Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are created. This process is most active during pre-natal development when neurogenesis is responsible for populating the growing brain.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the self-renewing, multipotent cells that differentiate into the main phenotypes of the nervous system. These cell types include neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are the progeny of stem cell division that normally undergo a limited number of replication cycles in vivo.
The terms neuronal and neural also need to be defined. Technically speaking, "neuronal" means "pertaining to neurons," and "neural" means "pertaining to nerves, which are the cordlike bundles of fibers made up of neurons." Since both terms are descriptive of neurons, the scientific community uses the terms "neuronal" and "neural" relatively interchangeably. The complexity of this issue is explored from a strategic perspective within this report, with emphasis on how to name neural stem cell products and therapies for optimal online and offline exposure.
In summary, an understanding of neural stem cell language and terminology can substantially improve product naming, strategic positioning, and the effectiveness of marketing communications.
Background of Neural Stem Cells
In 1992, Reynolds and Weiss were the first to isolate neural stem cells from the striatal tissue of adult mice brain tissue, including the subventricular zone, which is a neurogenic area. Since then, neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated from various areas of the adult brain, including non-neurogenic areas like the spinal cord, and from other species, including humans.
During the development of the nervous system, neural progenitor cells can either stay in the pool of proliferating undifferentiated cells or exit the cell cycle and differentiate. The past twenty years have seen great advances in neural stem cell research and applications. Researchers have isolated NSCs, which have demonstrated pluripotency and the ability to differentiate into many different immune system cell types.
In addition, NSCs can be regulated both in vitro and in vivo, which represent different commercial product opportunities. Neural stem cells have also become of profound interest to the research community due to their potential to be used in drug discovery and delivery applications, as well as for tools of neural toxicology assessment.
NSC transplantation also represents a ground-breaking approach for treating a range of chronic neurological diseases and acute CNS injuries, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and spinal cord injury, among other conditions.
Furthermore, neural stem and progenitor cells offer the potential to safely carry out pharmacology assessment for drugs designed to impact brain function or physiology. As tests on human cells become increasingly feasible, the potential grows for companies to develop disease-specific cell assays by producing recombinant stem cell lines expressing a therapeutic target.
As novel drug delivery agents, neural stem cells also show promise in killing gliomas and other cancers. Finally, viable therapies for treating disease through neural stem cell transplantation are also on the horizon for forward-thinking researchers.
Market Overview for Neural Stem Cell Products
To facilitate research resulting from these advances, a large and diverse market has emerged for neural stem cell products, services, and therapies. In total, the neural stem cell product marketplace is comprised of the total annual sales from all of these items, on a global basis.
One thriving component of the neural stem cell marketplace is the segment that sells neural stem cell research products to scientists. Termed "research supply companies" or "research product companies," large companies that dominate in this area include Thermo Fisher Scientific, STEMCELL Technologies, and EMD Millipore, as well as more than 40 other suppliers that range in size from multinational corporations to small specialty companies. Together, these research supply companies represent a substantial annual percentage of NSC product sales.
Currently, EMD Millipore, known as Merck Millipore outside of the United States and Canada, is the leader in neural stem cell product development for the scientific community. A Canadian company, STEMCELL Technologies, is a close second in the area of NSC product development for scientists.
While development of therapies that involve embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continue to expand, development of neural stem cell therapies has been more substantially affected by barriers to entry, including patent restrictions, the dominance of current competitors, and the complexity of neural stem cell applications. Currently, in the area of neural stem cell therapy development, there are currently three dominant competitors, which are Neural Stem, NeuroNova AB, and NeuroGeneration. In addition to these companies, there are more than a dozen other companies actively developing neural stem cells therapies for use in the treatment of human injury and disease.
Importance of Neural Stem Cell Products to the Pharmaceutical Industry
Pharmaceutical companies have intense interest in neural stem cell product development. Because of their plasticity, ability to develop into the main phenotypes of the nervous system, and unlimited capacity for self-renewal, NSCs have been proposed for use in a variety of pharmaceutical applications.
