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フラッキング水処理技術:北米市場

Fracking Water Treatment: The North American Market

発行 BCC Research 商品コード 302465
出版日 ページ情報 英文 181 Pages
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フラッキング水処理技術:北米市場 Fracking Water Treatment: The North American Market
出版日: 2014年05月19日 ページ情報: 英文 181 Pages
概要

再生可能エネルギーが本格的に利用できるようになるまで、化石燃料の需要は拡大を続けると見られていますが、その一方で世界的な需給状況は大きく変化しつつあります。エネルギー資源の世界的な分布状況を大きく変えつつあるのがシェールガスやコールベッドメタン(CBM)などの非在来型ガスで、今ではこれらのガスが天然ガス埋蔵量の50%を占めると見積もられています。非在来型の石油やガスの探鉱開発に必要不可欠なのが、水圧破砕法による掘削に使用されるフラッキング水の処理技術であり、炭素ベースのエネルギーに対する需要の拡大が、水処理に対応する製品やサービスの市場を成長させる大きな原動力になっています。炭鉱開発の際に発生する水は、鉱床から自然に湧き出る水と水圧破砕のため地層内に注入される水であり、これら大量の水を適切に管理することが石油ガス業界にとって重要な課題となっています。北米における水処理装置の市場は、2013年の2億1,600万ドルから2018年には3億5,000万ドルに拡大する見通しであり、この間の年平均成長率は10.1%になります。

当レポートは、米国、カナダ、メキシコにおけるフラッキング水処理と関連技術の市場を分析し、市場のトレンドや2018年までの見通しを明らかにしたもので、市場の成長促進要因や阻害要因についての分析、主要企業のプロファイルなども盛り込み、概略下記の構成でお届けいたします。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 サマリー

第3章 概要

  • 石油ガス生産上流部門の現場における水と廃水
    • 状態が大きく変わった土地での雨水流出
    • フラッキング水と逆流水
  • 水圧破砕
    • 破砕プロセス
    • 廃水に含まれる化学物質
      • 塩分
      • 有機化合物
      • 浮遊固体
      • 微生物
      • 化学添加剤
    • 基準
    • 発生する水の量
    • 油汚濁水の管理に必要な費用の内訳
    • 水圧破砕技術の利点
    • 水圧破砕にまつわる環境面の懸念
    • 水管理のための戦略

第4章 水処理技術

  • 水処理なしの再利用
  • 深井戸注入
  • 再利用を目的とした現地処理
  • 排出を目的とした現地および現地外での処理
  • 処理技術の選択肢
  • 水処理の段階
  • 油汚濁水処理の課題
  • 各種技術と水処理の目的
    • 希釈
    • 脱油
    • 物理的な分離
    • 化学物質の分離/沈殿
    • 油滴合体
    • 浮選
    • 吸着
    • 溶媒抽出
    • 脱塩
    • 濃縮物管理
    • 消毒
    • 有効に再利用

第5章 石油ガス業界の展望

  • 北米における炭化水素の生産
    • 液状炭化水素の生産
    • ガスの生産
    • 米国で水圧破砕により掘削される炭化水素
    • 非在来型ガスの生産
    • CBM
    • タイトオイルの生産
    • 油汚濁水の量
    • 米国における油汚濁水規制の要件
    • カナダで水圧破砕により掘削される炭化水素
  • 北米における逆流フラッキング水と油汚濁水処理装置の市場
    • 国別の市場
    • 装置タイプ別の市場
    • 炭化水素資源別の市場

