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過去10年における感染症の世界的流行

Pandemic Outbreaks in the Past Decade: A BCC Research Overview

発行 BCC Research 商品コード 940537
出版日 ページ情報 英文 76 Pages
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過去10年における感染症の世界的流行 Pandemic Outbreaks in the Past Decade: A BCC Research Overview
出版日: 2020年06月02日 ページ情報: 英文 76 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、過去10年における感染症の世界的流行の事例を調査し、過去の主な感染症流行事例と病原微生物、発生要因、疫学、病態生理、診断・評価法、治療・管理法、各国および国際的な取り組み、過去の世界的流行に学ぶ教訓などをまとめています。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 感染症の世界的流行:イントロダクション

  • 病原微生物と感染症:1973-2019年
  • 感染症の発生を起こす要因
  • ウイルスの発生・流行・世界的流行の分類
  • 現在の流行と潜在性・世界的流行の可能性
  • 現在の世界的流行と潜在性
  • 現在の対処技術
  • テロの生物兵器
  • 次の世界的流行
  • 人畜共通ウイルスのタイプ
  • 感染症の世界的流行:過去の経緯
  • 感染症の治療

第3章 H1N1インフルエンザ(豚インフルエンザ)

  • 病因
  • 疫学
  • 病態生理
  • インフルエンザウイルスの種類
    • インフルエンザウイルスA
    • インフルエンザウイルスB
    • インフルエンザウイルスC
  • 診断・評価
  • 治療・管理
  • WHOと封じ込め
  • インフルエンザワクチン備蓄
  • 流行前のワクチン接種
  • 抗ウイルス耐性
  • 再作成ウイルス
  • 無形の市場リスク
  • メディア報道とワクチン接種
  • 主要国の対策計画

第4章 エボラウイルス病

  • 病因
  • 疫学
  • 臨床症状
  • 診断
  • 治療・管理

第5章 MERS (中東呼吸器症候群)

  • 病因
  • 疫学
  • 病態生理
  • 臨床的特徴
  • 診断
  • 治療・管理
  • 防止
  • 優先事項:MERSの研究・監視・管理・制御

第6章 新型コロナウイルス感染症(SARS-CoV-2)

  • COVID-19の症状
  • COVID-19の進行
  • 潜伏期間
  • 疫学
  • R&D
  • 診断・Medtech
  • 人工呼吸器を再発明する必要性
  • COVID-19の臨床試験

第7章 過去に学ぶ教訓

  • 必須医療サービスの維持
  • 予防・安全対策・検査・治療へのアクセス
  • 隔離と分離
  • 世界的発生対策システムを強化するための国際的な取り組み

第8章 付録

図表

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Pathogenic Bacteria, Parasites and Viruses, 1973-2019
  • Table 2: History of Antibiotic Discovery and Approval, 1935-2013
  • Table 3: CDC: Six Phases of Classification of Viral Pandemics
  • Table 4: Technologies for Addressing Potential Pandemic Threats
  • Table 5: Diseases That Have Been or Can Be Weaponized
  • Table 6: Commercial Products of H1N1 Influenzas Diagnostics
  • Table 7: Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance Testing Results on Samples Collected Since October 1, 2017
  • Table 8: Essential and Desirable Elements of the WHO Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plan
  • Table 9: Japan's Action Plan for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness
  • Table 10: China's Influenza Pandemic Warning Levels
  • Table 11: Brazil's Influenza Pandemic Warning Levels and Action
  • Table 12: Ebola Outbreaks Between 1976 and 2014
  • Table 13: Clinical Features of Ebola Virus Disease, by Stage
  • Table 14: Overview of Investigational Therapeutics Evaluated in Clinical Trials on Ebola Virus Disease During the 2013-2016 West African Outbreak
  • Table 15: Key Vaccines with Accelerated Clinical Development During the 2013-2016 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak
  • Table 16: Molecular Diagnostic Tests for MERS-CoV Diagnosis, Single Assays
  • Table 17: Molecular Diagnostic Tests for MERS-CoV Diagnosis, Multiplex Assays
  • Table 18: Serology Tests for MERS-CoV Diagnosis
  • Table 19: Potential Therapies for MERS-CoV Infection
  • Table 20: Vaccines in the Pipeline for the Prevention of MERS-CoV Infection
  • Table 21: COVID-19 Symptoms by Percentage of Patients
  • Table 22: Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19, by Region, March 2020
  • Table 23: Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19, by Selected Country
  • Table 24: COVID-19: Confirmed Cases and Deaths, by Country, May 14, 2020
  • Table 25: COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Companies in Collaboration
  • Table 26: COVID-19 Therapeutics in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Company
  • Table 27: COVID-19 Vaccines in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Companies in Collaboration
  • Table 28: COVID-19 Vaccines in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Company
  • Table 29: Modifiable Breathing Devices Eligible for EUAs, by Company
  • Table 30: Number of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Phase
  • Table 31: Number of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Intervention
  • Table 32: Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Country
  • Table 33: High-Level Initiatives Established Since the Ebola Crisis
  • Table 34: List of Acronyms

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Number of Approved WHO Influenza Centers, by WHO Dedignated Region
  • Figure 2: Targeted Pre-pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpiles Based on Population Demand for Selected Countries
  • Figure 3: Geographical Distribution of Reported Human Infections of MERS-CoV
  • Figure 4: Infographic Comparison of CFR and Cases of the Three Major Beta Coronaviruses: MERS, SARS, and COVID-19
  • Figure 5: Distribution of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Phase
  • Figure 6: Distribution of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Intervention
  • Figure 7: Distribution of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Country
  • Figure 8: The Role of High-Level Initiatives in Enhancing the Three Main Phases of Global Outbreak Preparedness
目次
Product Code: PHM232A

Highlights:

This report focuses on epidemiology, research and development, current treatment and diagnostics and global response to selected pandemics of the past decade (2009-2020). The report discusses lessons learned from previous outbreaks in terms of policies and measures of prevention and control.

