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市場調査レポート

PEM素材 (プロトン交換膜素材) およびPEM燃料電池用MEA (膜・電極接合体) 市場

Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells

発行 BCC Research 商品コード 140095
出版日 ページ情報 英文 291 Pages
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PEM素材 (プロトン交換膜素材) およびPEM燃料電池用MEA (膜・電極接合体) 市場 Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells
出版日: 2015年09月30日 ページ情報: 英文 291 Pages
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概要

世界におけるプロトン交換膜燃料電池 (PEMFC) 用の膜・電極接合体 (MEA) 市場規模は、2010年に3億4,000万米ドル、2014年に4億6,000万米ドルに達しました。同市場は2015年から2020年にかけて29.4%のCAGRで推移し、2015年までに5億3,400万米ドル、2020年までに19億米ドルへ達すると予測されています。

当レポートでは、世界のPEM素材およびPEMFC(プロトン交換膜燃料電池) 用MEA (膜・電極接合体) 市場について調査し、実績およびCAGR予測を含めた世界市場の動向分析、PEM・電極集合体およびPEMFC用バイポーラプレート技術・市場の調査、各コンポーネントの歴史と先進技術、特許分析、および主要企業のプロファイルなどをまとめ、お届けいたします。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 サマリー

第3章 PEMFC (PEFC:固体高分子型燃料電池) の概要

  • 燃料電池技術
  • PEMFCの基礎
  • 燃料と燃料改質の基礎
  • 直接メタノール型燃料電池 (DMFC) の変動
  • PEMFC企業
  • PEMFC市場の促進因子
    • 市場セグメント・産業集中度
    • 世界のPEMFC市場予測

第4章 MEA

  • MEAの背景
  • MEAの性能目標
  • MEAの製造とアセンブリー
  • MEA機能スタック設計
  • MEAと燃料電池の普及
  • 世界のPEMFC用MEAコンポーネントの市場構造・予測
  • PEMFC
  • PEMFC膜の構造
  • 膜製造・合成
  • 膜素材の構造
  • 膜企業
  • 世界のPEMFC膜市場構造・予測

第5章 MEA、気体拡散層、バイポーラプレート

  • 気体拡散層 (GDL)
    • GDLの背景
    • GDLの特徴
    • GDLの製造
  • バイポーラプレート
    • バイポラープレートの背景
    • バイポラープレートの設計
    • DMFCアノードのアプローチ
    • MEA、GDL、バイポーラプレートメーカー
    • 世界のバイポラープレート・PEMFC用GDLの市場構造・予測

第6章 触媒とインク

  • 背景
    • 触媒の耐久性
    • 触媒粒子サイズ・キャリア組成
    • 触媒被覆メンブレン
    • 低触媒負荷アプローチ
    • 組み合わせ触媒技術
    • 革新的材料とナノマテリアル
    • 触媒インクの組成
    • 炭素組成電気触媒パウダー
    • 触媒・インクメーカー
    • 世界のPEMFC触媒・インクの市場構造・予測

第7章 業界構造と競合側面

  • 業界環境と貿易動向
  • 環境問題
  • 政府の規制・助成金
  • 学術機関の燃料電池開発への参入
  • MEA流通チャネル
  • 業界の購入影響因子・価格
  • PEMFC・MEA特許

図表

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目次
Product Code: FCB035E

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global market for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) reached $340 million and $460 million in 2010 and 2014, respectively. This market is expected to reach $534 million by 2015 and $1.9 billion by 2020, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 29.4% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:

  • An overview of the global market for materials for proton exchange membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells.
  • Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2010 and 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.
  • Examination of bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs); this includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink/electrode, the membrane itself, and the bipolar plate.
  • Discussion covering the history and advancing technology of these components, the companies involved in these developments, the current and projected incentives, and the projected markets for such technologies.
  • Presentations of consensus, optimistic, and pessimistic scenarios.
  • Patent analysis as well as discussion covering power sources and vehicle components, emphasizing intellectual property issues.
  • Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the field.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The fuel cell industry in various forms has been developing for decades. There are notable examples of fuel cell successes. The PEMFC is emerging as a winner in many of the primary categories that fuel cells can satisfy. Existing membranes and assemblies still have room for improvement. PEMFC development and commercialization is an ever-changing process. This BCC Research analysis examines the market and technology for the materials and technology of proton exchange membranes and electrode assemblies and for bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink or electrode, the membrane itself and the bipolar plate. Ancillary stack assembly materials such as bolts, gaskets, tie-outs, and final assembly and packaging costs are excluded.

