power of overall supervision and management, while other relevant departments exercise such supervision and management functions according to the provisions of the law.

In recent years, though the national environmental protection departments kept hammering at the importance of supervision by public and public opinion on environmental protection, environmental information were partially or incompletely carried out in practice, and many local environmental protection departments refused to promulgate the environmental information with different reasons. Currently, limited environmental information is released to the public by environmental departments.

In the past several years, Chinese government has increased environmental protection requirements. Facing such changes, each enterprise has to do more action to control pollution and energy consumption, or else, it will be eliminated.

The government also formulated price and tax policies conducive to environmental protection. Tax reduction or exemption are extended to these enterprises who engaged in reclaiming renewable resources, making comprehensive utilization of resources and producing environmental protection equipments, as well as the companies using waste water, waste gas and residues as main materials of production.

But among a host of problems in current environmental standard system, the problems of disconnection between pollutant discharge standard and environmental quality standard and disconnection between industrial standard and valley environmental capacity are the most prominent, which restrict the exertion of pollutant discharge standard in the aspects of pollution control, environment enhancement and industrial structure adjustment.

Table of Contents

Executive summary

Introduction

I Environmental protection regulations in China

  • I-1 Analysis of national regulations
    • I-1-1 Overview of national environmental protection regulations
    • I-1-2 Description of key national regulation
      • I-1-2-1 Environmental Protection Law of the People' s Republic of China
      • I-1-2-2 Law of the People' s Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution
      • I-1-2-3 Enforcement Regulations for Law on Prevention of Air Pollution of the People' s Republic of China
      • I-1-2-4 Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
      • I-1-2-5 Rules for Implementation of the Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
      • I-1-2-6 Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Pollution from Environmental Noise
      • I-1-2-7 Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention of Environmental Pollution Caused by Solid Waste
      • I-1-2-8 Cleaner Production Promotion Law of the People' s Republic of China
      • I-1-2-9 Law of the People' s Republic of China on Conserving Energy
      • I-1-2-10 Eliminate ineffective capacity task in 2010
      • I-1-2-11 Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries (Amended in 2007)
      • I-1-2-12 Catalogue of Resource Comprehensive Utilization
      • I-1-2-13 Ordinance on the Collection and Management of Pollution Discharge Fee
      • I-1-2-14 Notice on declaration of 2010 central budget key pollution emission specific fund
      • I-1-2-15 Measures on the Administration of Key Water Pollutants Discharge Permit in Huaihe River and Taihu Lake valley
      • I-1-2-16 Notice on Printing and Distributing Proposal for Prevention and Control of Water Pollution of Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River, Chaohu Lake, Dianchi Lake and Upper and Middle Yellow River
      • I-1-2-17 Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Producers of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
      • I-1-2-18 Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Production Capacity of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
      • I-1-2-19 Notice on Further Strengthening Restriction of Saccharin Production and Sales
      • I-1-2-20 People' s Republic of China Food Safety Law
      • I-1-2-21 Prevention and Protection Regulations for Entrophication in Lake and Reservoir
      • I-1-2-22 Production, Supervision and Management Rules for Food Additives
      • I-1-2-23 Management Measures for Food Additive Hygiene
      • I-1-2-24 Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Fermentation Products Category
      • I-1-2-25 Cleaner Production Standards for MSG Industry
      • I-1-2-26 Discharge standards for MSG industry
      • I-1-2-27 Industrial Pollutant Discharge Standard in Citric Acid Industry
      • I-1-2-28 Production and Exports Prohibition for Citric Acid Enterprises without Achievement of Discharge Standard
      • I-1-2-29 Guidance for Promoting Healthy Development of Corn Deep Processing Industry
      • I-1-2-30 Implementation Framework for Cleaner Production in Fermenting Industry
      • I-1-2-31 Evaluation Index System (Trial) for Cleaner Production in Fermentation Industry
      • I-1-2-32 Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard
      • I-1-2-33 Air Pollutants Emission Standard for Coal-Burning, Oil-Burning and Gas-Fired Boiler
      • I-1-2-34 Hygienic Management Measures for Food Nutritive Fortifier
      • I-1-2-35 Hygienic Standard for Food Additives Manufacturer
      • I-1-2-36 Integrated Emission Standard of Air Pollutants
      • I-1-2-37 Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Extraction Production
      • I-1-2-38 Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Chemical Synthesis Production
  • I-2 Analysis of local regulations
    • I-2-1 Description of key local regulations
      • I-2-1-1 Regulation of Yangzi River Delta
      • I-2-1-2 Regulation of Pearl River Delta
      • I-2-1-3 Regulation of north of China
      • I-2-1-4 Regulation of central of China
      • I-2-1-5 Regulation of west of China
      • I-2-1-6 Regulation of Shandong
      • I-2-1-7 Regulation of Ningxia
      • I-2-1-8 Regulation of Liaoning
      • I-2-1-9 Regulation of Jilin
      • I-2-1-10 Regulation of Heilongjiang
      • I-2-1-11 Regulation of Inner Mongolia
    • I-2-2 Penalty and Promotion cases by region
  • I-3 Analysis of durability of respective regulation
    • I-3-1 Changes of regulations- Past, present, future
    • I-3-2 Conclusion and Outlook on regulatory durability
  • I-4 Recent regulation dynamics and future trends
  • I-5 Analysis of regulations having significant influences on technology
  • I-6 Influence of the regulation on each industry: Feed/Food add., health ingredient
  • I-7 Industry regulations

