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市場調査レポート

米国の石油化学触媒市場

Petrochemical (Petroleum and Chemical) Catalysts: The U.S. Market

発行 BCC Research 商品コード 144344
出版日 ページ情報 英文 341 Pages
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米国の石油化学触媒市場 Petrochemical (Petroleum and Chemical) Catalysts: The U.S. Market
出版日: 2011年01月19日 ページ情報: 英文 341 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、米国の石油化学触媒市場について調査し、化学処理触媒および石油精製触媒市場についての詳細および市場予測、触媒技術の概要、触媒に関連した政府の活動および規制、業界構造をまとめるとともに、サプライヤー企業のプロファイルも提供するなど、概略下記の構成でお届けいたします。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 サマリー

第3章 概要

  • 触媒反応と触媒:歴史および背景
  • 触媒製造用素材

第4章 化学処理触媒:アプリケーションおよび市場

  • 市場サマリー:推定および予測
  • 水素化触媒
  • 脱水素触媒
  • 有機合成触媒
  • 酸化触媒
  • 重合触媒
  • 合成ガスおよび合成ガスプロセス

第5章 石油精製触媒:アプリケーションおよび市場

  • 石油精製触媒
  • 石油精製の動向
  • 市場サマリー:推定および予測
  • アルキル化触媒
  • 流動触媒分解触媒
  • 水素化分触媒
  • 水素化処理/水素脱硫触媒
  • 異性化触媒
  • 触媒改質触媒
  • ガス処理触媒

第6章 技術

  • 触媒の特性
  • 触媒回収
  • 新たな反応スキーム、処理、および原料
  • 新たな触媒技術

第7章 政府活動/規制および公共政策

  • 政府の活動および規制
  • 公共政策および市民の態度

第8章 触媒業界の構造および活動

  • 触媒を製造、供給する企業
  • 産業集中度およびサプライヤーの占有度
  • 顧客および技術サービス
  • 触媒サプライヤーとユーザーの提携
  • 国際的側面

第9章 サプライヤー企業のプロファイル

  • イントロダクション
  • サプライヤー企業

付録

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目次
Product Code: CHM027D

Abstract

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Catalysts for chemical, petrochemical, and petroleum refining processes constitute a significant business in the United States. BCC estimates total merchant sales of these products in the U.S. in 2010 at about $4.1 billion. The total U.S. market value is forecast to increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 2.5% to reach more than $4.6 billion by 2015.
  • For all types of chemical catalysts, we estimate a total 2010 market of almost $2.7 billion, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 2.5% to more than $3 billion in 2015. Polymerization is the largest chemical catalyst segment with a market of about $1.3 billion and a slightly higher CAGR.
  • Petroleum refining catalysts are a smaller market at $1.4 billion in sales in 2010, but also are predicted to grow at about a 2.5% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to more than $1.6 billion in 2015. Growth will be spurred by increasing demand for reformulated and other less-polluting gasolines, plus new regulations calling for drastic reductions in sulfur content in gasoline and diesel fuel.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Catalysts and the products made with them are all around us, even though most people know neither what a catalyst is nor what they do. Some experts claim that catalysts are involved somewhere along the chain in the manufacture of products that represent about one-third of the entire U.S. material Gross National Product (GDP). Considering that a high percentage of chemical and refined petroleum products are made via catalytic reactions (some experts put the percentage at 90% or higher for chemicals), this percentage seems logical.

Some studies have estimated that catalysts are responsible for the manufacture of around $4 trillion in goods and services worldwide annually and that the total global catalyst business is well more than $10 billion. Indeed, some studies estimate the worldwide market at more than $15 billion. Estimates vary, of course, depending on what is included; for example, if environmental correction catalysts and enzyme biocatalysts are included, the total will of course be larger. No matter what the number, this is a large multibillion market.

Virtually every polymer, whether it is a synthetic fiber, a plastic resin, or an elastomer, is made with a catalytic process. Other chemicals, from pharmaceuticals to pesticides, are produced catalytically. In petroleum refining, catalytic processes allow refiners to produce the broad mix of fuels and other products that drive today' s economy.