These pharmaceutical applications include:
- Neurotoxicity testing
- Cellular therapies to treat central nervous system (CNS) conditions
- Neural tissue engineering and repair
- Drug target validation and testing
- Personalized medicine
- And more
For this reason, development of neural stem cell products by the pharmaceutical sector represents a thriving segment of the global marketplace. Of particular interest to this community is the potential to use neural stem cells to heal tissues that have a naturally limited capacity for renewal, such as the human brain and spinal cord tissue.
Furthermore, development of new drugs is extremely costly and the success rate of bringing new compounds to the market is unpredictable. Therefore, it is crucial that pharmaceutical companies minimize late-stage product failures, including unexpected neurotoxic effects, that can can arise when candidate drugs enter the clinical testing stages. Therefore, it is desirable to test candidate drugs using in vitro assays of high human relevance as early as possible. Because neural stem cells have the potential to differentiate into nearly all of the main phenotypes of the nervous system, they represent an ideal cell type from which to design such neural screening assays.
Summary of Neural Stem Cell Report Findings
Growth in stem cell research has exploded over the past two decades, and the market to supply neural stem cell products and therapies has grown to meet this huge demand. The proliferation of neural stem cell research since 1992 has opened the floodgates for forward-thinking companies to enter a unique product and technology marketplace.
Claim this report to reveal the current and future needs of the NSC marketplace, so you can focus your marketing efforts on the most profitable products, in the most promising research areas, and within the most lucrative domestic and international markets.
Key findings within this report include: (Neural Stem Cell = NSC)
- Recent Advances in NSC Research and Clinical Applications
- Trend Rate Data for NSC Grants, Clinical Trials, Scientific Publications
- Geographic Assessment of NSC Clinical Trial Activity
- Utilization of NSCs Relative to Other Stem Cell Types
- Patent Analysis for the NSC Sector
- NSC Market Size Determinations, including Projections for 2016-2020
- Key Acquisitions and Partnerships within the NSC Sector
- Social Analytics for the NSC Marketplace, including Individual User Data and Aggregate Responses
- Top-Shared NSC Articles (Trailing 12-Months)
- Overview of NSCs in the Context of the Broader Stem Cell Marketplace
- Company Profiles for NSC Industry Leaders
Companies mentioned in this report include:
- Neuralstem, Inc.
- NeuroNova AB
- StemCells, Inc.
- ReNeuron Limited
- Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc.
- Thermo Fisher Scientific
- STEMCELL Technologies
- Axol Bio
- R&D Systems
Finally, the content and metrics contained in this report were compiled using a broad range of sources, including:
- Stem Cell Grant Databases (RePORT Database, CIRM, MRC, Wellcome Trust)
- Stem Cell Patent Databases (United States Patent and Trade Office, World Intellectual Property Organization)
- Stem Cell Clinical Trial Databases (ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, European Union Clinical Trials Register )
- Stem Cell Scientific Publication Databases (PubMed, Highwire Press, Google Scholar)
- Stem Cell Product Launch Announcements (Trade Journals, Google News)
- Stem Cell Industry Events (Google News, Google Alerts)
- Stem Cell Company News (SEC Filings, Investor Publications, Historic Performance)
- Interviews with Stem Cell Industry Leaders and Executives
- SEC Filings and Related Investor Publications
- Social Analytics Tools for Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Search, and Google Trends
