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市場調査レポート

海水淡水化・汽水淡水化技術の世界市場

Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination

発行 BCC Research 商品コード 134597
出版日 ページ情報 英文 184 Pages
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海水淡水化・汽水淡水化技術の世界市場 Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination
出版日: 2016年03月31日 ページ情報: 英文 184 Pages
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概要

世界の淡水化 (脱塩) プラントへの累積投資額は2015年から2020年にかけて17.6%のCAGR (複合年間成長率) で推移し、2015年の約214億ドルから、2020年には482億ドルに近い規模に拡大すると予測されています。

当レポートでは、海水および汽水の各種淡水化 (脱塩) 技術の動向について調査し、各種技術の概要、淡水化システムの経済性の分析、技術区分・地域/国別の増分設備容量および投資額の推移と予測、主な技術革新・研究プログラムなどの動向、特許データ、主要企業の企業プロファイルなどをまとめています。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 サマリー

第3章 概要

  • 水需要の拡大への影響因子
  • 淡水化に関する考察

第4章 技術概要

  • 淡水化技術
  • 膜技術
    • 逆浸透 (RO)
    • ナノ濾過
    • 電気分解
  • 熱技術
    • 多段フラッシュ蒸留
    • 多重効用蒸留
    • 蒸気圧縮
  • RO/蒸発法ハイブリッドプラント
  • その他の技術

第5章 淡水化システムのエコノミクス:用水単価

  • 概要
  • プラント設備容量・初期資本投資
    • 多段フラッシュ蒸留
    • 多重効用蒸留
    • 逆浸透 (RO)
  • 資本コスト推計:技術・プラント設備容量別
  • 運用&保守コスト
  • エネルギーコストと炭素排出
  • オールイン用水単価
    • 膜技術のコスト
  • 熱技術のコスト
    • 多段フラッシュ蒸留
    • サマリー

第6章 世界の淡水化プラント:増分設備容量・投資額の予測

  • 世界市場の状況
  • 地域別の展望
    • 北米
    • 欧州
    • 中東
    • アジア
    • ラテンアメリカ・カリブ海諸国
    • サブサハラ・その他の地域
  • 世界市場の予測
    • 世界の増分設備容量の予測
    • 世界の投資額の予測

第7章 研究動向・各国の淡水化R&Dプログラム

  • エネルギー回収
    • 大面積モジュール
    • ナノ濾過前処理
  • 世界の研究動向
    • 吸着脱塩(AD)
    • 膜脱塩 (MD)
    • 新しい膜材料
    • ブライン投棄
    • 再生可能エネルギーによる脱塩
  • 各国のR&Dプログラム
    • 米国
    • オーストラリア
    • 日本
    • 韓国
    • サウジアラビア
    • 南アフリカ

第8章 産業構造

  • 産業構造
  • 企業プロファイル

第9章 特許分析

第10章 用語

第11章 略語

第12章 付録

図表

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目次
Product Code: MST052D

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global cumulative investments in desalination plants reached roughly $21.4 billion in 2015 and should reach nearly $48.2 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.6%.

This report provides:

  • An overview of the global market for seawater and brackish water desalination
  • Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020
  • Descriptions of various desalination methods, including multistage flash distillation, multi-effect distillation, vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and nanofiltration
  • Discussion of novel desalination methods, including freezing, gas hydrate formation, membrane distillation, and capacitive deionization
  • Examination of the seawater and brackish water desalination plants industry on a worldwide basis, both from a market and application perspective
  • Profiles of major and minor companies working on or in conjunction with desalination plants.

SCOPE OF REPORT

Desalination plants range from the very small to large industrial or municipal facilities. This report assesses the market for the larger facilities-those with a daily capacity of 1,000 or more cubic meters of produced water. The study discusses the global water resource status and the growing gap between freshwater resources and water demand from all sectors. Within this global context, the specific growth drivers for and the challenges to the evolution of the desalination equipment market are presented.

A technical overview of the primary desalination technologies is provided, as well as an overview of novel distillation methods. The report presents the hypothetical unit cost of water as produced by the primary technologies as well as the sensitivity of that cost to variations in economic parameters.

Forecasts of annual and cumulative capital investments in desalination plants likely to begin operation during the forecast period of 2015 to 2020 are given. These forecasts include global investments by technology and by region, as well as regional forecasts by technology. Outlooks are provided for important countries within each of the regions examined in the report: North America; Latin America and the Caribbean; Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; Asia and Oceania; and Africa/Rest of World. The outlook sections include information on key projects.

The desalination industry structure, key players, and their market shares are also discussed. Seventy-seven companies are profiled. In addition, a survey of relevant patents for 2013, 2014 and 2015 (through October 2015) is provided.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

The author of this report, Gerry Runte, holds B.S. and M.Eng. degrees in mathematics, chemistry, and nuclear engineering. He has more than 30 years of experience in leadership, strategy development, and corporate planning. Currently, he heads Worthington Sawtelle LLC, a consulting and market research firm that provides a full portfolio of business planning and strategy services to both new and existing participants in emerging markets.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

  • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • SCOPE OF REPORT
  • METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
  • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
  • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
  • DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER 2 - SUMMARY

  • SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
  • SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 3 - OVERVIEW

