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市場調査レポート
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953943

世界の生分解性プラスチック市場規模調査(COVID-19の影響とともに):タイプ別、用途別、地域別予測(2020年~2027年)

Global Biodegradable Plastics Market Size study with COVID-19 Impact, by Type, by Application and Regional Forecasts 2020-2027

出版日: | 発行: Bizwit Research & Consulting LLP | ページ情報: 英文 | 納期: 2~3営業日

価格
価格表記: USDを日本円(税抜)に換算
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=114.84円
世界の生分解性プラスチック市場規模調査(COVID-19の影響とともに):タイプ別、用途別、地域別予測(2020年~2027年)
出版日: 2020年07月30日
発行: Bizwit Research & Consulting LLP
ページ情報: 英文
納期: 2~3営業日
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

世界の生分解性プラスチック市場は、2019年に約35億米ドルと評価されており、予測期間の2020年~2027年で15.1%を超える健全な成長率で拡大すると予測されています。生分解性プラスチックは、原料や石油化学製品を使用して作られ、細菌などの生物によって分解することができます。生分解性プラスチックは環境にやさしい素材でできており、生産に必要なエネルギーが少ないため、分解にかかる時間が短くなります。COVID-19のパンデミックにより、多くの組織の製造施設やサプライチェーンが停止しているため、 世界の生分解性プラスチック市場は課題に直面しています。食品包装および堆肥袋における使用の増加、環境にやさしいプラスチック製品に対する消費者の嗜好の変化、およびグリーン調達政策への政府の注力が予測期間中の市場の成長を左右する要因です。さらに、市場プレーヤーによる製品やサービスの導入、および戦略的提携などにより、市場に豊富な需要を生み出すでしょう。たとえば、2019年3月26日、NatureWorksはIngeo 3D450を発売しました。これは、デュアル押出プリンターでの3Dプリンティングブレイクアウェイサポート用の新しいポリ乳酸(PLA)配合物です。ただし、従来のプラスチックよりも生分解性プラスチックのコストが高いことが、予測期間中の世界の生分解性プラスチック市場の成長を抑制する主な要因となっています。

当レポートでは、世界の生分解性プラスチック市場について調査し、市場の概要とともに、タイプ別、用途別、地域別の動向、および市場に参入する企業のプロファイルなどを提供しています。

目次

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 世界の生分解性プラスチック市場の定義と範囲

第3章 世界の生分解性プラスチック市場力学

  • 生分解性プラスチック市場の影響分析(2018-2027)

第4章 世界の生分解性プラスチック市場産業分析

  • ポーターの5フォースモデル
  • PEST分析
  • 投資採用モデル
  • アナリストの提言と結論

第5章 タイプ別世界の生物分解性のプラスチック市場

  • 市場のスナップショット
  • タイプ別世界の生物分解性のプラスチック市場、パフォーマンス-潜在的な分析
  • タイプ別世界の生物分解性のプラスチック市場の見積と予測:2017-2027年(10億米ドル)
  • 生分解性プラスチック市場、サブセグメント分析
    • PLA
    • スターチブレンド
    • 生分解性ポリエステル
    • ポリヒドロキシアルカノエート(PHA)
    • その他

第6章 用途別世界の生分解性プラスチック市場

  • 市場のスナップショット
  • 用途別世界の生分解性プラスチック市場、パフォーマンス-潜在的な分析
  • 用途別世界の生分解性プラスチック市場の見積と予測:2017-2027年(10億米ドル)
  • 生分解性プラスチック市場、サブセグメント分析
    • 包装・バッグ
    • 消費財
    • 農業・園芸
    • 繊維
    • その他

第7章 世界の生分解性プラスチック市場、地域分析

  • 地域市場のスナップショット
  • 北米
    • 米国
    • カナダ
  • 欧州のスナップショット
    • 英国
    • ドイツ
    • フランス
    • スペイン
    • イタリア
    • その他
  • アジア太平洋地域のスナップショット
    • 中国
    • インド
    • 日本
    • オーストラリア
    • 韓国
    • その他
  • ラテンアメリカのスナップショット
    • ブラジル
    • メキシコ
  • その他

第8章 競合情報

  • トップ市場戦略
  • 企業プロファイル
    • Natureworks
    • BASF SE
    • Total Corbion PLA
    • Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    • Biome Bioplastics
    • Plantic Technologies
    • Bio-On
    • Danimer Scientific
    • Novamont S.P.A.
    • Toray Industries