- BioInformant's Proprietary Dashboard of MSC Industry Metrics and 10-Year Historical Database
Table of Contents
1 REPORT OVERVIEW
- 1.1 Statement of the Report
- 1.1 Executive Summary
3 STEM CELLS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
- 3.1 Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs)
- 3.2 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)
- 3.3 Types of Specialized Cells Derived from Stem Cells
- 3.4 Types of Stem Cells in Human Body
- 3.4.1 Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs)
- 3.4.2 Embryonic Germ Cells (EG-Cells)
- 3.4.3 Fetal Stem Cells
- 3.4.4 Umbilical Cord Stem Cells
- 3.5 Adult Stem Cells
- 3.5.1 Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)
- 3.5.2 Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)
- 3.5.3 Neural Stem Cells (NSCs)
- 188.8.131.52 NSCs' Capacity to Migrate and Engraft
- 184.108.40.206 Characterization of NSCs
- 220.127.116.11 Major Three Neuronal Lineages from NSCs
- 3.6 Characteristics of Different Types of Stem Cells
- 3.7 Number of Clinical Studies in Cell Therapy Sector by Geography
- 3.7.1 Number of Cell Therapy Clinical Trials by Cell Type
- 3.7.2 Cell Therapy Clinical Studies by Indication
4 NEURAL STEM CELLS: AN OVERVIEW
- 4.1 Sources of NSCs
- 4.2 Basal Properties of NSCs Obtained from Different Sources
- 4.2.1 BMSCs as a Sourse for NSC-Like Cells
- 4.2.2 UCBSCs: Express Pro-Neural Genes and Neural Markers
- 4.2.3 ESCs as a Source for NSCs
- 4.2.4 iPSCs as a Source of NSCs
- 18.104.22.168 Methods used to produce iPSCs
- 22.214.171.124 Chemicals used for Neural Differentiation of iPSCs
- 126.96.36.199 Small Molecule-Based Culture Protocols for inducing hPSCs Differentiation
- 188.8.131.52 Compounds used for NSC Proliferation
- 184.108.40.206 Synthetic Compounds Used to Induce NSC Differentiation into Neurons
- 220.127.116.11 Natural Products affecting NSC Survival, Proliferation and Differentiation
- 4.3 Fetal Stem Cell Transplantation for Neurodegenerative Diseases
- 4.4 Adult Human Neural Stem (aNSCs) Therapeutics
- 4.4.1 Current Therapeutic Status of aNSCs
5 DEGENERATIVE DISEASES WITH POSSIBLE CURE USING NSCS
- 5.1 Conventional Treatments for Neurodegenerative Diseases
- 5.2 NSC-Based and Traditional Approaches for Neurodenerative Diseases
- 5.3 The Wide Gap between Theory and Practice in NSC Applications
- 5.4 Types of NSCs used for Cell Therapy Approaches
- 5.4.1 Fetal and Adult-Derived NSCs
- 5.4.2 NSCs from Pluripotent Stem Cells
- 5.5 Possible Therapeutic Actions of Grafted NSCs in Neurodegenerative Diseases
- 5.6 Most Recent Clinical Trials Using NSCs for Neurological Disorders
- 5.6.1 Possible Outcome of Clinical Trials
- 5.7 Other Clinical Trials using NSCs for Neurodegenerative Diseases
- 5.8 Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Cell Therapy
- 5.8.1 Clinical Trials for Neurodevelopmental Disorders
6 SPINAL CORD INJURY AND CELL THERAPY
- 6.1 Incidence of Spinal Cord Injury
- 6.2 Neurological Level and Extent of Lesion in Spinal Cord Injuries
- 6.3 Annual and Lifetime Cost of Treating SCI Patients in the U.S.
- 6.4 Medications and Other treatments for Spinal Cord Injury
- 6.5 CIRM Funding for Spinal Cord Injury
- 6.6 Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)
- 6.6.1 Studies in Animal Models for SCI
- 18.104.22.168 Preclinical Trials using MSCs for SCI
- 22.214.171.124 Preclinical Trials using NPCs for SCI
- 126.96.36.199 Preclinical Studies using OES for SCI
- 188.8.131.52 Preclinical Studies using SCs for SCI
- 6.7 SCI Models and Effectiveness of Neuronal Regeneration
- 6.8 Listed Clinical Trials using Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Injury
7 ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
- 7.1 Incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD)
- 7.2 Projected Number of People Aged 65 and older with Alzheimer's Disease in the U.S.