There is also an entire body of catalysis, outside the scope of this report, in environmental correction; the most obvious examples are catalytic converters on automobiles that clean up auto exhausts. Even our bodies are operated by catalysts, the biological catalysts called enzymes, the important area of biocatalysis that is outside our scope as well.

Catalysts have been used commercially for more than a century, dating from the Deacon and contact processes, first used in the late 1800s. Fritz Haber' s ammonia synthesis of 1908 (which is still used in much the same form today) can be considered the process that heralded the birth of modern industrial catalysis. The industry has grown to the point where some catalyst markets are considered mature, and most continue to grow at moderate rates, often paralleling the national GDP, in keeping with chemical and refining process technology and business in general. However, as has always been the case in innovative industries, some, such as the single-site/metallocene polymerization catalysts, have become a major growth area.

Our goal in this report is to describe the compounds, products, and markets for catalysts that we describe as “petrochemicals.” That is, catalysts which are used in petroleum refining; in petrochemical processes in which the feedstocks come from crude oil or natural gas; and in chemical reactions/processes in which the feedstock materials may come from other sources. This is big business; the petrochemical industry in the U.S., driven by production of synthetic polymers, is one of the nation' s largest.

Catalysis is highly technical, and its products and markets are large and diverse. The industries and applications that we cover are discussed below in the subsection “Scope.”

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Catalysts are important materials of commerce, even if most people do not realize how catalysts touch them every day. Most of us drive cars fueled with high-octane unleaded, often oxygenated or reformulated, gasoline, which is blended with components produced in catalytic oil refinery processes. Although the current major motor fuel oxygenate, ethanol, is primarily produced in the United States via fermentation from corn, this is an exception to the basic rule that most major chemical products are made via catalytic processes. Bioprocessing of industrial chemicals from biomass sources is a growing and important technology, but at present is more at the research and development stage than at the stage of commercial method of making large-scale industrial compounds for sale.

We use plastic products everywhere, in everything from automobile interiors to much of our packaging. In addition, the pharmaceutical products we use have most likely been made with at least one catalytic reaction. Most of the food we eat has been grown on land fertilized with an ammonia-based fertilizer; until the catalytic Haber ammonia process was developed, there was no way to “fix” nitrogen from the air to make it available for incorporation into chemical products.

Some other applications of catalysts and catalytic reactions are not as well known to the average person, but are no less important, since they affect the manufacture of a vast number of chemical and other products in other important commercial and consumer businesses and markets.

This report is the latest update in a series of BCC Research reports on this subject, the most recent ones by the same author. BCC Research continues to do this study to provide a comprehensive reference for those interested and/or involved in these products; this covers a wide and varied group of petroleum, petrochemical, chemical, and other companies that make and supply catalysts, chemicals, process technology, and equipment. Other interested parties will be designers and marketers, politicians of all stripes, and the general public. We have sorted through and condensed information from a large amount of literature and other reference materials to compile this report.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This study covers many of the most important technological, economic, political, and environmental considerations in the U.S. catalyst industry. It is primarily a study of U.S. markets, but because of the global nature of chemistry, it touches on some noteworthy international activities; these are primarily those that can have an impact on the U.S. market, such as imports/exports and, increasingly, foreign firms that operate there.

All market value estimates and forecasts are given in constant 2010 dollars, and growth rates are all compounded, presented as compounded annual growth rates or CAGRs. Market values are all rounded to the nearest million dollars. Because of rounding to the nearest million, some growth rates may not agree exactly with figures in the market tables, especially for small values.

This report is segmented into nine chapters, of which this is the first, and an appendix including a glossary of some important terms, abbreviations, acronyms, etc.

The Summary encapsulates our findings and conclusions and includes a summary major market table of estimates ad forecasts. It is the place where the busy executive can find the major findings of the study in summary format.

We follow with an Overview of catalysis and catalysts with some history of the principal types of catalysts and catalytic reactions, and processes and materials used to produce catalysts. Its intent is to introduce the reader to the field of chemical catalysis.

