表紙:オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場規模調査:薬剤クラス別、適応別、投与ルート別、エンドユーザー別、地域別予測(2021年~2027年)
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1035946

オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場規模調査:薬剤クラス別、適応別、投与ルート別、エンドユーザー別、地域別予測(2021年~2027年)

Global Opioid Analgesics Market Size study, by Drug Class, By Indication, By Route of Administration, By End User and Regional Forecasts 2021-2027

出版日: | 発行: Bizwit Research & Consulting LLP | ページ情報: 英文 | 納期: 2-3営業日

価格
価格表記: USDを日本円(税抜)に換算
本日の銀行送金レート: 1USD=114.77円
オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場規模調査:薬剤クラス別、適応別、投与ルート別、エンドユーザー別、地域別予測(2021年~2027年)
出版日: 2021年11月07日
発行: Bizwit Research & Consulting LLP
ページ情報: 英文
納期: 2-3営業日
  • 全表示
  • 概要
  • 図表
  • 目次
概要

癌、整形外科疾患、神経因性疼痛、高齢者の慢性疼痛などの発生率が上昇していることが、オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場の主要な牽引要因となっています。

また、医療費の増加や可処分所得の増加なども、同市場を促進しています。

保健省によると、ニューヨーク州では成人の約40%が慢性疾患を患っており、州内の入院の23%が慢性疾患によるものだといわれています。しかし、中毒や使いすぎの可能性を避けるために、オピオイドの販売には厳しい規制が課せられており、2021年~2027年の予測期間において市場の成長を妨げる可能性があります。また、個別化医療の普及は、予測期間中の市場成長を高める可能性があります。

当レポートでは、オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場について調査し、市場の概要とともに、薬剤クラス別、適応別、投与ルート別、エンドユーザー別、地域別の動向、および市場に参入する企業のプロファイルなどを提供しています。

目次

第1章 エグゼクティブサマリー

第2章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場の定義と範囲

第3章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場力学

  • オピオイド鎮痛薬市場の影響分析(2019年~2027年)

第4章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場産業分析

  • ポーターの5フォースモデル
  • PEST分析
  • 投資採用モデル
  • アナリストの推奨事項と結論

第5章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、薬剤クラス別

  • 市場スナップショット
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、薬剤クラス別:パフォーマンス-潜在性分析
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場の見積と予測、薬剤クラス別:2018年~2027年(10億米ドル)
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬市場、サブセグメント分析
    • モルヒネ
    • コデイン
    • フェンタニル
    • メペリジン
    • メタドン
    • トラマドール
    • オキシコドン
    • デキストロメトルファン
    • ブプレノルフィン
    • その他

第6章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、投与ルート別

  • 市場スナップショット
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、投与ルート別:パフォーマンス-潜在性分析
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場の見積と予測、投与ルート別:2018年~2027年(10億米ドル)
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬市場、サブセグメント分析
    • 経口
    • 非経口
    • 経皮
    • その他

第7章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、適応別

  • 市場スナップショット
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、適応別:パフォーマンス-潜在性分析
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場の見積と予測、適応別:2018年~2027年(10億米ドル)
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬市場、サブセグメント分析
    • 外科的疼痛
    • 癌性疼痛
    • 神経因性疼痛
    • その他

第8章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、エンドユーザー別

  • 市場スナップショット
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、エンドユーザー別:パフォーマンス-潜在性分析
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場の見積と予測、エンドユーザー別:2018年~2027年(10億米ドル)
  • オピオイド鎮痛薬市場、サブセグメント分析
    • 病院
    • 小売薬局
    • ドラッグストア
    • オンライン薬局

第9章 オピオイド鎮痛薬の世界市場、地域分析

  • 地域市場スナップショット
  • 北米
    • 米国
    • カナダ
  • 欧州スナップショット
    • 英国
    • ドイツ
    • フランス
    • スペイン
    • イタリア
    • その他
  • アジア太平洋のスナップショット
    • 中国
    • インド
    • 日本
    • オーストラリア
    • 韓国
    • その他
  • ラテンアメリカスナップショット
    • ブラジル
    • メキシコ
  • その他の地域

第10章 競合情報

  • トップ市場戦略
  • 企業プロファイル
    • Pfizer Inc.
    • Abbott Laboratories
    • Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
    • Novartis AG
    • Bayer AG
    • GlaxoSmithKline plc
    • F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG,
    • Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
    • Bausch Health Companies Inc.
    • Sanofi S.A.