- 7.3 Cost of Care by Payment Source for U.S. Alzheimer's Patients
- 7.3.1 Total Cost of Healthcare, Long-Term Care and Hospice for U.S. AD Patients
- 7.4 Currently Available Medications for AD
- 7.5 CIRM Funding for Alzheimer's Research
- 7.6 Transplantation of Stem Cells for AD
- 7.6.1 Gene Therapy for AD
8 PARKINSON'S DISEASE
- 8.1 Incidence of Parkinson's Disease
- 8.2 CIRM Grants Targeting Parkinson's Disease
- 8.3 Current Medications for PD
- 8.4 Potential for Cell Therapy in Parkinson's Disease
- 8.5 Gene Therapy for PD
9 AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS)
- 9.1 Incidence of ALS
- 9.2 Symptomatic Treatments in ALS Patients
- 9.3 CIRM Grants Targeting ALS
- 9.4 Companies Focusing on Stem Cell Therapy for ALS
- 9.5 Cell Therapy for ALS
10 MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)
- 10.1 Incidence of MS
- 10.2 Medications for MS
- 10.3 Neural Stem Cells' Application in Multiple Sclerosis
- 10.4 Stimulation of Endogenous NSCs with Growth Factors for MS Treatment
- 10.5 CIRM Grants Targeting MS
- 11.1 Incidence of Stroke
- 11.2 Currently Available Medication for Stroke
- 11.3 Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Stroke
- 11.4 Various Stem Cell Types used in Stroke Experimental Studies
- 11.5 Ongoing Clinical Trials for Stroke using Stem Cells
- 11.6 CIRM Grants Targeting Stroke
12 MARKET ANALYSIS
- 12.1 Current Stem Cell Landscape
- 12.1.1 Number of Stem Cell Product Candidates as of 2015
- 12.1.2 Commercial Stem Cell Therapy Development by Geography as of 2015
- 12.1.3 Commercially Attractive Therapeutic Areas
- 12.1.4 Major Companies Investing in Stem Cell Industry as of 2015
- 12.1.5 Venturing of Big Pharma into Stem Cell Therapy Sector
- 12.3 Major Clinical Milestones in Cell Therapy Sector in 2015
- 12.3.1 TiGenics' Cx601
- 12.3.2 Mesoblast Ltd. and JCR Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.
- 12.3.3 Chiesi's Holocar
- 12.3.4 ReNeuron's Retinitis Pigmentosa Cell Therapy Candidate
- 12.3.5 Orphan Drug Designation to Pluristem's PLX-PAD Cells
- 12.4 Major Anticipated Cell Therapy Clinical Data Events in 2016
- 12.5 Global Market for Cell Therapy Products
- 12.5.1 Global Market for Neural Stem Cells
13 SELECTED COMPANY PROFILES
- 13.1 Asterias Biotherapeutics Inc.
- 13.2 Atherdsys Inc.
- 13.2.1 MultiStem Programs
- 13.2.2 Ischemic Stroke
- 13.2.3 Clinical Programs (Stroke Phase II)
- 13.3 Axiogenesis AG
- 13.3.1 Peri.4U - Human iPS Cell-Derived Peripheral Neurons
- 13.3.2 Dopa.4U - Human iPS Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons
- 13.3.3 CNS.4U - Human iPS Cell-Derived Central Nervous System Cells - in development
- 13.3.4 Astro.4U - Human iPS Cell-Derived Astrocytes - in development
- 13.4 AxoGen Inc.
- 13.4.1 Avance Nerve Graft
- 13.4.2 AxoGuard Nerve Connector
- 13.4.3 AxoGuard Nerve Protector
- 13.4.4 AxoTouch Two-Point Discriminator
- 13.5 BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics
- 13.5.1 NurOwn in the Clinic
- 13.6 Cellular Dynamics International
- 13.6.1 iCell Neurons
- 13.6.2 iCell Astrocytes
- 13.6.3 iCell DopaNeurons
- 13.7 Celther Polska
- 13.8 Cellartis AB
- 13.8.1 hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells
- 13.8.2 Human Neural Stem Cells
- 13.8.3 Culture System for iPSC
- 13.9 CellCure Neurosciences Ltd.
- 13.9.1 Technology
- 13.9.2 New Candidate Treatment for Retinal Diseases
- 13.10 Cellular Dynamics International Inc.
- 13.10.1 iCell Neurons
- 13.10.2 iCell Astrocytes
- 13.11 Celvive Inc.
- 13.11.1 Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)
- 13.11.2 Research and Development
- 13.12 EMD Millipore Corp.
- 13.12.1 Human Neural Stem Lines
- 13.13 International Stem Cell Corp.