II How are major companies of each industry reacting to those regulations and what steps are they taking or will they take?

  • II-1 Changchun Dacheng Industrial Group Co., Ltd.
    ... ...
  • II-6 Shandong Futaste Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

III Conclusion: sectors influenced more by policy

List of tables:

  • Table Brief introduction of ' key regions for prevention and control of pollution'
  • Table I-1-2-1-1 5W1H of Environmental Protection Law of the People' s Republic of China
  • Table I-1-2-2-1 5W1H of Law of the People' s Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution
  • Table I-1-2-3-1 5W1H of Enforcement Regulations for Law on Prevention of Air Pollution of the People' s Republic of China
  • Table I-1-2-4-1 5W1H of Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
  • Table I-1-2-5-1 5W1H of Rules for Implementation of the Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
  • Table I-1-2-6-1 5W1H of Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Pollution from Environmental Noise
  • Table I-1-2-7-1 5W1H of Law of the People' s Republic of China on Prevention of Environmental Pollution Caused by Solid Waste
  • Table I-1-2-8-1 5W1H of Cleaner Production Promotion Law of the People' s Republic of China
  • Table I-1-2-9-1 5W1H of Law of the People' s Republic of China on Conserving Energy
  • Table I-1-2-10-1 5W1H of Eliminate ineffective capacity task in 2010
  • Table I-1-2-11-1 5W1H of Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries
  • Table I-1-2-12-1 5W1H of Catalogue of Resource Comprehensive Utilization
  • Table I-1-2-13-1 5W1H of Ordinance on the Collection and Management of Pollution Discharge Fee
  • Table I-1-2-14-1 5W1H of Notice on declaration of 2010 central budget key pollution emission specific fund
  • Table I-1-2-15-1 5W1H of Measures on the Administration of Key Water Pollutants Discharge Permit in Huaihe River and Taihu Lake valley
  • Table I-1-2-16-1 5W1H of Notice on Printing and Distributing Proposal for Prevention and Control of Water Pollution of Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River, Chaohu Lake, Dianchi Lake and Upper and Middle Yellow River
  • Table I-1-2-17-1 5W1H of Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Producers of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
  • Table I-1-2-18-1 5W1H of Notice on Eliminating Outmoded Production Capacity of Papermaking, Alcohol, MSG and Citric Acid
  • Table I-1-2-19-1 5W1H of Notice on Further Strengthening Restriction of Saccharin Production and Sales
  • Table I-1-2-20-1 5W1H of People' s Republic of China Food Safety Law
  • Table I-1-2-21-1 5W1H of Prevention and Protection Regulations for Entrophication in Lake and Reservoir
  • Table I-1-2-22-1 5W1H of Production, Supervision and Management Rules for Food Additives
  • Table I-1-2-23-1 5W1H of Management Measures for Food Additive Hygiene
  • Table I-1-2-24-1 5W1H of Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Fermentation Products Category
  • Table I-1-2-24-2 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
  • Table I-1-2-24-3 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
  • Table I-1-2-24-4 Limited value of water pollutants discharged with advanced control technique
  • Table I-1-2-24-5 Unit production discharge standard for pharmaceutical enterprises with fermentation products production
  • Table I-1-2-25-1 5W1H of Cleaner Production Standards for MSG Industry
  • Table I-1-2-26-1 5W1H of Discharge standards for MSG industry
  • Table I-1-2-26-2 Industrial water pollutant discharge standard in MSG industry
  • Table I-1-2-26-3 Industrial water pollutant discharge standard in MSG industry
  • Table I-1-2-26-4 Maximum emission concentration allowed in the boundary district of buffer belt
  • Table I-1-2-27-1 5W1H of Industrial Pollutant Discharge Standard in Citric Acid Industry
  • Table I-1-2-27-2 Industrial pollutant discharge standard in citric acid industry
  • Table I-1-2-27-3 Industrial pollutant discharge standard in citric acid industry
  • Table I-1-2-28-1 5W1H of Production and Exports Prohibition for Citric Acid Enterprises without Achievement of Discharge Standard
  • Table I-1-2-29-1 5W1H of Guidance for Promoting Healthy Development of Corn Deep Processing Industry
  • Table I-1-2-30-1 5W1H of Implementation Framework for Cleaner Production in Fermenting Industry