第11章 調査プロセス

図表

LIST OF TABLES

  • TABLE 1. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, report scope
  • TABLE 2. Global Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by Region 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 3. Global Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by Drug Class 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 4. Global Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by Route of Administration 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 5. Global Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by Indication 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 6. Global Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by End-User 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 7. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 8. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 9. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 10. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 11. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 12. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 13. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 14. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 15. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 16. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by region, estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 17. U.S. Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 18. U.S. Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 19. U.S. Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 20. Canada Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 21. Canada Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 22. Canada Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 23. UK Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 24. UK Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 25. UK Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 26. Germany Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 27. Germany Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 28. Germany Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 29. RoE Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 30. RoE Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 31. RoE Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 32. China Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 33. China Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 34. China Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 35. India Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 36. India Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 37. India Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 38. Japan Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 39. Japan Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 40. Japan Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 41. RoAPAC Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 42. RoAPAC Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 43. RoAPAC Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 44. Brazil Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 45. Brazil Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 46. Brazil Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 47. Mexico Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 48. Mexico Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 49. Mexico Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 50. RoLA Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 51. RoLA Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 52. RoLA Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 53. Row Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 54. Row Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 55. Row Opioid Analgesics Market estimates & forecasts by segment 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • TABLE 56. List of secondary sources, used in the study of global Opioid Analgesics Market
  • TABLE 57. List of primary sources, used in the study of global Opioid Analgesics Market
  • TABLE 58. Years considered for the study
  • TABLE 59. Exchange rates considered

LIST OF FIGURES

List of figures

  • FIG 1. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, research methodology
  • FIG 2. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, market estimation techniques
  • FIG 3. Global market size estimates & forecast methods
  • FIG 4. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, key trends 2020
  • FIG 5. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, growth prospects 2021-2027
  • FIG 6. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, porters 5 force model
  • FIG 7. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, pest analysis
  • FIG 8. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, value chain analysis
  • FIG 9. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 10. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 11. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 12. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 13. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by segment, 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 14. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, regional snapshot 2018 & 2027
  • FIG 15. North America Opioid Analgesics Market 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 16. Europe Opioid Analgesics Market 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 17. Asia pacific Opioid Analgesics Market 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 18. Latin America Opioid Analgesics Market 2018 & 2027 (USD Billion)
  • FIG 19. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, company market share analysis (2020)
目次

Global Opioid Analgesics Market is valued approximately xxx billion in 2020 and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than xxx over the forecast period 2021-2027. Opioids are well known as the most effective drugs for pain management. Their implementation in chronic pain management is a standard procedure in several countries across the world. Growing incidence of cancer, orthopedic diseases, neuropathic pain and chronic pain among the geriatric population serves as key driver for the market. Increasing expenditure on healthcare and increasing disposable income are some other factors driving the Opioid Analgesics Market. Crocin, a medicine which is available in liquid as well as solid form is manufactured by leading analgesics GlaxoSmithKline Asia Private Limited (GSKAP). World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a three-level ladder approach to pain management, which includes the use of drugs with opioid contents. According to Department of Health, about 40% of adults in New York State suffer from a chronic disease and 23% of the state's hospitalization is due to chronic diseases. However, to avoid the chances of addiction and overuse, strict regulations are imposed on sales of opioids which may impede the growth of the market over the forecast period of 2021-2027. Also, the increase in popularity of personalized medicine is likely to increase the market growth during the forecast period.

The regional analysis of global Opioid Analgesics Market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. North America is the leading region across the world in terms of market share owing to increasing chronic illnesses and growing consumption of opioids as a pain medication are expected to continue boosting sales of opioid analgesics. Whereas, Asia-Pacific is also anticipated to exhibit highest CAGR over the forecast period 2021-2027. Factors such as increasing utilization of high amounts of opioids for pain management would create lucrative growth prospects for the Opioid Analgesics Market across Asia-Pacific region.