- 13.13.1 Neural Stem Cells
- 13.14 Kadimastem Ltd.
- 13.14.1 Drug Discovery for Neural Diseases
- Kadimastem drug screening system for research use currently includes the following:
- 13.14.2 Human Oligodendrocyte Drug Screening Assays
- 13.15 Living Cell Technologies Ltd.
- 13.16 MEDIPOST
- 13.17 Neuralstem Inc.
- 13.17.1 NSI-566 for ALS
- 13.17.2 NSI-566 for SCI
- 13.17.3 NSI-566 for Ischemic Stroke
- 13.18 NeuroGeneration Inc.
- 13.18.1 Drug Discovery
- 13.18.2 Biotherapeutics
- 13.19 Neurona Therapeutics Inc.
- 13.20 Ocata Therapeutics Inc.
- 13.20.1 Focus on Neuroscience
- 13.21 Opexa Therapeutics Inc.
- 13.21.1 Tcelna
- 13.21.2 OPX-212
- 13.21.3 Abili-T Clinical Study
- 13.22 ReNeuron PLC
- 13.22.1 Products and Technologies
- 13.22.3 Human Retinal Progenitor Cells (hRPC)
- 13.22.4 Exosome Platform
- 13.22.5 ReNcell Products
- 13.23 RhinoCyte Inc.
- 13.24 Roslin Cells Ltd.
- 13.24.1 Custom iPSC Generation
- 13.25 SanBio Inc.
- 13.25.1 SB623
- 13.25.2 SB618
- 13.26 Saneron CCEL Therapeutics Inc.
- 13.26.1 U-CORD-CELL Program
- 13.26.2 SERT-CELL Program
- 13.27 StemCells Inc.
- 13.27.1 Clinical Programs
- 13.27.2 HuCNS-SC (human neural stem cells)
- 13.27.3 Proof of Concept
- 13.27.4 Proof of Safety and Initial Efficacy
- 13.27.5 Spinal Cord Injury
- 13.27.6 Age-Related Macular Degeneration
- 13.27.7 Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
- 13.27.8 Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL)
- 13.28 StemBioSys Inc.
- 13.29 Stemedica Cell Technologies Inc.
- 13.29.1 Technology
- 13.29.2 Products
- 184.108.40.206 Stemedyne-MSC 144
- 220.127.116.11 Stemedyne-NSC 144
- 18.104.22.168 Stemedyne-RPE 144
- 13.30 STEMCELL Technologies Inc.
- 13.30.1 Cell Culture Media for NSC and Progenitor Cells
- 13.31 Talisman Therapeutics Ltd.
- 13.32 Xcelthera Inc.
- 13.32.1 Technology Platforms
- 13.32.2 PluriXcel-DCS Technology
- 13.32.3 PluriXcel-SMI Technology
- 13.32.4 PlunXcel-SMI Neuron Technology
- 13.32.5 PluriXcel-SMI Heart Technology
- 13.32.6 Products
- 22.214.171.124 Xcel-hNuP
- 126.96.36.199 Xcel-hNu
- 188.8.131.52 Xcel-hCardP
- 184.108.40.206 Xcel-hcM
- Appendix 1: Globally Distributed Stem Cell Companies
- Appendix 2: Sixty U.S. Spine Surgeons on the Forefront of Biologics and Stem Cells
INDEX OF FIGURES
- FIGURE 3.1: Differentiation of Stem Cells into Adult Differentiated Cells
- FIGURE 3.2: Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Adult Differentiated Cells
- FIGURE 3.3: Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Adult Differentiated Cells
- FIGURE 3.4: Types of Specialized Cells Derived from Stem Cells
- FIGURE 3.5: Major Three Neural Lineages from Neural Stem Cells
- FIGURE 3.6: Structure of a Neuron
- FIGURE 3.7: Structure of Astrocytes
- FIGURE 3.8: Structure of Oligodendrocytes
- FIGURE 3.9: Number of Clinical Studies in Cell Therapy Sector by Country