The next chapter discusses and forecasts markets for catalysts used in chemical processes; that is, processes that usually do not take place in a petroleum refinery. We subdivide the market into catalysts for six large classes of catalytic chemical reactions: hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, organic synthesis, oxidation, polymerization, and synthesis gas/syngas processes. Our market analysis and forecast is for base year 2010 and forecast year 2015, all in constant 2010 dollars.

Next we discuss and forecast the markets for catalysts used in petroleum refining. Processes analyzed and forecasted include the six basic classes of catalytic refining processes: alkylation, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydrocracking, hydrotreating/ desulfurization, isomerization, and catalytic reforming. In addition, we cover gas processing, usually devoted to sulfur removal.

The next chapter is devoted to catalyst technologies, with emphasis on both established and new catalyst technologies. These continue to be exciting times in catalysts, for example, with continuing development of more homogeneous catalysts, development and fine-tuning of single-site catalysts for polymerization of major plastics, chiral catalysts for fine chemical syntheses, and others.

The next chapter covers some important facets of government regulation and public policy. Catalysts are not as regulated as many other industries are, since they are not supposed to be in final products, but political forces have driven the petroleum refining industry for years and continue to do so until this day, with greater emphasis on cleaner burning fuels. For this reason our prime discussion is on governmental regulations regarding refined motor fuels, both gasoline and diesel.

The next chapter covers the structure and activities of the catalyst industry, with emphasis on the major domestic producers and suppliers, customer service, and the growing trend in supplier-user alliances. We briefly discuss some international aspects of the catalyst business, including the global nature of the business, major foreign-owned supplier companies that operate in the United States, and imports and exports.

Our last narrative chapter consists of profiles of those supplier companies that BCC Research considers to be among the most important in these businesses. There are many more companies that operate in one or more niche markets, but in our opinion they are not important enough to be considered major producers and suppliers.

We end with an appendix, a glossary of some important terms, abbreviations, acronyms, etc. used in the chemical, petroleum, and catalyst industries.

The scope of this study is restricted to catalysts used in the chemical process industry (CPI) in process operations. We define the CPI broadly to include petroleum refining (an industry sometimes called the hydrocarbon processing industry or HPI). By confining our study to process catalysts, we do not cover a major market, one that has many studies on its own, of environmental catalysts, primarily for air pollution control. Because such environmental catalysts are chemical catalysts, we do introduce them and their applications in the Overview chapter; however, we do not make market estimates or forecasts for environmental catalysts since they are outside the scope of this study.

Since this study focuses on chemical catalysts, we also exclude from our market analyses biocatalysts (such as enzymes), electrocatalysts, photocatalysts (catalysts that allow light or other waves in the electromagnetic spectrum to influence reactions and processes), and other exotic ideas such as sonocatalysts (high-frequency ultrasound waves that generate heat and pressure). These are all exciting fields of study, but are outside the scope of this report. We do introduce some of these ideas in the Technology chapter.

Thus, please note that there are some new and exciting areas of catalysis, discussed in the Overview and/or Technology chapters, which are either (1) outside the scope of this study (e.g., environmental catalysts) or (2) new, cutting-edge technologies like photocatalysts, which are too new and small to attempt to analyze and forecast. The products and markets that we analyze and for which we estimate and forecast sales are those in the chapters on commercial catalysts for chemical and refinery processes.

For consistency in style and format, trade names are indicated by initial upper case letters, while generic names are all in lower case. Because many chemical names are long and complicated, we often use abbreviations, acronyms, or chemical formulae. Many of these acronyms, such as HDPE (high-density polyethylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) for common polymers, are in capital letters.