第9章 調査プロセス

図表

LIST OF TABLES

  • TABLE 1. Global biodegradable Plastics market, report scope
  • TABLE 2. Global biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by region 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 3. Global biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by Type 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 4. Global biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by Application 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 5. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 6. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 7. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 8. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 9. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 10. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 11. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 12. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 13. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 14. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 15. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 16. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 17. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 18. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 19. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 20. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 21. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 22. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 23. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 24. Global biodegradable Plastics market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 25. U.S. biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 26. U.S. biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 27. U.S. biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 28. Canada biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 29. Canada biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 30. Canada biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 31. UK biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 32. UK biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 33. UK biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 34. Germany biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 35. Germany biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 36. Germany biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 37. France biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 38. France biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 39. France biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 40. Spain biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 41. Spain biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 42. Spain biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 43. Italy biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 44. Italy biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 45. Italy biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 46. ROE biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 47. ROE biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 48. ROE biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 49. China biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 50. China biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 51. China biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 52. India biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 53. India biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 54. India biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 55. Japan biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 56. Japan biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 57. Japan biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 58. Australia biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 59. Australia biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 60. Australia biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 61. South Korea biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 62. South Korea biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 63. South Korea biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 64. ROPAC biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 65. ROPAC biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 66. ROPAC biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 67. Brazil biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 68. Brazil biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 69. Brazil biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 70. Mexico biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 71. Mexico biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 72. Mexico biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 73. ROLA biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 74. ROLA biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 75. ROLA biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 76. ROW biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 77. ROW biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 78. ROW biodegradable Plastics market estimates & forecasts by segment 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 79. List of secondary sources, used in the study of global biodegradable Plastics market
  • TABLE 80. List of primary sources, used in the study of global biodegradable Plastics market
  • TABLE 81. Years considered for the study
  • TABLE 82. Exchange rates considered

LIST OF FIGURES

  • FIG 1. Global biodegradable Plastics market, research methodology
  • FIG 2. Global biodegradable Plastics market, market estimation techniques
  • FIG 3. Global market size estimates & forecast methods
  • FIG 4. Global biodegradable Plastics market, key trends 2019
  • FIG 5. Global biodegradable Plastics market, growth prospects 2020-2027
  • FIG 6. Global biodegradable Plastics market, porters 5 force model
  • FIG 7. Global biodegradable Plastics market, pest analysis
  • FIG 8. Global biodegradable Plastics market, value chain analysis
  • FIG 9. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 10. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 11. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 12. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 13. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 14. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 15. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 16. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 17. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 18. Global biodegradable Plastics market by segment, 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 19. Global biodegradable Plastics market, regional snapshot 2017 & 2027
  • FIG 20. North America biodegradable Plastics market 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 21. Europe biodegradable Plastics market 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 22. Asia Pacific biodegradable Plastics market 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 23. Latin America biodegradable Plastics market 2017 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 24. Global biodegradable Plastics market, company market share analysis (2019)
目次

Title:
Global Biodegradable Plastics Market Size study with COVID-19 Impact, by Type (PLA, Starch Blends, Biodegradable Polyesters, PHA and Others), by Application (Packaging & Bags, Consumer Goods, Agriculture & Horticulture, Textile and Others) and Regional Forecasts 2020-2027.

Global Biodegradable Plastics Market is valued approximately USD 3.5 billion in 2019 and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than 15.1 % over the forecast period 2020-2027. Biodegradable plastic is made using raw materials or petrochemicals and can be decomposed by living organisms such as bacteria. Biodegradable plastic takes less time to break down as it is made up of eco-friendly material and requires less energy for production. The global Biodegradable Plastics Market is facing challenges due to COVID-19 pandemic as manufacturing facilities and supply chain of many organizations is at halt. The increasing use in food packaging & compostable bags applications, shift in consumer preference toward eco-friendly plastic products and focus of governments on green procurement policies are the few factors responsible for growth of the market over the forecast period. Furthermore, the introduction of products and services along with other strategic alliance on market player will create a lucrative demand for the market. For instance: on 26th March 2019, NatureWorks launched Ingeo 3D450, a new Polylactic acid (PLA) Formulation for 3D Printing Break-Away Support on Dual Extrusion Printers. However, higher cost of biodegradable plastics than that of conventional plastics is the major factor restraining the growth of global Biodegradable Plastics market during the forecast period.

The regional analysis of global Biodegradable Plastics market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. Europe is the leading/significant region across the world in terms of market share owing to the High awareness among people toward plastic waste. Whereas, Asia-Pacific is also anticipated to exhibit highest growth rate / CAGR over the forecast period 2020-2027.

Major market player included in this report are:

Natureworks

BASF SE

Total Corbion PLA

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation

Biome Bioplastics

Plantic Technologies

Bio-On

Danimer Scientific

Novamont S.P.A.

Toray Industries

The objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and product offerings of key players. The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below:

By Type:

Polylactic acid (PLA)

Starch Blends

Biodegradable Polyesters

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)

Others

by Application:

Packaging & Bags

Consumer Goods

Agriculture & Horticulture

Textile

Others

By Region:

North America

U.S.