- FIGURE 3.10: Number of Cell Therapy Clinical Trials by Cell Type
- FIGURE 3.11: Cell Therapy Clinical Studies by Indication
- FIGURE 5.1: Protocols for Neural Stem Cell and Expansion
- FIGURE 5.2: Approaches for Neural Stem Replacement for Neurodevelopmental Disorders
- FIGURE 5.3: Causes of Spinal Cord Injuries
- FIGURE 5.4: Neurological Level and Extent of Lesion in Spinal Cord Injuries
- FIGURE 6.1: Types and Share of Different Types of Stem Cells used in SCI Clinical Trials
- FIGURE 7.1: Ages of People with Alzheimer's disease in the U.S., 2015
- FIGURE 7.2: Number of People Aged 65 and older with Alzheimer's Disease in the U.S., 2050
- FIGURE 7.3: Cost of Care by Payment Source for U.S. Alzheimer's Patients, 2015
- FIGURE 12.1: Stem Cell Therapy Development, 1995-2015
- FIGURE 12.2: Number of Therapies by Phase as of 2015
- FIGURE 12.3: Global Market for Stem Cells by Geography, Through 2021
- FIGURE 12.4: Global Market for NSCs, Through 2021
INDEX OF TABLES
- TABLE 3.1: NSCs, NPCs and their Lineage Specific Markers
- TABLE 3.2: Characteristics of Different Types of Stem Cells
- TABLE 4.1: Sources of NSCs, Advantages and Disadvantages in their Applications
- TABLE 4.2: Different Types of NSCs and their Basal Properties
- TABLE 4.3: Advantages and Disadvantages of iPSCs Utilization
- TABLE 4.4: Methods used to generate iPSCs
- TABLE 4.5: Chemicals used for Neural Differentiation of iPSCs
- TABLE 4.6 Small Molecule-Based Culture Protocols for inducing hPSCs Differentiation
- TABLE 4.7: Compounds used in Neural Stem Cell Research
- TABLE 4.8: Synthetic Compounds Used to Induce NSC Differentiation into Neurons
- TABLE 4.9: Natural Products that are known to affect NSC Survival, Proliferation and Differentiation
- TABLE 4.10: Ongoing Clinical Trials of Fetal Stem Cell Transplantation for Neurological Diseases
- TABLE 4.11: The Various Methods of Isolation, Culture and Expansion of aNSCs
- TABLE 4.12: Preclinical Results (Rat) of aNSCs against Neurodegenerative Diseases
- TABLE 4.13: Trial ID and Title of Current Clinical Trials of aNSCs against Neurodegenerative Diseases
- TABLE 4.14: Trial ID, Cell Source, Location and Phases of Current Clinical Trials of aNSCs
- TABLE 5.1: Conventional Treatments for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases
- TABLE 5.2: NSC-Based Approaches for Neurodegenerative Diseases
- TABLE 5.3: Some Recent Clinical Trials using NSCs for Treating Neurological Diseases
- TABLE 5.4: NCT Numbers and Titles of Clinical Trials Using NSCs for Neurodegenerative Diseases
- TABLE 5.5: Status of Different Clinical Trials Using NSCs for Neurodegenerative Diseases
- TABLE 5.6: NCT Number and Titles of Clinical Trials for Neurodevelopmental Disorders
- TABLE 5.7: Status of Different Clinical Trials Using NSCs for Neurodevelopmental Diseases
- TABLE 6.1: Annual and Lifetime Cost of Treating SCI Patients in the U.S.