Chemical elements and compounds can all be designated by chemical symbols and formulae; after introducing the element or compound we often use such symbols, such as Ni for nickel and HF for hydrofluoric acid. Our glossary at the end contains definitions and explanations for many of the most important abbreviations and acronyms. We do assume that most readers have had at least an initial introduction to chemistry and understand the principles of chemical nomenclature.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Searches were made of the literature and the Internet, including many of the leading trade publications, as well as technical compendia and government publications. Much product and market information was obtained whenever possible from the companies involved. The information for our corporate profiles was obtained primarily from the companies, especially the larger publicly owned firms. Other sources included directories, articles, and Internet sites.

AUTHOR' S CREDENTIALS

Dr. J. Charles Forman has more than 50 years of chemical engineering and business experience in the healthcare industry, leading a major not-for-profit educational association, and as an independent analyst and technical writer. He is well versed on the worldwide chemical process industries, with specialization in healthcare, petroleum and petrochemicals, specialty and agrochemicals, plastics, and packaging.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • SCOPE OF REPORT
  • SCOPE OF REPORT (CONTINUED)
  • SCOPE OF REPORT (CONTINUED)
  • METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
  • AUTHOR' S CREDENTIALS
  • RELATED BCC WORK CREDENTIALS
  • BCC ONLINE SERVICES
  • DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY

  • SUMMARY
  • SUMMARY TABLE ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYST MARKETS BY PROCESS THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • SUMMARY FIGURE ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYST MARKETS BY PROCESS 2010 AND 2015 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW

  • CATALYSIS AND CATALYSTS: HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
  • DEFINITION
  • HISTORY
  • PROCESSES
    • Catalyst Makeup
  • HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS
    • Reaction Parameters
    • Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis
  • HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSTS
    • Advantages
    • Molecular Catalysts
    • Commercial Applications
    • Multiphase Homogeneous Catalysis
    • Phase-Transfer Catalysis
    • Phase-Transfer ..... (Continued)
  • ACID AND BASE CATALYSIS AND CATALYSTS
    • Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts
    • Homogeneous Acid/Base Catalysts
  • FREE RADICAL CATALYSTS
  • THE PERIODICTABLE AND TRANSITION ELEMENTS
    • Transition Group Metals
      • TABLE 1. TRANSITION METALS IN THE PERIODICTABLE
      • TABLE 2. CHEMICAL SYMBOLS FOR COMMON CATALYTIC ELEMENTS
  • CHEMICAL PROCESSING
    • Importance of the U.S. Chemical Industry
    • Types of Catalytic Chemical Reactions
  • PETROLEUM REFINING
    • Historical Background
    • Petroleum Refining Processes
    • Petroleum ..... (Continued)
    • Industry Structure
    • Market Leaders
    • The Refining Margin
    • Refining Capacity
    • Importance to the U.S. and World Economies
    • Importance to ..... (Continued)
    • Major Petroleum Products and Applications
    • Petroleum Refinery Streams and Products
    • Petroleum ..... (Continued)
    • Types of Petroleum Refineries
    • Types of ..... (Continued)
    • Refinery Catalytic Processes and Catalysts
  • OTHER APPLICATIONS FOR CATALYSTS
    • Automotive Emission Controls
    • Automotive ..... (Continued)
    • Stationary Source Emissions Control
    • Other Environmental Catalysis
  • MATERIALS USED TO PRODUCE CATALYSTS
  • BASE METALS AND COMPOUNDS
    • Aluminum (Al)
    • Aluminum Alkyls
    • Bismuth (Bi)
    • Chromium (Cr)
    • Cobalt (Co)
    • Copper (Cu)
    • Hafnium (Hf)
    • Iron (Fe)
    • Lithium (Li)
    • Magnesium (Mg)
    • Manganese (Mn)
    • Mercury (Hg)
    • Molybdenum (Mo)
    • Nickel (Ni)
    • Raney Nickel
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Potassium (K)
    • Rhenium (Re)
    • Tin (Sn)
    • Titanium (Ti)
    • Tungsten (W)
    • Vanadium (V)
    • Zinc (Zn)
    • Zirconium (Zr)
  • NOBLE (PRECIOUS) METALS
    • Gold (Au)
    • Iridium (Ir)
    • Palladium (Pd)
      • TABLE 3. AVERAGE PRICES FOR NOBLE METALS, 1995-LATE 2010 ($ PER TROY OUNCE)
    • Platinum (Pt)
    • Rhodium (Rh)
    • Ruthenium (Ru)
    • Silver (Ag)
  • ALUMINOSILICATES
    • Zeolites
    • Natural Zeolites
    • Synthetic Zeolites
    • Synthetic Zeolites (Continued)
    • ExxonMobil' s ZSM-5 Zeolites
      • TABLE 4. SOME CATALYTIC APPLICATIONS OF ZSM-5 ZEOLITES
    • Molecular Sieves
  • ORGANIC PEROXIDES
    • TABLE 5. TYPICAL TYPES OF ORGANIC PEROXIDES
  • OTHER NONMETALLIC CATALYSTS, CARRIERS, AND SUPPORTS
    • Powdered Supports
    • Particulate Supports
    • Alumina
    • Activated Carbon
    • Clays
    • Synthetic Ion Exchange Resins
    • Other Catalyst Supports
    • Calcium Carbonate
    • Barium Sulfate
    • Kieselguhr
    • Magnesium Compounds
    • Silica