Canada

Europe

UK

Germany

France

Spain

Italy

ROE

Asia Pacific

China

India

Japan

Australia

South Korea

RoAPAC

Latin America

Brazil

Mexico

Rest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

Historical year - 2017, 2018

Base year - 2019

Forecast period - 2020 to 2027

Target Audience of the Global Biodegradable Plastics Market in Market Study:

Key Consulting Companies & Advisors

Large, medium-sized, and small enterprises

Venture capitalists

Value-Added Resellers (VARs)

Third-party knowledge providers

Investment bankers

Investors

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Market Snapshot
  • 1.2. Global & Segmental Market Estimates & Forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.1. biodegradable Plastics Market, by Region, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.2. biodegradable Plastics Market, by Type, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.3. biodegradable Plastics Market, by Application, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 1.3. Key Trends
  • 1.4. Estimation Methodology
  • 1.5. Research Assumption

Chapter 2. Global biodegradable Plastics Market Definition and Scope

  • 2.1. Objective of the Study
  • 2.2. Market Definition & Scope
    • 2.2.1. Scope of the Study
    • 2.2.2. Industry Evolution
  • 2.3. Years Considered for the Study
  • 2.4. Currency Conversion Rates

Chapter 3. Global biodegradable Plastics Market Dynamics

  • 3.1. biodegradable Plastics Market Impact Analysis (2018-2027)
    • 3.1.1. Market Drivers
    • 3.1.2. Market Challenges
    • 3.1.3. Market Opportunities

Chapter 4. Global biodegradable Plastics Market Industry Analysis

  • 4.1. Porter's 5 Force Model
    • 4.1.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers
    • 4.1.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers
    • 4.1.3. Threat of New Entrants
    • 4.1.4. Threat of Substitutes
    • 4.1.5. Competitive Rivalry
    • 4.1.6. Futuristic Approach to Porter's 5 Force Model (2017-2027)
  • 4.2. PEST Analysis
    • 4.2.1. Political
    • 4.2.2. Economical
    • 4.2.3. Social
    • 4.2.4. Technological
  • 4.3. Investment Adoption Model
  • 4.4. Analyst Recommendation & Conclusion

Chapter 5. Global biodegradable Plastics Market, by Type

  • 5.1. Market Snapshot
  • 5.2. Global biodegradable Plastics Market by Type, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 5.3. Global biodegradable Plastics Market Estimates & Forecasts by Type 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 5.4. biodegradable Plastics Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 5.4.1. PLA
    • 5.4.2. Starch Blends
    • 5.4.3. Biodegradable Polyesters
    • 5.4.4. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
    • 5.4.5. Others

Chapter 6. Global biodegradable Plastics Market, by Application

  • 6.1. Market Snapshot
  • 6.2. Global biodegradable Plastics Market by Application, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 6.3. Global biodegradable Plastics Market Estimates & Forecasts by Application 2017-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 6.4. biodegradable Plastics Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 6.4.1. Packaging & Bags
    • 6.4.2. Consumer Goods
    • 6.4.3. Agriculture & Horticulture
    • 6.4.4. Textile
    • 6.4.5. Others

Chapter 7. Global biodegradable Plastics Market, Regional Analysis

  • 7.1. biodegradable Plastics Market, Regional Market Snapshot
  • 7.2. North America biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.2.1. U.S. biodegradable Plastics Market
      • 7.2.1.1. Type breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027
      • 7.2.1.2. Application breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2017-2027
    • 7.2.2. Canada biodegradable Plastics Market
  • 7.3. Europe biodegradable Plastics Market Snapshot
    • 7.3.1. U.K. biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.3.2. Germany biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.3.3. France biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.3.4. Spain biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.3.5. Italy biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.3.6. Rest of Europe biodegradable Plastics Market
  • 7.4. Asia-Pacific biodegradable Plastics Market Snapshot
    • 7.4.1. China biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.4.2. India biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.4.3. Japan biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.4.4. Australia biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.4.5. South Korea biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.4.6. Rest of Asia Pacific biodegradable Plastics Market
  • 7.5. Latin America biodegradable Plastics Market Snapshot
    • 7.5.1. Brazil biodegradable Plastics Market
    • 7.5.2. Mexico biodegradable Plastics Market
  • 7.6. Rest of The World biodegradable Plastics Market

Chapter 8. Competitive Intelligence

  • 8.1. Top Market Strategies
  • 8.2. Company Profiles
    • 8.2.1. Natureworks
      • 8.2.1.1. Key Information
      • 8.2.1.2. Overview
      • 8.2.1.3. Financial (Subject to Data Availability)
      • 8.2.1.4. Product Summary
      • 8.2.1.5. Recent Developments
    • 8.2.2. BASF SE
    • 8.2.3. Total Corbion PLA
    • 8.2.4. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    • 8.2.5. Biome Bioplastics
    • 8.2.6. Plantic Technologies
    • 8.2.7. Bio-On
    • 8.2.8. Danimer Scientific
    • 8.2.9. Novamont S.P.A.
    • 8.2.10. Toray Industries

Chapter 9. Research Process

  • 9.1. Research Process
    • 9.1.1. Data Mining
    • 9.1.2. Analysis
    • 9.1.3. Market Estimation
    • 9.1.4. Validation
    • 9.1.5. Publishing
  • 9.2. Research Attributes
  • 9.3. Research Assumption