第6章 業界の構造

  • 業界の構造
    • 石油ガス生産上流部門における設備投資

第7章 主要企業のプロファイル

  • 212 RESOURCES
  • ABSMATERIALS
  • ABTECH INDUSTRIES
  • AKER SOLUTIONS
  • ALTELA, INC.
  • AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP.
  • AQUA EWP
  • AQUA-PURE VENTURES
  • AQUATECH
  • ATLANTIS TECHNOLOGIES
  • BIOTEQ ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP.
  • CANCEN OIL CANADA/SET CORP.
  • CLEAN RUNNER
  • CRYODESALINATION
  • DPS GLOBAL
  • DRAKE WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • ECOLOGIX ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
  • ECOSPHERE TECHNOLOGIES
  • ECO-TEC
  • EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES
  • EXTERRAN
  • FMC TECHNOLOGIES (CDS)
  • FILTERBOXX PACKAGED WATER SOLUTIONS, INC.
  • FRAC WATER SYSTEMS, INC. (FWSI)
  • GE WATER & PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES
  • GEO-PROCESSORS PTY. LTD.
  • GEOPURE HYDROTECHNOLOGIES
  • GREENHUNTER RESOURCES
  • GREEN HYDRO
  • H20 INNOVATION
  • HALLIBURTON
  • HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION (HTI)
  • IDE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.
  • INTEGRATED WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • J&T TECHNOLOGIES
  • KERFOOT TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (KTI)
  • LAYNE CHRISTENSEN
  • LIQTECH INTERNATIONAL
  • MEMSYS
  • MIOX CORP.
  • MYCELX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
  • NEOHYDRO CORP.
  • NOV MISSION PRODUCTS
  • NEW LOGIC RESEARCH
  • NUVERRA ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS
  • OASYS WATER, INC.
  • OMNI WATER SOLUTIONS
  • ORIGINOIL, INC.
  • OVIVO
  • PARC
  • PROCESS PLANTS CORP. (PPC)
  • R3 FUSION
  • RG GLOBAL LIFESTYLES, INC. (RGBL)
  • STW RESOURCES HOLDING CORP.
  • SABRE ENERGY SERVICES
  • SALTWORKS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • SCHLUMBERGER
  • SEVERN TRENT
  • THERMOENERGY
  • TOTAL SEPARATION SOLUTIONS
  • VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • VME PROCESS, INC.
  • WASTEWATER RESOURCES, INC. (WRI)
  • WATER STANDARD CO.
  • WATERTECTONICS
  • WATER & POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (WPT)

図表リスト

目次
Product Code: MST062A

BCC research estimates that the North American market for wastewater treatment equipment for hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells will increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.1% over the next five years increasing from $216 million in 2013 to $350 million in 2018.

This report provides:

  • An overview of the markets for hydraulic fracturing water treatment and related technologies, with a look specifically at North America
  • Analyses of market trends, with data from 2011, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2018.
  • Discussion of important factors driving as well as inhibiting market growth
  • Comprehensive profiles of leading companies in the industry.

REPORT SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

Until renewable, sustainable energy sources are fully developed, the demand for fossil fuels will continue to grow. Recently, however, there has been a global shift in both demand and production centers. According to the International Energy Agency's (IEA) most recent World Energy Outlook (WEO2013), "Many of the long-held tenets of the energy sector are being rewritten. Major importers are becoming exporters, while countries long-defined as major energy exporters are also becoming leading centers of global demand growth. The right combination of policies and technologies is proving that the links between economic growth, energy demand and energy-related CO2 emissions can be weakened. The rise of unconventional oil and gas and of renewables is transforming our understanding of the distribution of the world's energy resources."

The capacity of technologies to unlock new types of resources, such as light tight oil, has driven up estimates of the amount of oil that remains to be produced. Although this does not mean the world is on the cusp of a new era of oil abundance, the development of the new resources is making the U.S. the largest global oil producer.

The IEA forecasts a bright future, even a golden age, for natural gas, especially for so-called unconventional gas, such as shale gas and coalbed methane (CBM). Unconventional gas now accounts for 50% of the estimated natural gas resource base. By 2035, unconventional gas is predicted to rise to 20% of total gas production, although the pace of development will vary considerably by region. The growth in output also will depend on the gas industry dealing successfully with the environmental challenges. "A golden age of gas," says the IEA, "will require golden standards for production."

The demand for carbon-based energy is a major market driver for products and services used to treat the water produced during oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). Produced water and flowback, the effluent that rises to the surface during E&P, includes naturally occurring water in energy deposits and water injected into formations during hydraulic fracturing. This water comprises approximately 98% of the total waste volume generated by the industry. With the need to manage such large water volumes, the oil and gas production industry has become as much about water as it is about energy. In addition to large water volumes and high disposal costs, energy developers using traditional produced water practices are facing increased opposition from environmental activists, local and state governments, and the public. These groups are concerned that the water is leaking from traditional containment pits and entering groundwater and surface water bodies. Historically, produced water has been contained temporarily in pits and then either transported to treatment plants or evaporated.