  • Table I-1-2-31-1 5W1H of Evaluation Index System (Trial) for Cleaner Production in Fermentation Industry
  • Table I-1-2-32-1 5W1H of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard
  • Table I-1-2-33-1 5W1H of Air Pollutants Emission Standard for Coal-Burning, Oil-Burning and Gas-Fired Boiler
  • Table I-1-2-34-1 5W1H of Hygienic Management Measures for Food Nutritive Fortifier
  • Table I-1-2-35-1 5W1H of Hygienic Standard for Food Additives Manufacturer
  • Table I-1-2-36-1 5W1H of Integrated Emission Standard of Air Pollutants
  • Table I-1-2-36-2 Pollutant emission limit for current air pollutant sources
  • Table I-1-2-36-3 Pollutant emission limit for new air pollutant sources
  • Table I-1-2-37-1 5W1H of Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Extraction Production
  • Table I-1-2-37-2 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
  • Table I-1-2-37-3 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
  • Table I-1-2-37-4 Limited value of water pollutants discharged with advanced control technique
  • Table I-1-2-38-1 5W1H of Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry With Chemical Synthesis Production
  • Table I-1-2-38-2 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
  • Table I-1-2-38-3 Limited value of water pollutants discharged
  • Table I-1-2-38-4 Limited value of water pollutants discharged with advanced control technique
  • Table I-1-2-38-5 Unit production discharge standard for pharmaceutical enterprises with Chemical Synthesis production
  • Table I-2-1 National and local integrated wastewater discharge standards (mg/L)
  • Table I-2-2 National and local highest wastewater discharge volume (m3/t product)
  • Table I-2-1-1-1 Shanghai Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-1-2 Jiangsu Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-1-3 Zhejiang Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-2-1 Guangdong Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-3-1 Beijing Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-3-2 Hebei Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-3-3 Tianjin Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-3-4 Shanxi Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-4-1 Anhui regulations
  • Table I-2-1-4-2 Henan regulations
  • Table I-2-1-4-3 Hubei regulations
  • Table I-2-1-4-4 Hunan regulations
  • Table I-2-1-5-1 Sichuan regulations
  • Table I-2-1-5-2 Shaanxi regulations
  • Table I-2-1-5-3 Qinghai regulations
  • Table I-2-1-6-1 Shandong regulations
  • Table I-2-1-7-1 Ningxia regulations
  • Table I-2-1-8-1 Liaoning Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-9-1 Jilin Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-10-1 Heilongjiang Regulations
  • Table I-2-1-11-1 Inner Mongolia Regulations
  • Table I-2-2-1 Implementation dynamics of environmental regulations in each region
  • Table I-2-2-2 Penalty and promotion cases by region
  • Table I-3-1-1 Durability of regulations
  • Table I-3-2-1 Regulation may be modified in the following several years and the reason
  • Table I-3-2-2 Initiation date of consultative paper regulations
  • Table I-4-1 Regulation may be modified or issued in the following five years
  • Table I-5-1 Scoring standard for regulations' influence on target technologies
  • Table I-5-2 Influence assessment of regulation on four technologies
  • Table I-5-3 Explanation of regulation' s influence on Fermentation
  • Table I-5-4 Explanation of regulation' s influence on Enzyme conversion
  • Table I-5-5 Explanation of regulation' s influence on chemical synthesis
  • Table I-5-6 Explanation of regulation' s influence on Extraction
  • Table I-6-1 Influence of the regulations on each industry
  • Table I-6-2 Influence of each key regulation on each industry
  • Table I-7-1 Issue date and reason of industry regulations
  • Table I-7-2 MSG industry restructuring history
  • Table II-3-1 Comparison of water-soluble dietary fiber technique between Baolingbao Biology and other domestic producers
  • Table II-3-2 Comparison of fructo-oligosaccharide technique between Baolingbao Biology and other domestic producers

List of figures:

  • Figure Geographic distribution of key rivers and lakes in China
  • Figure I-1-1-1 Hierarchical structure of environmental protection law system
  • Figure I-6-1 Input in controlling industrial pollution in China, 2004~2008
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