Major market player included in this report are:

Pfizer Inc.

Abbott Laboratories

Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. [Johnson & Johnson]

Novartis AG

Bayer AG

GlaxoSmithKline plc

F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG,

Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH

Bausch Health Companies Inc.

Sanofi S.A.

The objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and product offerings of key players. The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below:

By Drug Class

Morphine

Codeine

Fentanyl

Meperidine

Methadone

Tramadol

Oxycodone

Dextromethorphan

Buprenorphine

Others

By Ownership:

Surgical Pain

Cancer Pain

Neuropathic Pain

Other

By Route of Administration:

Oral

Parenteral

Transdermal

Other

By End User:

Hospitals

Retail Pharmacies

Drug Stores

Online Pharmacies

By Region:

North America

U.S.

Canada

Europe

UK

Germany

France

Spain

Italy

ROE

Asia Pacific

China

India

Japan

Australia

South Korea

RoAPAC

Latin America

Brazil

Mexico

Rest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

Historical year - 2018, 2019

Base year - 2020

Forecast period - 2021 to 2027

Target Audience of the Global Opioid Analgesics Market in Market Study:

Key Consulting Companies & Advisors

Large, medium-sized, and small enterprises

Venture capitalists

Value-Added Resellers (VARs)

Third-party knowledge providers

Investment bankers

Investors

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Executive Summary

  • 1.1. Market Snapshot
  • 1.2. Global & Segmental Market Estimates & Forecasts, 2019-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.1. Opioid Analgesics Market, by Region, 2019-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.2. Opioid Analgesics Market, by Drug Class, 2019-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.3. Opioid Analgesics Market, by Route of Administration, 2019-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.4. Opioid Analgesics Market, by Indication, 2019-2027 (USD Billion)
    • 1.2.5. Opioid Analgesics Market, by End-User, 2019-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 1.3. Key Trends
  • 1.4. Estimation Methodology
  • 1.5. Research Assumption

Chapter 2. Global Opioid Analgesics Market Definition and Scope

  • 2.1. Objective of the Study
  • 2.2. Market Definition & Scope
    • 2.2.1. Scope of the Study
    • 2.2.2. Industry Evolution
  • 2.3. Years Considered for the Study
  • 2.4. Currency Conversion Rates

Chapter 3. Global Opioid Analgesics Market Dynamics

  • 3.1. Opioid Analgesics Market Impact Analysis (2019-2027)
    • 3.1.1. Market Drivers
      • 3.1.1.1. Increasing chronic illnesses
      • 3.1.1.2. Increasing expenditure on healthcare
    • 3.1.2. Market Challenges
      • 3.1.2.1. Strict government policies
    • 3.1.3. Market Opportunities
      • 3.1.3.1. Increase in popularity of personalized medicine

Chapter 4. Global Opioid Analgesics Market Industry Analysis

  • 4.1. Porter's 5 Force Model
    • 4.1.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers
    • 4.1.2. Bargaining Power of Buyers
    • 4.1.3. Threat of New Entrants
    • 4.1.4. Threat of Substitutes
    • 4.1.5. Competitive Rivalry
    • 4.1.6. Futuristic Approach to Porter's 5 Force Model (2018-2027)
  • 4.2. PEST Analysis
    • 4.2.1. Political
    • 4.2.2. Economical
    • 4.2.3. Social
    • 4.2.4. Technological
  • 4.3. Investment Adoption Model
  • 4.4. Analyst Recommendation & Conclusion

Chapter 5. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, by Drug Class

  • 5.1. Market Snapshot
  • 5.2. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by Drug Class, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 5.3. Global Opioid Analgesics Market Estimates & Forecasts by Drug Class 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 5.4. Opioid Analgesics Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 5.4.1. Morphine
    • 5.4.2. Codeine
    • 5.4.3. Fentanyl
    • 5.4.4. Meperidine
    • 5.4.5. Methadone
    • 5.4.6. Tramadol
    • 5.4.7. Oxycodone
    • 5.4.8. Dextromethorphan
    • 5.4.9. Buprenorphine
    • 5.4.10. Others