CHAPTER FOUR: CHEMICAL PROCESS CATALYSTS: APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS

  • SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 6. ESTIMATES OF U.S. CHEMICAL CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE AND ..... (CONTINUED)
  • HYDROGENATION
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 7. ESTIMATES OF U.S. HYDROGENATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 8. ESTIMATES OF U.S. HYDROGENATION CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • FATS AND OILS
    • Fats and Oils (Continued)
    • Fats and Oils (Continued)
  • CYCLOHEXANE FROM BENZENE
  • BY-PRODUCT HYDROGENATION IN ETHYLENE PLANTS
  • AMINES FROM NITRO COMPOUNDS
  • PHARMACEUTICAL AND FINE CHEMICAL HYDROGENATIONS
  • DEHYDROGENATION
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 9. ESTIMATES OF U.S. DEHYDROGENATION CATALYST MARKETS BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • COMMERCIAL DEHYDROGENATION REACTIONS
  • STYRENE SYNTHESIS
  • ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 10. ESTIMATES OF U.S. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 11. ESTIMATES OF U.S. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • ALKYLATION
    • Ethylbenzene
    • Cumene
    • Linear Alkylbenzene
  • AMINATION
  • AROMATIZATION
  • BUTANEDIOL FROM MALEIC ANHYDRIDE
  • CONDENSATION REACTIONS
  • DISPROPORTIONATION AND METATHESIS
    • Disproportionation and Metathesis (Continued)
  • ESTERIFICATION
  • FUEL OXYGENATE ETHERS
    • Energy Policy Act of 2005
    • Technology
    • In-Refinery Ether Production
    • Grassroots MTBE Plants
  • MTBE from Tertiary Butyl Alcohol
  • HYDRODEALKYLATION
  • ISOMERIZATION
  • NITRATION
  • OLEFINS PRODUCTION
    • Propylene Production
    • Propylene ..... (Continued)
  • OXIDATION
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 12. ESTIMATES OF U.S. OXIDATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 13. ESTIMATES OF U.S. OXIDATION CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • ACRYLIC ACID
  • ACRYLONITRILE
  • ADIPIC ACID
  • ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE
  • FORMALDEHYDE
  • OLEFIN EPOXIDATION: ETHYLENE AND PROPYLENE OXIDE
  • NITRIC ACID
  • SULFURIC ACID
  • MALEIC ANHYDRIDE
  • PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE
  • TEREPHTHALIC ACID
  • OTHER OXIDATION REACTIONS
  • POLYMERIZATION
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 14. ESTIMATES OF U.S. POLYMERIZATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 15. ESTIMATES OF U.S. POLYMERIZATION CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 16. U.S. PLASTICS PRODUCTION, 2006 - 2009 (BILLION LBS)
  • POLYOLEFIN HISTORY
    • Polymethylene
    • Polyethylene
    • Polyethylene (Continued)
    • Polypropylene
    • Higher Alpha-Olefin Polymers
    • Polyolefin Steric Regularity
  • COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION PROCESSES FOR ADDITION
  • POLYMERS
    • Polyethylene: High-Pressure Processes
    • Polyethylene: Low-Pressure Processes
    • Polyethylene: Gas-Phase Processes
    • Polyethylene: ..... (Continued)
    • Polypropylene
    • Polystyrene
    • Polyvinyl Chloride
    • Other Addition Polymers
  • ORGANIC PEROXIDE POLYMERIZATION CATALYSTS
  • ORGANOMETALLIC COMPLEX POLYMERIZATION CATALYSTS
    • Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
    • Single-Site/Metallocene Catalysts
  • CONDENSATION POLYMERS AND CATALYSTS
  • THERMOSETTING POLYMERS
    • Epoxy Resins
    • Phenolic Resins
    • Unsaturated Polyester Resins
    • Polyurethane Resins
    • Urea- and Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins
    • Other Thermosets
  • SYNTHESIS GAS AND SYNGAS PROCESSES
  • SYNTHESIS GAS AND SYNGAS PROCESSES (CONTINUED)
  • “THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY”
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 17. ESTIMATE OF U.S. SYNTHESIS GAS PROCESS CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 18. ESTIMATE OF U.S. SYNTHESIS GAS PROCESS CATALYST MARKET BY REACTION OR PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • STEAM REFORMING
    • Steam Reforming (Continued)
  • AMMONIA SYNTHESIS
    • Ammonia Synthesis (Continued)
  • FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS
    • Fischer-Tropsch Process (Continued)
    • Fischer-Tropsch Process (Continued)
  • COAL GASIFICATION, INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED-CYCLE (IGCC) TECHNOLOGY
    • Coal Gasification, Integrated.....(Continued)
  • GTL: NATURAL GAS TO FUELS/CHEMICALS: MODIFIED FISCHER-TROPSCH
    • Market Players
    • Market Outlook
  • THE NATURAL GAS REFINERY
  • HYDROFORMYLATION (OXO) PROCESS
  • METHANOL SYNTHESIS
    • Methanol Synthesis (Continued)