Throughout the well's service life, the produced water must be separated from the oil it contains. Following treatment, the water may be handled via one of three methods: safely discharged (used mainly in offshore applications), reinjected into the hydrocarbon formation (deep well disposal), or reused (subsequent fracking jobs or in other beneficial applications). In most world regions and for all of the end uses/disposal options, treated water quality must meet certain standards, including low toxicity, high biodegradability and low potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

A number of water treatment technologies and equipment types are commercially available for use at oil or gas production sites. These processes can reduce the cost, inefficiency and risks associated with treatment pits and the transport of toxic water. The treatment technologies include methods for de-oiling, desanding, desalinating and disinfecting produced water. Numerous systems types are on the market. Choices include: separators; hydrocyclones; and distillation-, ion exchange-, adsorbent- and membrane-based units; as well as proprietary equipment and combinations of equipment.

Some of these products and technologies enable the treatment of produced water to a quality suitable for beneficial reuse. Presently, most of the water reused is employed for reinjection in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. However, there is also future potential for recycling the water in agriculture or as a new source of municipal or industrial water supply, especially where water scarcity is an issue.

Implementing these technologies will likely require regulation. Although some operators may adopt best practices, standards must be implemented to give all oil- and gas field developers equal opportunity. If applied properly, the regulations could drive innovation by creating a market for new technologies. The implementation of such technological innovation is essential to making hydraulically fractured hydrocarbons sustainable resources.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is intended to provide an in-depth analysis of the market for equipment used in oil and gas wastewater treatment in North America. To date, this region is the world's largest purchaser of systems and services for treating flowback and produced water. BCC Research assesses the North American market by country, by equipment type and by hydrocarbon resource. In the country analysis, market data are presented for the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Existing and expected regulations, unconventional oil and gas production levels, as well as the oil and gas industry's desire to conserve water and improve its environmental stewardship will be examined as driving factors for market growth.

The market evaluation by equipment type looks at produced water treatment systems within three broad categories: primary and secondary treatment oil separation equipment (minimizes oil-in-water content to 25 parts per million [ppm] to 30 ppm); tertiary treatment equipment (further reduces oil in water to less than 10 ppm); and advanced treatment (processes for desalinating produced water and/or enabling zero liquid discharge [ZLD]).

In the market analysis by hydrocarbon resource, value and growth are evaluated for equipment used in treating produced water from tight oil, tight gas, shale gas and CBM.

Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current value of the technologies and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years. The conclusions are illustrated with a wealth of statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure and dynamics along with technological developments.

Because of the diverse and somewhat fragmented nature of the produced water treatment industry, it is difficult to find studies that gather such extensive data from such far-flung resources into one comprehensive document. This report contains a unique collection of information, analyses, forecasts and conclusions that are very hard or impossible to find elsewhere. Throughout this report, the term "produced water" is used to refer to both flowback and production phase water, since flowback is technically considered a subset of produced water. The generic term "wastewater" is also used to refer to both water types without differentiating between them.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Global population growth and economic expansion are driving energy demand, while simultaneously driving significant increases in the demand for water. The challenge of meeting these demands is intensified by the nexus between water and energy. Large volumes of water are consumed to produce and generate energy, while vast amounts of energy are used to treat and distribute clean water. Furthermore, there is growing competition for water from the municipal, agricultural and industrial sectors, which exacerbates the mounting problem of global water scarcity. These issues pose a significant business risk to oil and gas companies seeking to achieve sustainable growth.

Major water-related challenges facing the oil and gas sector are: mature oilfields that increasingly require water-based enhanced oil recovery methods and produce more water over time; growing E&P complexity due to emerging unconventional hydrocarbon resources and their large water needs; and greater environmental and regulatory pressures related to water management and scarcity.

For these reasons, oil and gas companies must re-evaluate water as a strategic element in their value chain. Water is no longer solely an environmental issue but is increasingly tied to production growth and cost. As a result, it must be handled through a strategy that recognizes its status as a critical component to ongoing viability in the oil and gas sector.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to be of value to a wide array of readers. Those expected to have the greatest interest are players already active in oil and gas production and/or produced water treatment. The study will be of value to start up companies with novel water treatment technology for the hydraulic fracturing sector, since that market is still emerging and has no dominant players. Oilfield services businesses should find the report useful for its overview of treatment technologies, which includes performance data, as well as capital and operating-cost information.