This report details the actuals for 2010 and 2014, forecasts for 2015, and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) projections for 2020. When appropriate, consensus, optimistic and pessimistic scenarios are presented. A patent analysis and discussion of power sources and vehicle components describes where research is performed and emphasizes intellectual property issues. An extensive set of company profiles is provided.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

This report's project analyst, Donald Saxman, edited the BCC Research newsletter, Fuel Cell Industry Report, and has founded several other BCC newsletters. Saxman has more than 35 years of experience in market analysis, technical writing and newsletter editing. Since 1983, he has operated as a technical market consultant and subcontractor to BCC Research and in this capacity has prepared more than 80 technology market research reports, including many that covered battery technology and battery markets. His previous experience includes supervision of a quality-control laboratory at a major secondary lead refinery, experience as an analytical chemist at a hazardous waste testing service, product assurance manager for a space station life-support-system project and an information technology business analyst and project manager.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

  • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • SCOPE OF REPORT
  • METHODOLOGY
  • INFORMATION SOURCES
  • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
  • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
  • DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER 2 - SUMMARY

  • SUMMARY
  • SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
  • SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, 2010-2015 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 3 - PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OVERVIEW

  • FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
    • TABLE 1: FUEL CELL COMPARISON
  • PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS
    • FIGURE 1: GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM WITH COMPONENTS
  • FUEL AND FUEL REFORMING FUNDAMENTALS
    • Improved Hydrogen Separation
    • Filtering Hydrogen and Oxygen
  • THE DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL VARIATION
    • FIGURE 2: DMFC CHEMISTRY
  • PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL COMPANIES
    • TABLE 2: PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS
  • PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS
    • MARKET SEGMENTATION AND INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION
      • Portable Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors
        • TABLE 3: TYPES OF PORTABLE PRODUCTS
        • TABLE 4: IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKET FACTORS
        • TABLE 5: PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
        • TABLE 6: PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
      • Stationary Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors
        • Uninterruptible Power Supplies
        • Combined Heat and Power
        • Utility Load Leveling
        • Stationary Market Drivers
          • TABLE 7: STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
          • TABLE 8: STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
      • Transportation Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors
        • TABLE 9: TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
        • TABLE 10: CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC, AND PESSIMISTIC PEMFC VEHICLE SCENARIOS
      • "Other"Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors
        • Portable Military Products
          • TABLE 11: SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES
      • Recreational Vehicles
      • Anti-Idling Power
      • Other Market Drivers
        • TABLE 12: OTHER PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
        • TABLE 13: OTHER PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
    • GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET FORECASTS
      • TABLE 14: GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 3: GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 4: TOTAL GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • Optimistic and Pessimistic Scenarios
        • Pessimistic Scenarios:
        • Optimistic Scenarios:
          • TABLE 15: GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET RECESSION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
          • TABLE 16: HYDROGEN STATION SAFETY CRISIS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
          • TABLE 17: FAILED FUEL CELL VEHICLE SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
          • TABLE 18: LITHIUM-ION BATTERY BAN ON AIRCRAFT SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
          • TABLE 19: CONSENSUS ON GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
          • TABLE 20: TWO OR MORE SIMULTANEOUS WARS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 4 - MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES

  • MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FUNDAMENTALS
    • FIGURE 5: SIMPLE MEA SCHEMATIC
  • MEA OBJECTIVES
    • TABLE 21: FUEL CELL MEA PERFORMANCE GOALS
  • MEA FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY
    • FIGURE 6: MEA CREATION FLOW CHART
  • MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FUNCTIONAL STACK DESIGNS
    • ELECTROCHEMISTRY
    • WATER MANAGEMENT
    • ANCILLARY FACTORS
    • MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES
      • 3M Innovative Properties Co. Approach
      • DuPont Approach
      • GM Approach
      • Hoku Scientific Approach
      • ReliOn (Plug Power)/Avista Approach
      • Gore Approach
      • National Renewable Energy Laboratory MEA Manufacturing Approach
      • Other Approaches
    • CARBON CORROSION AND GRAPHITE
      • Asbury Carbons Approach
      • Northwestern University Approach
      • Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) Approach
      • Imerys Synthetic Graphite Approach
        • TABLE 22: IMERYS GRAPHITE PROPERTIES
    • DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL MEA APPROACHES
      • University of North Florida Improved DMFC Approach
      • Gillette Co. Approach
      • Sony Corp. Approach
      • Los Alamos National Laboratory Approach
      • California Institute of Technology Approach
      • University of Connecticut Approach
      • ViaSpace Approach
      • Gore DMFC Approach
      • Cambridge Display Technology Approach
      • Russian Academy of Sciences Approach
      • Ube Industries Ltd. Approach
      • Matsushita Battery Approach
      • Sumitomo Metal Approach
      • Oorja Approach
      • Panasonic Approach
        • TABLE 23: PANASONIC DMFC SPECIFICATIONS
      • University of Dayton Approach
      • Arizona State University Approach
      • Rice University Approach
      • Drexel University Approach
  • GLOBAL MEA COMPONENT FOR PEMFCS MARKET
    • STRUCTURE AND FORECAST
      • Membrane Electrode Assembly Market Structure
        • TABLE 24: ESTIMATED MEA COMPANY MARKET SHARES BY YEAR, THROUGH 2015 (%)
      • Bipolar Plate Market Structure
      • Gas Diffusion Layers and Carbon Market Structure
      • Ink and Catalyst Market Structure
      • Putting It All Together: MEA Market Forecast
        • TABLE 25: GLOBAL MEA MARKET BY COMPONENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
        • FIGURE 7: GLOBAL MEA MARKET SHARE BY COMPONENT, 2015 (%)
  • PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS
    • MEMBRANE BACKGROUND
      • Types of Membranes
      • Membrane Processes
      • Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Membranes
  • WHAT MAKES A GOOD PEMFC MEMBRANE?
    • PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUNCTIONAL FACTORS
      • TABLE 26: MEMBRANE PARAMETER VARIABLES
      • Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyte Compatibility Factors
        • TABLE 27: PEM ELECTROLYTE ISSUES
    • MEMBRANE TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE FACTORS
      • High-Temperature Tolerance
        • TABLE 28: ADVANTAGES OF A HIGHER TEMPERATURE MEMBRANE FOR A PEMFC
      • Freezing Temperature Tolerance
    • MEMBRANE WATER TOLERANCE FACTORS
      • FIGURE 8: WATER TRANSPORT IN A PEMFC
    • FUEL TOLERANCE FACTORS
    • FUEL CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE
  • MEMBRANE FABRICATION AND SYNTHESIS
    • TABLE 29: APPROACHES TO FUEL CELL IONOMER SYNTHESIS
    • TABLE 30: MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUES
    • COMMON MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUES
      • Phase Separation
      • Expanded Film
      • Leaching
      • Interfacial Polymerization
      • Grafting
    • CASTING SOLVENT
      • Ethylene Glycol as Solvent
    • IMPACT OF MEMBRANE THICKNESS
    • MEMBRANE FUNCTIONALIZATION
      • Membrane Pretreatment
  • MEMBRANE MATERIAL COMPOSITIONS
    • PEM MEMBRANES
      • Perfluorocarbonsulfonic Acid Ionomers
      • Nafion PFSA Membranes
        • TABLE 31: FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF NAFION PFSA MEMBRANES
      • Gore Select Membranes
        • TABLE 32: CONDUCTANCE COMPARISONS
      • Aciplex Membranes
      • Asahi Glass Flemion Membranes
      • Polytetrafluoroethylene Membrane Durability Enhancement
      • Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and UC Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering Polymer Membrane
      • University of Rochester Thin Filter and SiMPore Membranes
        • FIGURE 9: SIMPORE MEMBRANES
      • PolyFuel Hydrocarbon Membranes
      • MIT and the University of Pennsylvania Nanocomposite Membrane Barriers
      • Toray Industries Hydrocarbon Membranes
      • Akron Polymer Systems Membranes
      • Heraeus-Daychem Approach
      • JSR Multilayered Structure
      • Ballard Power Systems BAM Membranes
      • Dais Analytic Corp. Modified Polystyrene Sulfonated Membranes and Styrene/Ethylene-Butylene/Styrene Triblock Polymer Membranes
      • Victrex Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) Membranes
      • Hoku Scientific SEK Membranes
      • Shimizu and University of Calgary Membranes
      • Tosoh's Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone) Membranes
      • Virginia Polytechnic Institute Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether) Sulfone Membrane
        • TABLE 33: VIRGINIA TECH BPS MEMBRANE PROPERTIES COMPARED WITH NAFION 117
      • Argonne National Lab Dendritic Sulfonated Polyaryl Ether Membranes
      • Tianjin University Chemical Engineering Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid/Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Membranes
      • Gas Technology Institute Membranes
      • 3M Sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutane Membranes
      • Motorola Heterocyclic and Polybenimidizole Membranes
      • University of Texas and Other Variations of PBI Membranes
      • Plug Power and DOE and PBI Membranes
      • Rensselaer's Chain-Transfer (RAFT) Polymerized Membranes
      • Samsung Polyimide Derivative
      • Other Modifications of PBI
      • CEA Sulfonated Polyimide Membranes
      • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Tailored Imide Membranes
      • Poly(Bisbenzoxazole) [PBO] Membranes
      • University of Massachusetts Co-Polymer Membranes
      • Aciplex and Titanias Composite Membranes
      • Various Inorganic-Organic Composite Membranes
      • Glen Research Center Modified Siloxane (ORMOSIL) Membranes
      • Illinois Institute of Technology Organic/Heteropolyacids and Nafion Membranes
      • Honda Aniline and Perfluorosulfonic Acid Polymer Membranes
      • Johnson Matthey Randomly Arranged Fibers and Perfluorinated Membranes
      • McMaster University Ionic Gel Fill Membranes
      • Zirconium Phosphonate Fill
      • National Science Foundation Oxidation Resistant Carbon Support Membranes
      • Altergy Freedom Power
    • NOVEL AND EXPERIMENTAL PEM MATERIALS
      • Georgia Tech Triazole Booster
      • Dow XUS 13204.1
      • 3M Acid Functional Fluoropolymers Membrane
      • Glass Membranes
      • Microcell Microfiber
      • Oak Ridge National Lab Metallized Bio-Cellulosics
      • University of Florida Intermediate-Temperature Proton-Conducting Membranes
  • MEMBRANE COMPANIES
    • TABLE 34: COMPANIES PRODUCING ION SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS
    • TABLE 35: ESTIMATED PEMFC FLUOROPOLYMER MEMBRANE COMPANY MARKET SHARE, 2015 (%)
    • ASAHI GLASS CO. LTD.
    • ASAHI KASEI CHEMICALS CORP.
    • AXANE
    • BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS
    • BASF CORP.
    • CAMBRIDGE DISPLAY (MAXDEM INC.)
    • DAIS ANALYTIC CORP.
    • DUPONT FUEL CELLS
    • GOLDEN ENERGY FUEL CELL CO. LTD.
    • GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES
    • HOKU SCIENTIFIC INC.
    • HYDROGENICS CORP.
    • INFINTIUM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS
    • ITM POWER
    • JSR CORP.
    • TORAY INDUSTRIES INC.
    • OTHERS
  • GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET STRUCTURE AND FORECAST
    • PEM MEMBRANE MATERIALS MARKET SHARE
      • TABLE 36: GLOBAL PEM MATERIALS MARKET SHARE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (%)
    • PEM MEMBRANE MATERIALS VALUE
      • TABLE 37: GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 10: GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 11: GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2015 (%)
      • TABLE 38: GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 5 - MEA, GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS AND BIPOLAR PLATES

  • GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS
    • GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYER BACKGROUND
    • ATTRIBUTES OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS
      • TABLE 39: ATTRIBUTES NEEDED FOR GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MATERIALS
    • GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MANUFACTURING
      • TABLE 40: PROS AND CONS OF GDL MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES
      • GrafTech International Approach
      • Umicore Group Approach
      • Lydall Inc. Approach
        • TABLE 41: TYPICAL SOLUPOR PROPERTIES
      • Mitsubishi Rayon Approach
      • SGL Carbon Group Approach
        • TABLE 42: TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SIGRACET GAS DIFFUSION LAYER
      • Toray/Mitsui Approach
      • University of Maine Approach
      • Trenergi Approach
      • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Approach
      • Zoltek Approach
      • Cabot and IRD Fuel Cell Approach
      • Other Approaches
  • BIPOLAR PLATES
    • BIPOLAR PLATE BACKGROUND
    • BIPOLAR PLATE DESIGNS
      • TABLE 43: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIPOLAR PLATES
      • TABLE 44: MATERIAL TYPES FOR BIPOLAR PLATES
      • Corrosion Protection of Metallic Plates
        • Ballard Powers' Bipolar Metal Plate
        • Surface Modification
      • Tech-Etch Metal Plates
      • Entegris Approach
      • DuPont T8 Series
      • IdaTech Layered Bipolar Plate Assembly
      • Celanese Ticona Thermoplastic
      • Intelligent Energy's Proprietary Design
      • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Battery Material and Component Simulations
      • Nisshinbo Approach
      • Illinois Urbana-Champaign Fuel Cell Separator Plate with Controlled Fiber Orientation
      • Plug Power Assembly
      • Porvair Approach
      • SGL Group Approach
        • TABLE 45: SGL BIPOLAR PLATE TYPICAL PROPERTIES
      • Bac2 ElectroPhen
      • George Marchetti Improved Gasket Approach
      • Federal-Mogul's Liquid Elastomer Molding
      • AEG Carbon Fiber-Elastomer Composite Bipolar Plates
      • myFC Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell FuelCellSticker
    • DMFC ANODE APPROACHES
      • Toshiba Approach
      • DuPont GEN IV Approach
      • Medis Conductive Polymer Approach
      • PolyFuel Approach
      • Smart Fuel Cell Approach
    • MEA, GDL AND BIPOLAR PLATE COMPANIES
      • 10X MICROSTRUCTURES
      • 3M
      • ACAL ENERGY LTD
      • ASBURY CARBONS
        • TABLE 46: NATURAL GRAPHITE TYPICAL VALUES
        • TABLE 47: S.E.F.G. (SURFACED ENHANCED FLAKE GRAPHITE) TYPICAL VALUES
        • TABLE 48: HIGH PURITY ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES
        • TABLE 49: STANDARD ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES
        • TABLE 50: CARBON FIBERS TYPICAL VALUES
      • AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL COOPERATION CORP.
      • AVCARB
      • BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS
      • DAIMLER
      • DUPONT FUEL CELL
      • ELECTROCHEM INC. (FUELCELL.COM)
        • TABLE 51: ELECTROCHEM RESEARCH PROJECTS
      • ENTEGRIS INC.
      • FUELCELLSETC
      • GENERAL MOTORS CORP.
      • GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES
      • GRAFTECH INTERNATIONAL LTD.
      • HYDROGENICS CORP.
      • HONDA
        • Honda U.S. Headquarters
      • HORIZON FUEL CELLS
      • IMERYS GRAPHITE & CARBON
      • METRO MOLD & DESIGN
      • JOHNSON MATTHEY FUEL CELLS RESEARCH
      • Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells (USA)
      • MANHATTAN SCIENTIFICS INC.
        • Research Headquarters
      • MATERIALS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH CORP.
      • MITSUBISHI RAYON CO. LTD.
      • NEDSTACK FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
      • NISSHINBO INDUSTRIES INC.
      • NUVERA FUEL CELLS (NACCO MATERIALS HANDLING GROUP)
      • OORJA PROTONICS INC.
      • PALCAN FUEL CELLS LTD.
      • PAXITECH
      • PLUG POWER
      • PORVAIR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
      • POWERCELL SWEDEN AB (VOLVO)
      • PROTON POWER SYSTEMS
      • PROTONEX TECHNOLOGY CORP.
      • SGL GROUP
        • SGL Technik
      • SHANGHAI SHENLI HIGH TECH CO. LTD.
      • SHARP CORP.
      • SMART FUEL CELL AG (SFC)
      • SPECTRACORP
      • SUMITOMO METAL MINING
      • SUPERIOR GRAPHITE CO.
      • TICONA (CELANESE)
      • TORAY INDUSTRIES INC. (ZOLTEK MATERIALS GROUP)
        • Zoltek Materials Group
      • TOYOTA
    • GLOBAL BIPOLAR PLATES AND GDLS FOR PEMFCS STRUCTURE FORECAST
      • TABLE 52: GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 12: GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT TYPE, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 13: GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON BY COMPONENT TYPE, 2015 (%)
      • TABLE 53: GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 6 - CATALYSTS AND INKS