CHAPTER FIVE: PETROLEUM REFINING CATALYSTS: APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS

  • PETROLEUM REFINING CATALYSTS:
  • TRENDS IN PETROLEUM REFINING
  • MOTOR GASOLINE
    • TABLE 19. SOME U.S. MOTOR GASOLINE SPECIFICATION CHANGES IN RECENT YEARS
  • DIESEL FUEL
    • TABLE 20. SOME U.S. DIESEL FUEL SPECIFICATION CHANGES IN RECENT YEARS
  • HEATING OIL
  • CHEMICAL PROCESSES
  • CAPACITY
  • OTHER TRENDS
  • SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 21. ESTIMATE OF U.S. REFINERY CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • ALKYLATION
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 22. ESTIMATE OF U.S. REFINERY ALKYLATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • Market Estimate and Forecast (Continued)
    • Market Estimate and Forecast (Continued)
  • HYDROGEN FLUORIDE-CATALYZED ALKYLATION
  • SULFURIC ACID-CATALYZED ALKYLATION
  • SOLID ACID ALKYLATION CATALYST TECHNOLOGY
  • OLIGOMERIZATION
  • FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 23. ESTIMATE OF U.S. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY CATALYST TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 1. ESTIMATE OF U.S. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY CATALYST TYPE, 2010 AND 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 24. ESTIMATE OF U.S. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • Market Estimate and Forecast (Continued)
  • TOWER BOTTOMS (RESID) CRACKING
  • FCC CATALYST REGENERATION
  • HYDROCRACKING
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 25. ESTIMATE OF U.S. HYDROCRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 26. ESTIMATE OF U.S. HYDROCRACKING CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • LUBE OIL DEWAXING
  • HYDROTREATING/HYDRODESULFURIZATION
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 27. ESTIMATE OF U.S. HYDROTREATING/HYDRODESULFURIZATION CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • Background
    • Technology
  • ISOMERIZATION
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
  • CATALYTIC REFORMING
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST
    • TABLE 28. ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYTIC REFORMING CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 29. ESTIMATE OF U.S. CATALYTIC REFORMING CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS)
  • REFORMER OPERATION TO PRODUCE RFG BLENDSTOCKS
  • GAS PROCESSING
  • GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED)
  • MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST

CHAPTER SIX: TECHNOLOGY

  • CATALYST PROPERTIES
  • ACTIVITY
  • REGENERABILITY
  • SELECTIVITY
  • STABILITY
  • CATALYST RECOVERY
  • RECOVERY VS. REGENERATION
  • NOBLE METAL CATALYSTS
  • BASE METAL CATALYSTS
  • NEW REACTION SCHEMES, PROCESSES, AND FEEDSTOCKS
  • NEW REACTION SCHEMES, ..... (CONTINUED)
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
  • NEW CATALYST TECHNOLOGY
  • BASIC QUESTIONS OF CATALYST STRUCTURE
  • BASIC QUESTIONS OF ..... (CONTINUED)
    • Characterization of Catalyst Structure
    • Surface Chemistry
  • PROCESSES THAT NEED NEW CATALYSTS
    • Processes That Need ..... (Continued)
  • CATALYST DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
    • Catalyst Design and ..... (Continued)
    • Bench or Micro Scale Testing
    • Laboratory Experiments
    • Pilot Plant Scale Testing
    • The Commercial Production Unit
    • Post-Start-up Changes and Improvements
  • NEW HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST MATERIALS AND SUPPORTS
    • Bimetallic Cluster Catalysts
    • Designed Pore Structures
    • Nanoscale Catalysts (“Nanocatalysts”)
    • Nanoscale Catalysts ..... (Continued)
    • Nanotube Composites
    • Promoters
    • Solid Acid Catalysts
    • Microencapsulation
    • Nanostructured Solid Acid Catalysts
    • New Zeolites
    • Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts
  • HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSTS
    • Homogeneous Chiral Catalysts
    • Use of Supercritical Fluids as Solvents
    • Use of Supercritical ..... (Continued)
    • Supported Homogeneous Catalysts
  • SINGLE-SITE POLYMERIZATION CATALYSTS
    • Characterization of Single-Site Catalysts
    • Single-Site Catalyzed Polymers
      • TABLE 30. COMMERCIAL SINGLE-SITE POLYMERS AND COMMON APPLICATIONS
    • Homogeneous Metallocene Catalysts
    • Commercial and Semi-Commercial Single-Site Polymers
    • Multicomponent Catalysts: Single-Site Catalysts with Others
    • Single-Site Co-Catalysts: Aluminoxanes
  • OTHER NEW CHEMICAL CATALYSTS
  • REFINERY CATALYSTS
    • Lighter Products
    • Lower Aromatic Content
    • Lower Light Olefin Content
  • OTHER CATALYST TECHNOLOGIES
    • Biocatalysis
    • Plant-Derived Feedstocks and Processes
    • Organocatalysis
    • Photocatalysis
    • Combinatorial Chemistry in Catalytic Research
    • Computational Methods in Catalyst Design
    • Use of Oxygen in Oxidation Reactions
    • Advances in Hydrogenation
    • Advances in Hydrogenation (Continued)
    • Copolymerizing Polar and Nonpolar Monomers
    • Cooperative Catalysis

CHAPTER SEVEN: GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES/REGULATION AND PUBLIC POLICY

  • GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES AND REGULATION
  • CONTROLS ON THE CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES
  • CONTROLS THAT DIRECTLY AFFECT CATALYSTS AND THEIR MARKETS
    • Controls that Directly (Continued)
  • PETROLEUM REFINING ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS
    • The Lead Phase-out of 1975
    • The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
    • The Clean Air ..... (Continued)
    • Reformulated/Oxygenated Gasolines
    • MBTE Use and Phase-out
    • MBTE Use and ..... (Continued)
    • Reid Vapor Pressure
    • Motor Gasoline Olefins Content
    • Changes in Feedstocks and Product Mix
    • Tier II Sulfur and Other New Rules
    • Diesel Fuel
    • Diesel Fuel (Continued)
    • Motor Gasoline
  • PUBLIC POLICY AND ATTITUDES
  • PUBLIC POLICY AND ATTITUDES (CONTINUED)