It should be of interest to venture investors, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial companies interested in entering or expanding into the produced water treatment sector. Other public- and private-sector interest groups, market analysts and general readers wishing to gain broader knowledge of the dynamics of the produced water treatment-equipment market also are expected to find the report worthwhile.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of this report is focused on the developing North American market for hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water treatment equipment for the oil and gas industry. The market is broken down by several different parameters, including country, equipment type and wastewater source.

There are a number of expenses related to upstream oil and gas wastewater management, including expenditures for services and equipment for downhole water minimization, for lifting water to the surface, for treatment, for reinjection and for hauling and off-site disposal. This report will evaluate only oil- and gas sector purchases for treatment equipment.

The study covers the industry in the U.S., Canada and Mexico in terms of the manufacture and deployment of treatment systems. BCC Research examines government roles in support of global markets, including regulatory support, government requirements and promotional incentives for various technologies as relevant and available.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Research for this technical/marketing report began with an analysis of available technical and business literature related to sludge treatment. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives provide the backbone for the analysis.

Internet, literature and patent searches were undertaken, and key industry participants were queried. Capital equipment expenditure estimates are based on anticipated future treatment capacity, existing and expected regulatory standards, and alternatives for disposal of oil and gas field wastewater. Growth rates for each market were calculated based on expected revenues from sales of process equipment during the forecast period. Values and forecasts are given in current U.S. dollars. Construction, engineering and design costs are excluded from market size calculations.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

During the past 18 years, Susan Hanft has authored more than 40 market research reports for BCC Research in the fields of membrane technology, water and wastewater treatment, and separations used in food and beverage manufacture, medicine and biotechnology.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

  • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • SCOPE OF REPORT
  • METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
  • ANALYST CREDENTIALS
  • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
  • DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY

  • SUMMARY TABLE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND GAS WELLS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
  • SUMMARY FIGURE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND GAS WELLS, BY APPLICATION, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW

  • WATER AND WASTEWATER AT UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS SITES
    • STORMWATER RUNOFF OF DISTURBED LAND
    • FRAC FLUIDS AND FLOWBACK
    • TABLE 1 ESTIMATED WATER NEEDS FOR DRILLING AND FRACTURING WELLS IN SELECT SHALE GAS PLAYS (GALLONS)
  • HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
    • THE FRACKING PROCESS
    • WASTEWATER CHEMISTRY
      • Salts
        • Mineral Scales
        • Metals
      • Organic Compounds
        • Oil
      • Suspended Solids
      • Microorganisms
      • Chemical Additives
    • TABLE 2 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID
    • FIGURE 1 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID (%)
    • NORM
    • TABLE 3 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER FROM MARCELLUS SHALE DEVELOPMENT
    • TABLE 4 FINISHED WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SPECIFIC TREATMENT GOALS
    • HOW MUCH WATER IS GENERATED?
    • FIGURE 2 FLOWBACK VOLUME AND TDS LEVELS OVER TIME
    • COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT
    • TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS STEP (%)
    • FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS STEP (%)
    • TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFF-SITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY OPTION ($)
    • THE BENEFITS OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
    • ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS RELATED TO FRACKING
    • WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
      • Injection for Recovering More Oil
        • Reuse in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids
          • Treatment Prior to Injection
      • Injection for Future Use
        • Aquifer Storage and Recovery
      • Injection for Hydrological Purposes
        • Subsidence Control
        • Saltwater Intrusion
      • Flow Augmentation
      • Agricultural Use
        • Crop Irrigation
        • Subsurface Irrigation
        • Livestock and Wildlife Watering
        • Aquaculture and Hydroponics
        • Managed Wetlands
      • Industrial Use
        • Cooling Water Makeup
        • Dust Control
        • Other
      • Drinking Water and Other Domestic Uses