  • BACKGROUND
    • CATALYST DURABILITY
    • CATALYST PARTICLE SIZE AND CARRIER COMPOSITIONS
    • CATALYST-COATED MEMBRANES
      • DuPont Approach
      • GS Carbon Approach
        • FIGURE 14: PREPARATION OF CARBON AEROGEL SUPPORTED PLATINUM
      • Ramot University Approach
    • LOW CATALYST LOADING APPROACHES
      • Ballard Approach
    • COMBINATORIAL CATALYST TECHNIQUES
    • INNOVATIVE CATALYST MATERIALS AND NANOMATERIALS
      • Platinum Alloys
      • DMFC Anode Durability
      • Nanoparticles
        • Kyoto University Approach
        • Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Approach
        • UCLA Approach
        • NIST Nano-Raspberry Approach
        • Los Alamos National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory Approach
        • Brown University Approach
        • Brookhaven National Laboratory Approaches
        • University of Central Florida Approach
        • Cornell University Approach
        • Georgia Tech and Xiamen University Approach
        • MIT Approach
      • Nanofibers
      • Nanolevel Platinum/Carbon Electrocatalyst for Cathode
      • Delhi Technological University Graphite/PTFE Based Electrode Approach
      • University of Wisconsin-Madison Nanoparticle Catalyst
      • University of Houston Lattice-Strained Core-Shell Nanoparticle Catalyst
      • Acta Base Metal Cathode Catalyst
      • Lawrence Berkeley and Argonne National Laboratories Alloy
      • Nanowires
        • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories Approach
        • University of Rochester Sizing Nanowire Approach
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloy Approach
      • University of Texas at Austin Palladium-Based Alloy Catalysts
      • TIAX LLC Nanostructured Thin-Film Catalysts
        • TABLE 54: PROJECTED COST AT HIGH-VOLUME MANUFACTURING (%)
        • TABLE 55: PERFORMANCE AND COST SUMMARY ($)
      • SDK High-Efficiency Catalysts Platinum Substitute for PEMFCs
      • Washington University in St. Louis and Brookhaven National Labs Bimetallic Fuel Cell Catalyst
      • Brown University Platinum Nanocubes
      • Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells NECLASS Project
      • Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis Approach
      • University of Rochester Black Metal Approach
      • Canadelectrochim Approach
      • Transition Metal Nanosized Catalysts
      • Texas Tech University Platinum Nanodots
  • CATALYST INK COMPOSITIONS
    • APPLIED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL APPROACH
    • CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    • SW RESEARCH AND GORE APPROACH
    • UTC FUEL CELLS APPROACH
    • JET PROPULSION LABORATORY APPROACH
    • ANGSTRON MATERIALS GRAPHENE-BASED APPROACH
    • NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY AND THE MCCORMICK SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE GRAPHENE FILMS APPROACH
    • SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS APPROACH
  • CARBON COMPOSITE ELECTROCATALYST POWDERS
    • CABOT APPROACH
    • TOYOTA NANOMETER-SIZED PLATINUM PARTICLE OBSERVATION
    • ASYMTEK JET DISPENSING APPROACH
  • CATALYST AND INK COMPANIES
    • ACTA SPA
    • ALFA AESAR-JOHNSON MATTHEY CO.
      • Johnson Matthey Co.
      • Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells
    • ANGLO PLATINUM
    • AQUARIUS PLATINUM PTY LTD.
    • ASYMTEK (NORDSON)
    • IMPALA PLATINUM HOLDING LTD. (IMPLATS)
      • Impala Platinum Holding (Implats) (U.K.)
    • LONMIN PLATINUM, PLC
      • Lonmin South Africa
    • NORILSK NICKEL
    • OM GROUP INC. (OMG)
    • QUANTUMSPHERE INC.
    • STILLWATER
    • TANAKA PRECIOUS METALS
  • GLOBAL PEMFCS CATALYST AND INK STRUCTURE AND FORECAST
    • PLATINUM MARKETS AND CONSUMPTION
      • TABLE 56: GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM AND RESERVES (KG)
      • TABLE 57: U.S. PGM SALIENT STATISTICS, 2008-2014 (KG)
    • CATALYST AND INK VALUE
      • TABLE 58: GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 15: GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • TABLE 59: GLOBAL PEMFC INKS AND CATALYSTS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 7 - INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS

  • INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES
    • FIGURE 16: QUALITY CONTROL FLOW SHEET FOR SELECTING A PROPER MEA
  • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
  • GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES
    • U.S. FEDERAL FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES
      • U.S. Department of Energy
      • History of U.S. and State Fuel Cell Subsidies
      • U.S. DOE Direct PEMFC Funding
        • Topic 1: Alternative Electrode Deposition Processes
        • Topic 2: Novel MEA Manufacturing
        • Topic 3: Rapid MEA Conditioning
        • Topic 4: Process Modeling for Fuel Cell Stacks
        • Topic 5: Process and Device for Cost-Effective Testing of Cell Stacks
    • OTHER U.S. FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES
      • Office of Science
      • Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association
      • National Science Foundation
      • Department of Defense
      • State Incentives
      • NEESC Pilot Program to Assist Hydrogen-Fuel Cell and Energy Storage Entrepreneurs
      • Federal Excise Tax Exemption for Anti-idling
    • GLOBAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES
      • Canadian Subsidies and Incentives
        • TABLE 60: RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF HYDROGEN SUPPLY/ UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY
      • European Subsidies and Incentives
      • Japanese Subsidies and Incentives
      • South Korean Subsidies and Incentives
  • ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS' INVOLVEMENT IN FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT
    • TABLE 61: MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEMFCS
  • MEA DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
  • INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES AND PRICES
    • TABLE 62: PGM PRICES BY YEAR, 2008-2014 (DOLLARS PER TR OZ)
    • LIFE-CYCLE COSTS
  • PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS
    • TABLE 63: PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS

LIST OF TABLES

  • SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 1: FUEL CELL COMPARISON
    • TABLE 2: PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS
    • TABLE 3: TYPES OF POR
    • TABLE P: ODUCTS
    • TABLE 4: IMPORTANT POR
    • TABLE P: ODUCT MARKET FACTORS
    • TABLE 5: POR
    • TABLE P: MFC MARKET DRIVERS
    • TABLE 6: POR
    • TABLE PE: FC MARKET FACTORS
    • TABLE 7 : TATIONARY PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
    • TABLE 8 : TATIONARY PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
    • TABLE 9 : RANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
    • TABLE 10: CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC, AND PESSIMISTIC PEMFC VEHICLE SCENARIOS
    • TABLE 11: SELECTED POR
    • TABLE BA: TERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES
    • TABLE 12: OTHER PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
    • TABLE 13: OTHER PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
    • TABLE 14: GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 15: GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET RECESSION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 16: HYDROGEN STATION SAFETY CRISIS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 17: FAILED FUEL CELL VEHICLE SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 18: LITHIUM-ION BATTERY BAN ON AIRCRAFT SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 19: CONSENSUS ON GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 20: TWO OR MORE SIMULTANEOUS WARS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 21: FUEL CELL MEA PERFORMANCE GOALS
    • TABLE 22: IMERYS GRAPHITE PROPERTIES
    • TABLE 23: PANASONIC DMFC SPECIFICATIONS
    • TABLE 24: ESTIMATED MEA COMPANY MARKET SHARES BY YEAR, THROUGH 2015 (%)
    • TABLE 25: GLOBAL MEA MARKET BY COMPONENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 26: MEMBRANE PARAMETER VARIABLES
    • TABLE 27: PEM ELECTROLYTE ISSUES
    • TABLE 28: ADVANTAGES OF A HIGHER TEMPERATURE MEMBRANE FOR A PEMFC
    • TABLE 29: APPROACHES TO FUEL CELL IONOMER SYNTHESIS
    • TABLE 30: MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUES
    • TABLE 31: FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF NAFION PFSA MEMBRANES
    • TABLE 32: CONDUCTANCE COMPARISONS
    • TABLE 33: VIRGINIA TECH BPS MEMBRANE PROPERTIES COMPARED WITH NAFION 117
    • TABLE 34: COMPANIES PRODUCING ION SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS
    • TABLE 35: ESTIMATED PEMFC FLUOROPOLYMER MEMBRANE COMPANY MARKET SHARE, 2015 (%)
    • TABLE 36: GLOBAL PEM MATERIALS MARKET SHARE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (%)
    • TABLE 37: GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 38: GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 39: ATTRIBUTES NEEDED FOR GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MATERIALS
    • TABLE 40: PROS AND CONS OF GDL MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES
    • TABLE 41: TYPICAL SOLUPOR PROPERTIES
    • TABLE 42: TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SIGRACET GAS DIFFUSION LAYER
    • TABLE 43: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIPOLAR PLATES
    • TABLE 44: MATERIAL TYPES FOR BIPOLAR PLATES
    • TABLE 45: SGL BIPOLAR PLATE TYPICAL PROPERTIES
    • TABLE 46: NATURAL GRAPHITE TYPICAL VALUES
    • TABLE 47: S.E.F.G. (SURFACED ENHANCED FLAKE GRAPHITE) TYPICAL VALUES
    • TABLE 48: HIGH PURITY ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES
    • TABLE 49: STANDARD ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES
    • TABLE 50: CARBON FIBERS TYPICAL VALUES
    • TABLE 51: ELECTROCHEM RESEARCH PROJECTS
    • TABLE 52: GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 53: GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 54: PROJECTED COST AT HIGH-VOLUME MANUFACTURING (%)
    • TABLE 55: PERFORMANCE AND COST SUMMARY ($)
    • TABLE 56: GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM AND RESERVES (KG)
    • TABLE 57: U.S. PGM SALIENT STATISTICS, 2008-2014 (KG)
    • TABLE 58: GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 59: GLOBAL PEMFC INKS AND CATALYSTS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 60: RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF HYDROGEN SUPPLY/ UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY
    • TABLE 61: MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEMFCS
    • TABLE 62: PGM PRICES BY YEAR, 2008-2014 (DOLLARS PER TR OZ)
    • TABLE 63: PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

  • SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, 2010-2015 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 1: GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM WITH COMPONENTS
    • FIGURE 2: DMFC CHEMISTRY
    • FIGURE 3: GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 4: TOTAL GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 5: SIMPLE MEA SCHEMATIC
    • FIGURE 6: MEA CREATION FLOW CHART
    • FIGURE 7: GLOBAL MEA MARKET SHARE BY COMPONENT, 2015 (%)
    • FIGURE 8: WATER TRANSPORT IN A PEMFC
    • FIGURE 9: SIMPORE MEMBRANES
    • FIGURE 10: GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 11: GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2015 (%)
    • FIGURE 12: GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT TYPE, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 13: GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON BY COMPONENT TYPE, 2015 (%)
    • FIGURE 14: PREPARATION OF CARBON AEROGEL SUPPORTED PLATINUM
    • FIGURE 15: GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 16: QUALITY CONTROL FLOW SHEET FOR SELECTING A PROPER MEA
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