Report Includes:

  • An overview of the pandemic outbreaks occurred over the last decade (2010-2020)
  • Discussion of several serious epidemiological outbreaks, their socioeconomic impact, R&D efforts, treatment and diagnostics, clinical trial landscape, and regulatory and reimbursement landscape
  • Data corresponding to number of confirmed cases and reported deaths (globally and country wise) due to various pandemics, including novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), SARS, MERS, HIV/AIDS, H1N1, Ebola virus etc.
  • Correlation of coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak to previous epidemiological outbreaks in terms of policies and measures of prevention and control, and the lessons learned thereafter
  • Insight into key scientific breakthroughs and pipeline products targeting infectious disease treatments, including the novel coronavirus disease and its antibody-based clinical program (antibody to MERS-CoV infection)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • Study Goals and Objectives
  • Reasons for Doing This Study
  • Scope of Report
  • Information Sources
  • Methodology
  • Analyst's Credentials
  • Related BCC Research Reports

Chapter 2: Introduction to Pandemics

  • Pathogenic Microbes and Infectious Diseases: 1973-2019
  • Factors Contributing to the Emergence of Infectious Diseases
    • Human Demographics and Behavior
    • Technology
    • The Role of Needles
    • Economic Development and Land Use
    • International Travel
    • Microbial Adaptation
    • Antibiotic Development
  • Classifying Viral Outbreaks, Epidemics and Pandemics
  • Current and Potential Epidemics with Pandemic Potential
  • Current and Potential Pandemics
  • Current Technologies for Addressing Potential Pandemic Threats
  • Biological Weapons for Terrorism
  • The Next Pandemic
  • Types of Zoonotic Viruses
  • A Brief History of Global Pandemics
    • Bubonic Plague (1300 to the Present)
    • Cholera (1916-1966)
    • The Spanish Influenza Pandemic (1918)
    • Asian Flu Pandemic (1957-1958)
    • HIV/AIDS Pandemic (1980 to the Present)
    • Influenza A-H1N1 (2009 to the Present)
    • Malaria (2700 BC to the Present)
    • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) (2002-2003)
    • Tuberculosis (4000 BC to the Present)
  • Treatments for Infectious Diseases
    • Prevention
    • Vaccination
    • Pharmaceutical Treatments

Chapter 3: H1N1 Influenza (Swine Influenza)

  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Types of Influenza Viruses
    • Influenza Virus A
    • Influenza Virus B
    • Influenza Virus C
  • Diagnosis and Evaluation
    • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • Nucleotide Sequencing
    • Phylogenetic Analysis
  • Treatment and Management
    • Prevention of Swine to Human Viral Transmission
    • Prevention of Human-to-Human Transmission
    • Vaccines
    • Antiviral Treatments
  • The WHO and Containment for Pandemic Influenza
  • International Influenza Vaccine Stockpile Orders
  • Pre-pandemic Vaccination
    • Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)
  • Antiviral Resistance
  • Recreated Viruses
  • Immaterialized Market Risk
  • Media Coverage and Vaccinations
  • Pandemic Preparedness Plans
    • United States
    • Japan
    • China
    • Brazil
    • United Kingdom

Chapter 4: Ebola Virus Disease

  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment/Management
    • Supportive Care
    • Therapeutics
    • Vaccines and Prevention

Chapter 5: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
    • Geographical Distribution
    • Sources of Infection
    • Risk Factors and Transmission
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnosis
    • Molecular Diagnostics
    • Serological Assays
  • Treatment and Management
    • Antiviral Agents
    • Convalescent Plasma
    • Antibiotic Therapy
    • Intensive Care Management
    • New Treatments
  • Prevention
    • Advances in Vaccine Development
  • Priorities: MERS Research, Surveillance, Management, and Control
    • Establishing a One Health Global Consortium
    • Priority Studies at the Animal-Human-Environmental Interface
    • Priority Studies in Human Populations
    • Priority Studies for Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Rapid Diagnostics

Chapter 6: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (SARS-CoV-2)

  • Symptoms of COVID-19
  • COVID-19 Progression
  • Incubation Period
  • Epidemiology
    • Case Fatality Rate (CFR)
    • Global Confirmed Cases and Confirmed Deaths Due to COVID-19
  • COVID-19 Research and Development
  • Diagnostics and Medtech
  • The Need to Reinvent Ventilators
  • Clinical Trials on COVID-19

Chapter 7: Lessons Learned from History

  • Maintaining Essential Healthcare Services
  • Access to Prevention, Safety Measures, Testing and Treatment
  • Quarantine and Isolation
  • International Efforts to Strengthen the Global Outbreak Response System
    • Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
    • European Medical Corps
    • Regional Disease Surveillance Systems Enhancement Program
    • The WHO Global Health Emergency Workforce
    • The WHO R&D Blueprint
    • World Bank Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility

Chapter 8: Appendix

  • Acronyms