Chapter 6. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, by Route of Administration

  • 6.1. Market Snapshot
  • 6.2. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by Route of Administration, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 6.3. Global Opioid Analgesics Market Estimates & Forecasts by Route of Administration 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 6.4. Opioid Analgesics Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 6.4.1. Oral
    • 6.4.2. Parenteral
    • 6.4.3. Transdermal
    • 6.4.4. Other

Chapter 7. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, by Indication

  • 7.1. Market Snapshot
  • 7.2. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by Indication, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 7.3. Global Opioid Analgesics Market Estimates & Forecasts by Indication 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 7.4. Opioid Analgesics Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 7.4.1. Surgical Pain
    • 7.4.2. Cancer Pain
    • 7.4.3. Neuropathic Pain
    • 7.4.4. Other

Chapter 8. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, by End-User

  • 8.1. Market Snapshot
  • 8.2. Global Opioid Analgesics Market by End-User, Performance - Potential Analysis
  • 8.3. Global Opioid Analgesics Market Estimates & Forecasts by End-User 2018-2027 (USD Billion)
  • 8.4. Opioid Analgesics Market, Sub Segment Analysis
    • 8.4.1. Hospitals
    • 8.4.2. Retail Pharmacies
    • 8.4.3. Drug Stores
    • 8.4.4. Online Pharmacies

Chapter 9. Global Opioid Analgesics Market, Regional Analysis

  • 9.1. Opioid Analgesics Market, Regional Market Snapshot
  • 9.2. North America Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.2.1. U.S. Opioid Analgesics Market
      • 9.2.1.1. Drug Class breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027
      • 9.2.1.2. Route of Administration breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027
      • 9.2.1.3. Indication breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027
      • 9.2.1.4. End-User breakdown estimates & forecasts, 2018-2027
    • 9.2.2. Canada Opioid Analgesics Market
  • 9.3. Europe Opioid Analgesics Market Snapshot
    • 9.3.1. U.K. Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.3.2. Germany Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.3.3. France Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.3.4. Spain Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.3.5. Italy Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.3.6. Rest of Europe Opioid Analgesics Market
  • 9.4. Asia-Pacific Opioid Analgesics Market Snapshot
    • 9.4.1. China Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.4.2. India Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.4.3. Japan Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.4.4. Australia Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.4.5. South Korea Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.4.6. Rest of Asia Pacific Opioid Analgesics Market
  • 9.5. Latin America Opioid Analgesics Market Snapshot
    • 9.5.1. Brazil Opioid Analgesics Market
    • 9.5.2. Mexico Opioid Analgesics Market
  • 9.6. Rest of The World Opioid Analgesics Market

Chapter 10. Competitive Intelligence

  • 10.1. Top Market Strategies
  • 10.2. Company Profiles
    • 10.2.1. Pfizer Inc.
      • 10.2.1.1. Key Information
      • 10.2.1.2. Overview
      • 10.2.1.3. Financial (Subject to Data Availability)
      • 10.2.1.4. Product Summary
      • 10.2.1.5. Recent Developments
    • 10.2.2. Abbott Laboratories
    • 10.2.3. Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. [Johnson & Johnson]
    • 10.2.4. Novartis AG
    • 10.2.5. Bayer AG
    • 10.2.6. GlaxoSmithKline plc
    • 10.2.7. F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG,
    • 10.2.8. Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
    • 10.2.9. Bausch Health Companies Inc.
    • 10.2.10. Sanofi S.A.

Chapter 11. Research Process

  • 11.1. Research Process
    • 11.1.1. Data Mining
    • 11.1.2. Analysis
    • 11.1.3. Market Estimation
    • 11.1.4. Validation
    • 11.1.5. Publishing
  • 11.2. Research Attributes
  • 11.3. Research Assumption