CHAPTER 4 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

  • REUSE WITHOUT TREATMENT
  • DEEP WELL INJECTION
  • ON-SITE TREATMENT FOR REUSE
  • ON- OR OFF-SITE TREATMENT FOR DISCHARGE
  • TREATMENT OPTIONS
  • TREATMENT STAGES
  • TABLE 7 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON)
  • TABLE 8 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
    • TREATMENT FOR WASTEWATER MANAGED THROUGH UNDERGROUND INJECTION
    • TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER REUSED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
    • TABLE 9 WATER QUALITY GOALS FOR REUSE IN FRACTURING FLUIDS
    • TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED TO SURFACE WATER OR REUSED FOR IRRIGATION
    • SELECTING ON-SITE TREATMENT OPTIONS
      • Cost Considerations
  • PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CHALLENGES
  • TABLE 10 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
  • TECHNOLOGIES AND TREATMENT GOALS
    • DILUTION
    • DE-OILING
    • TABLE 11 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
    • PHYSICAL SEPARATION
      • Gravity Separators
      • API Separators
      • Inclined Plate Separators
      • Flat Corrugated Plate Separators
      • Hydrocyclones
      • Centrifuges
      • Voraxial Separators
      • Media Filtration
        • Granular Media
          • Further Specifications
        • Biological Aerated Filtration
          • System Performance
          • Further Specifications
    • CHEMICAL SEPARATION/PRECIPITATION
    • COALESCENCE
    • FLOTATION
      • System Performance
      • Further Specifications
    • ADSORPTION
      • Organoclay
      • Activated Carbon
      • Zeolites
      • MyCelx
    • SOLVENT EXTRACTION
    • DESALINATION
    • TABLE 12 TDS REMOVAL AND DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
    • TABLE 13 PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
      • Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration
        • MF
        • UF
        • Ceramic MF, UF
        • Polymeric MF, UF
        • NF
      • Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP)
        • System Performance
        • Costs
        • Further Specifications
      • RO
      • High-Efficiency RO (HERO)
        • System Performance
        • Costs
        • Further Specifications
      • Slurry Precipitation and Recycling RO (SPARRO)
        • Costs
        • Further Specifications
      • Dual-pass RO with Chemical Precipitation
        • System Performance
        • Further Specifications
      • CDM Smith Produced Water Technology
        • Further Specifications
      • Optimized Pretreatment and Separation Technology (OPUS)
        • System Performance
        • Further Specifications
      • GeoPure Advanced Hydro Treatment
        • System Performance
        • Costs
        • Further Specifications
    • CONCENTRATE MANAGEMENT
      • ZLD
        • Costs
      • Forward Osmosis (FO)
        • System Performance
        • Further Specifications
      • Hybrid FO/RO
        • Further Specifications
      • Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR)
        • High Efficiency ED (HEED)
        • Further Specifications
      • Membrane Distillation (MD)
        • System Performance
        • Costs 7
        • Further Specifications
      • Ion Exchange
        • EMIT Higgins Loop
          • System Performance
          • Further Specifications
        • Drake Continuous Selective IX
          • System Performance
          • Further Specifications
        • Recoflo Compressed-bed IX
          • System Performance
        • Catalyx/RGBL IX
      • Capacitive Deionization
      • Electrocoagulation (EC)
      • Thermal Distillation
        • VC
          • System Performance
          • Costs
          • Further Specifications
        • MSF
          • System Performance
          • Costs
          • Further Specifications
        • MED
          • System Performance
          • Costs
          • Further Specifications
      • Other
        • Hybrid MED-VC
        • Freeze-Thaw Evaporation (FTE)
          • System Performance
          • Costs
          • Further Specifications
        • Dewvaporation
          • System Performance
          • Costs
          • Further Specifications
      • Enhanced Distillation/Evaporation
        • Aquatech MVC
        • Aqua-Pure MVR
          • System Performance
          • Further Specifications
        • 212 Resources MVR
          • System Performance
          • Further Specifications
        • Intevras EVRAS
          • System Performance
          • Further Specifications
    • DISINFECTION
    • TABLE 14 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
      • Ozonation
        • Ozonix
          • System Performance
      • Ultraviolet (UV) Light Disinfection
        • System Performance
        • Further Specifications
        • TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF ON-SITE FLOWBACK WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
    • BENEFICIAL REUSE