- TABLE 6.2: Oral Medications and Other Treatment Options for SCI
- TABLE 6.3: CIRM's Grants Targeting Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) as of 2015
- TABLE 6.3: CIRM's Grants Targeting Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) as of 2015 (Continued)
- TABLE 6.4: Genes used for Engineering Cells
- TABLE 6.5: Preclinical SPI Trials using iPSCs/ESCs for SCI
- TABLE 6.6: Preclinical Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Trials using Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs)
- TABLE 6.7: Preclinical Spinal Cord Injury Trials using NSCs/NPCs
- TABLE 6.8: Preclinical SCI Trials using Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs)
- TABLE 6.9: Preclinical SCI Trials using Schwann Cells (SCs)
- TABLE 6.10: SCI Models and Effectiveness of Neuronal Regeneration
- TABLE 6.11: Listed Clinical Trials in Different Countries for SCI
- TABLE 7.1: Total Cost of Healthcare, Long-Term Care and Hospice for U.S. Alzheimer's Patients
- TABLE 7.2: Currently Available Pharmacologic Therapies for Alzheimer's Disease
- TABLE 7.3: CIRM Funding for Alzheimer's Research
- TABLE 7.3: CIRM Funding for Alzheimer's Research (Continued)
- TABLE 7.4: Stem Cell Therapy for AD in Mice Models
- TABLE 7.5: Gene Therapy for AD
- TABLE 8.1: CIRM Grants Targeting Parkinson's Disease
- TABLE 8.1: CIRM Grants Targeting Parkinson's Disease (Continued)
- TABLE 8.2: Medications for Motor Symptoms in PD
- TABLE 8.2: Medications for Motor Symptoms in PD (Continued)
- TABLE 8.3: Advantages and Disadvantages of Stem Cell Types used in PD
- TABLE 8.4: Approaches used in Current Gene Therapy Clinical Trials for PD
- TABLE 9.1: Symptomatic Treatments in ALS Patients
- TABLE 9.2: CIRM Grants Targeting ALS
- TABLE 9.3: CIRM Grants Targeting ALS (Continued)
- TABLE 9.4: Companies Focusing on Various Strategies for ALS
- TABLE 9.5: Companies Focusing on Various Strategies for ALS (Continued)
- TABLE 9.6: Examples of Clinical Trials for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
- TABLE 10.1: Currently Available Medications for MS
- TABLE 10.2: Available Studies Related to the use of NSCs for Multiple Sclerosis
- TABLE 10.3: Growth Factors and Secreted Molecules used for Stimulating Endogenous NSCs
- TABLE 10.4: CIRM Grants Targeting MS
- TABLE 11.1: An Overview of NSC Transplantation Experiments in Ischemic Stroke Models
- TABLE 11.2: Representative Experimental Studies of Various Cell-Based Therapies for Stroke
- TABLE 11.3: Ongoing Clinical Trials of Cell-Based Therapies for Stroke
- TABLE 11.4: CIRM Grants Targeting Stroke
- TABLE 12.1: Number of Therapies by Phase as of 2015
- TABLE 12.2: Stem Cell Product Candidates in Various Stages by Therapeutic Area, 2015
- TABLE 12.3: Stem Cell Therapies in Phase III and Pre-Registration as of 2015
- TABLE 12.4: Companies with Active Stem Cell Therapy Pipelines
- TABLE 12.5: Big Pharma's Involvement in Stem Cell Sector as of 2015
- TABLE 12.5: Big Pharma's Involvement in Stem Cell Sector as of 2015 (Continued)
- TABLE 12.6: Major Anticipated Cell Therapy Clinical Data Events in 2016
- TABLE 12.7: Global Market for Stem Cells by Geography, Through 2021
- TABLE 12.8: Global Market for Neural Stem Cells (NSCs), Through 2021
- TABLE 13.1: Neuralstem Inc.'s Cell Therapy Products in Development
- TABLE 13.2: Opexa's Product Pipeline
- TABLE 13.3: ReNeuron's Pipeline Candidates
- TABLE 13.4: SanBio's Product Pipeline
- TABLE 13.5: STEMCELL Technologies' Cell Culture Media for NSCs
- TABLE 13.5: STEMCELL Technologies' Cell Culture Media for NSCs (Continued)
- TABLE App. 1.1: Stem Cell and Cell Therapy Companies
- TABLE App. 1.1: (Continued)
- TABLE App. 1.1: (Continued)
- TABLE App. 1.1: (Continued)
- TABLE App. 1.1: (Continued)
- TABLE App. 2.1: Sixty U.S. Spine Surgeons on the Forefront of Biologics and Stem Cells
- TABLE App. 2.1: Sixty U.S. Spine Surgeons on the Forefront of Biologics and Stem Cells (Continued)
- TABLE App. 2.1: Sixty U.S. Spine Surgeons on the Forefront of Biologics and Stem Cells (Continued)