CHAPTER EIGHT: CATALYST INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITIES

  • COMPANIES THAT MAKE AND SUPPLY CATALYSTS
  • INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AND SUPPLIER DOMINANCE
  • CUSTOMER AND TECHNICAL SERVICE
  • CATALYST SUPPLIER-USER ALLIANCES
  • CATALYST DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING
  • INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS
  • THE GLOBAL CATALYST BUSINESS
    • Growth in Different Parts of the World
    • Growth in Different ..... (Continued)
    • MAJOR FOREIGN PLAYERS
  • IMPORTS AND EXPORTS
  • TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL CATALYST INDUSTRY
    • Trends in the Global ..... (Continued)

CHAPTER NINE: SUPPLIER COMPANY PROFILES

  • INTRODUCTION
  • SUPPLIER COMPANIES
  • AIR PRODUCTS & CHEMICALS, INC.
  • ACCELRYS, INC./SYMYX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    • Symyx
  • ALBEMARLE CORP.
  • ARKEMA, INC.
  • AVANTIUM TECHNOLOGIES B.V.
  • AXENS NORTH AMERICA, INC.
  • BADGER TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
  • BASF CORP.
    • BASF Corp., Catalysts Division
  • BAYER TECHNOLOGY SERVICES
  • CARUS CORP.
  • CATALYTIC DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGIES (CDTECH)
    • Catalytic Distillation ..... (Continued)
  • CB&I
    • Lummus Technology
  • CHEVRON CORP./CHEVRON LUMMUS GLOBAL/ADVANCED REFINING, TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
  • Chevron Corp./.....(Continued)
  • CHEVRON PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO., LLC
  • CONOCOPHILLIPS CO.
    • Conocophillips Co. (Continued)
  • CRI/CRITERION, INC.
  • THE DOW CHEMICAL CO.
  • E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS & CO.
  • EASTMAN CHEMICAL CO.
  • EURECAT U.S., INC.
  • EVONIK DEGUSSA CORP.
  • EXXON MOBIL CHEMICAL CO.
  • FMC CORP.
  • GE ENERGY
  • W.R. GRACE & CO./GRACE DAVISON DIVISION
  • HALDOR TOPSOE, INC.
  • HEADWATERS, INC.
  • INEOS TECHNOLOGIES
  • INTERCAT, INC.
  • JOHNSON MATTHEY, INC.
    • Johnson Matthey Catalysts
  • KBR, INC.
    • KBR, Inc. (Continued)
  • KING INDUSTRIES, INC.
  • LYONDELL BASELL INDUSTRIES N.V.
  • MATERIA, INC.
  • NOVA CHEMICALS CORP.
  • OM GROUP, INC.
  • PQ CORP.
  • REAXA, LTD.
  • RENTECH, INC.
    • Rentech, Inc. (Continued)
  • SAINT-GOBAIN NORPRO CORP.
  • SCIENTIFIC DESIGN CO., INC.
  • THE SHEPHERD CHEMICAL CO.
  • SIGMA-ALDRICH CO.
  • SUD CHEMIE, INC.
    • Sud Chemie, Inc. (Continued)
  • SYNTROLEUM CORP.
  • UOP, LLC
    • UOP, LLC (Continued)
  • WAKO CHEMICALS USA, INC.
  • ZEOCHEM, LLC
  • ZEOLYST INTERNATIONAL

APPENDIX

  • GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS, ETC.
  • GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS.....(CONTINUED)
  • GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS.....(CONTINUED)
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  • GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS.....(CONTINUED)
  • GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS.....(CONTINUED)
  • GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS.....(CONTINUED)
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