CHAPTER 5 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

  • HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION IN NORTH AMERICA
    • LIQUIDS PRODUCTION
      • Tight Oil
      • FIGURE 4 ESTIMATED U.S., RUSSIA AND SAUDI ARABIA PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 2008-2013 (QUADRILLION BTU, MILLION BBL OF OIL EQUIVALENT) 104
    • GAS PRODUCTION
      • Shale Gas, Tight Gas and Coalbed Methane
      • TABLE 16 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS AND TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.)
      • FIGURE 5 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS AND TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.)
        • Shale gas
        • Tight Gas
        • CBM
      • CBM Produced Water Chemistry
        • TDS
        • Sodium
        • Other Constituents 109
        • TABLE 17 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN)
    • HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HYDROCARBONS IN THE U.S.
    • TABLE 18 NUMBER OF WELLS FRACKED IN THE U.S. BY STATE, SINCE 2005 AND IN 2012 ALONE
    • UNCONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION 11
    • TABLE 19 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3)
    • FIGURE 6 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3)
    • FIGURE 7 U.S. SHALE PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES
    • TABLE 20 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012 (BILLION FT3/DAY)
    • FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012 (BILLION FT3/DAY)
    • CBM
    • TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
    • FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
    • TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION
    • PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES IN THE U.S.
    • TABLE 22 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012 (MILLION GALLONS)
    • FIGURE 10 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012 (MILLION GALLONS)
    • TABLE 23 WASTEWATER PRODUCED BY HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2012 (MILLION GALLONS)
    • FIGURE 11 COMPETITION FOR WATER IN U.S. SHALE-ENERGY DEVELOPMENT
    • U.S. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCED WATER
      • Regulations Governing Produced Water Discharge
        • ELGs 119
          • Oil and Gas ELGs
            • Onshore Regulations
      • Regulations Governing Produced Water Injection
        • BLM Regulations
        • BOEMRE Regulations
        • State Regulations
          • Recent State Regulations
        • Anticipated Federal Regulations
        • Potential Fracking Legislation
      • ASTM Standards
      • State Requirements for Hydraulic Fracturing Activities
    • HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HYDROCARBONS IN CANADA
    • TABLE 24 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (TRILLION FT3, %)
    • FIGURE 12 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (%)
      • Shale Gas Production
      • FIGURE 13 GROSS WITHDRAWALS FROM SELECTED SHALE PLAYS IN CANADA, JANUARY 2005-MAY 2013 (BILLION FT3)
      • CBM
      • Tight Gas
      • Tight Oil
      • Canadian Regulatory Requirements
      • HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HYDROCARBONS IN MEXICO
      • Tight Oil
      • Shale Gas
      • Regulatory Requirements
  • NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT
    • BY COUNTRY
    • TABLE 25 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 14 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)
    • BY EQUIPMENT TYPE
      • Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment
      • Tertiary Treatment
      • Advanced Treatment
      • TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2018
      • FIGURE 15 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)
      • Centralized Treatment
    • BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE
      • Tight Oil
        • U.S.
        • Canada
        • Mexico
      • Shale Gas
        • U.S.
        • Canada
        • Mexico
      • Tight Gas
        • U.S.
        • FIGURE 16 MAJOR U.S. TIGHT GAS PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES
        • Canada
        • Mexico
      • CBM
        • U.S.
        • TABLE 27 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
        • FIGURE 17 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
        • Canada
        • Mexico
        • TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED-WATER PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
        • FIGURE 18 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
    • UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS CAPITAL EQUIPMENT SPENDING

CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES

  • 212 RESOURCES
  • ABSMATERIALS
  • ABTECH INDUSTRIES
  • AKER SOLUTIONS
  • ALTELA, INC.
  • AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP.
  • AQUA EWP
  • AQUA-PURE VENTURES
  • AQUATECH
  • ATLANTIS TECHNOLOGIES
  • BIOTEQ ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP.
  • CANCEN OIL CANADA/SET CORP.
  • CLEAN RUNNER
  • CRYODESALINATION
  • DPS GLOBAL
  • DRAKE WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • ECOLOGIX ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
  • ECOSPHERE TECHNOLOGIES
  • ECO-TEC
  • EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES
  • EXTERRAN
  • FMC TECHNOLOGIES (CDS)
  • FILTERBOXX PACKAGED WATER SOLUTIONS, INC.
  • FRAC WATER SYSTEMS, INC. (FWSI)
  • GE WATER & PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES
  • GEO-PROCESSORS PTY. LTD.
  • GEOPURE HYDROTECHNOLOGIES
  • GREENHUNTER RESOURCES
  • GREEN HYDRO
  • H20 INNOVATION
  • HALLIBURTON
  • HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION (HTI)
  • IDE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD.
  • INTEGRATED WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • J&T TECHNOLOGIES
  • KERFOOT TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (KTI)
  • LAYNE CHRISTENSEN
  • LIQTECH INTERNATIONAL
  • MEMSYS
  • MIOX CORP.
  • MYCELX TECHNOLOGIES CORP.
  • NEOHYDRO CORP.
  • NOV MISSION PRODUCTS
  • NEW LOGIC RESEARCH
  • NUVERRA ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS
  • OASYS WATER, INC.
  • OMNI WATER SOLUTIONS
  • ORIGINOIL, INC.
  • OVIVO
  • PARC
  • PROCESS PLANTS CORP. (PPC)
  • R3 FUSION
  • RG GLOBAL LIFESTYLES, INC. (RGBL)
  • STW RESOURCES HOLDING CORP.
  • SABRE ENERGY SERVICES
  • SALTWORKS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
  • SCHLUMBERGER
  • SEVERN TRENT
  • THERMOENERGY
  • TOTAL SEPARATION SOLUTIONS
  • VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • VME PROCESS, INC.
  • WASTEWATER RESOURCES, INC. (WRI)
  • WATER STANDARD CO.
  • WATERTECTONICS
  • WATER & POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (WPT)

LIST OF TABLES

  • SUMMARY TABLE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND GAS WELLS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 1 ESTIMATED WATER NEEDS FOR DRILLING AND FRACTURING WELLS IN SELECT SHALE GAS PLAYS (GALLONS)
  • TABLE 2 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID
  • TABLE 3 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER FROM MARCELLUS SHALE DEVELOPMENT
  • TABLE 4 FINISHED WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SPECIFIC TREATMENT GOALS
  • TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS STEP (%)
  • TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFF-SITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY OPTION ($)
  • TABLE 7 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON)
  • TABLE 8 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
  • TABLE 9 WATER QUALITY GOALS FOR REUSE IN FRACTURING FLUIDS
  • TABLE 10 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
  • TABLE 11 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
  • TABLE 12 TDS REMOVAL AND DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
  • TABLE 13 PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
  • TABLE 14 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT
  • TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF ON-SITE FLOWBACK WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
  • TABLE 16 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS AND TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.)
  • TABLE 17 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN)
  • TABLE 18 NUMBER OF WELLS FRACKED IN THE U.S. BY STATE, SINCE 2005 AND IN 2012 ALONE
  • TABLE 19 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3)
  • TABLE 20 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012 (BILLION FT3/DAY)
  • TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
  • TABLE 22 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012 (MILLION GALLONS)
  • TABLE 23 WASTEWATER PRODUCED BY HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2012 (MILLION GALLONS)
  • TABLE 24 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (TRILLION FT3, %)
  • TABLE 25 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2018
  • TABLE 27 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
  • TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED-WATER PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)

LIST OF FIGURES

  • SUMMARY FIGURE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND GAS WELLS, BY APPLICATION, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)
  • FIGURE 1 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID (%)
  • FIGURE 2 FLOWBACK VOLUME AND TDS LEVELS OVER TIME
  • FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS STEP (%)
  • FIGURE 4 ESTIMATED U.S., RUSSIA AND SAUDI ARABIA PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 2008-2013 (QUADRILLION BTU, MILLION BBL OF OIL EQUIVALENT)
  • FIGURE 5 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS AND TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.)
  • FIGURE 6 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3)
  • FIGURE 7 U.S. SHALE PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES
  • FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012 (BILLION FT3/DAY)
  • FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
  • FIGURE 10 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012 (MILLION GALLONS)
  • FIGURE 11 COMPETITION FOR WATER IN U.S. SHALE-ENERGY DEVELOPMENT
  • FIGURE 12 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (%)
  • FIGURE 13 GROSS WITHDRAWALS FROM SELECTED SHALE PLAYS IN CANADA, JANUARY 2005-MAY 2013 (BILLION FT3)
  • FIGURE 14 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)
  • FIGURE 15 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)
  • FIGURE 16 MAJOR U.S. TIGHT GAS PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES
  • FIGURE 17 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3)
  • FIGURE 18 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)
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