  • WATER DEMAND DRIVERS
    • POPULATION GROWTH
      • TABLE 1: POPULATION PRESSURES ON THE TOP WATER-SCARCE AREAS OF THE WORLD, 2010-2035
    • UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY
      • TABLE 2: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
      • FIGURE 1: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
    • WATER, FOOD, AND ENERGY NEXUS
      • Energy
        • TABLE 3: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, THROUGH 2050
        • FIGURE 2: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, 2005-2050 (MILLIONS, BILLION M3/YEAR)
      • Agriculture
        • FIGURE 3: WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND MUNICIPAL NEEDS BY REGION AND SECTOR, 2015 (%)
    • RESOURCE EXHAUSTION
      • FIGURE 4: GLOBAL GAP BETWEEN EXISTING WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, 2030 (BILLION M3)
      • FIGURE 5: WATER STRESS AREAS BY COUNTRY, 2040 (%)
      • TABLE 4: TOP 25 WATER-STRESSED COUNTRIES, 2020-2040
  • DESALINATION CONSIDERATIONS
    • DESALTED WATER END USES
      • TABLE 5: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
      • FIGURE 6: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
    • WATER SALINITY
      • TABLE 6: WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L)
      • TABLE 7: SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATER SOURCES, 2014 (PPM)
      • TABLE 8: RELATIVE WATER HARDNESS LEVEL VALUES
    • SOURCE WATERS USED FOR DESALINATION
      • TABLE 9: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (MILLION M3/D, %)
      • FIGURE 7: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (%)

CHAPTER 4 - TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

  • DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
    • BRIEF HISTORY OF DESALINATION
      • FIGURE 8: TYPES OF ESTABLISHED DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
    • MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
    • THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
    • COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
      • TABLE 10: COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS FOR THERMAL AND MEMBRANE DESALINATION METHODS
    • COMPARATIVE COSTS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
      • FIGURE 9: GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES ($/M3)
      • TABLE 11: AVERAGE COST OF DELIVERED WATER BY SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS AND COUNTRY, 2014 ($/M3)
      • TABLE 12: GLOBAL DESALINATION PLANT INSTALLATIONS: NUMBER AND CAPACITY, 1945-2015 (NUMBER, M3/D)
      • TABLE 13: LARGEST COMMISSIONED DESALINATION PLANTS BY RANK, 2010-2015
      • TABLE 14: GLOBAL SHARE OF INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015 (MILLION M3/D, %)
      • TABLE 15: DISTRIBUTION OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2014
  • MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
    • REVERSE OSMOSIS
      • TABLE 16: MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES, 2014
    • NANOFILTRATION
    • ELECTRODIALYSIS
  • THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
    • MULTISTAGE FLASH DISTILLATION
    • MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION
    • VAPOR COMPRESSION
  • HYBRID REVERSE OSMOSIS/THERMAL PLANTS
  • OTHER TECHNOLOGIES
    • FREEZING
    • GAS HYDRATE PROCESSES
    • MEMBRANE DISTILLATION
    • SOLAR HUMIDIFICATION
    • FLOW-THROUGH CAPACITOR
    • FORWARD OSMOSIS
    • ION EXCHANGE

CHAPTER 5 - DESALINATION SYSTEM ECONOMICS: UNIT COST OF WATER

  • OVERVIEW
  • PLANT CAPACITY AND INITIAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
    • MULTISTAGE FLASH DISTILLATION
    • MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION
    • REVERSE OSMOSIS
  • CAPITAL COST ESTIMATES BY TECHNOLOGY AND PLANT CAPACITY
    • TABLE 17: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 10: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY, ($ MILLIONS, M3/D)
    • TABLE 18: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 11: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
  • OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS
    • TABLE 19: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 12: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • TABLE 20: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 13: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
  • ENERGY COSTS AND CARBON EMISSIONS
    • TABLE 21: VARIATION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY AND FEEDWATER SALINITY (MG/L, KWH/M3, %)
    • FIGURE 14: EFFECT OF ENERGY PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D RO DESALINATION PLANT ($/MMBTU, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 15: EFFECT OF OIL PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANT ($/BARREL OIL, $/M3)
    • TABLE 22: CARBON EMISSIONS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES (KG CO2/M3)
  • ALL-IN UNIT COST OF WATER
    • COST OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
      • TABLE 23: GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, PRE-1985-2014
      • TABLE 24: GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS, 1996-2014
  • COST OF THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
    • MULTISTAGE Flash Distillation
      • FIGURE 16: GLOBAL MULTISTAGE FLASH DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012 ($/M3)
      • Multi-Effect Distillation
    • SUMMARY
      • TABLE 25: COST ALLOCATIONS OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER BY TECHNOLOGY, HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D PLANTS
      • FIGURE 17: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR BRACKISH AND SEAWATER RO DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
      • FIGURE 18: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR MED AND MSF THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
      • TABLE 26: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP-DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
      • Saudi Arabia Solar Projects
      • Wind
      • Tidal Energy

CHAPTER 6 - DESALINATION PLANT CAPACITY ADDITIONS AND INVESTMENTS: GLOBAL MARKET OUTLOOK

  • GLOBAL MARKET STATUS
    • TABLE 27: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
    • FIGURE 19: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%)
    • TABLE 28: TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY, 2014 (MILLION M3/D)
  • REGIONAL OUTLOOKS
    • NORTH AMERICA
      • Economic Trends
      • Water Needs
        • TABLE 29: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
        • FIGURE 20: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (%)
      • Desalination Capacity
        • TABLE 30: FRESHWATER WITHDRAWAL OF TOP 10 STATES USING SALINE WATER SOURCES, 2010 (%)
        • TABLE 31: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
        • FIGURE 21: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
        • TABLE 32: INSTALLED U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
        • TABLE 33: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
        • FIGURE 22: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
      • Outlook
        • Heartland
          • FIGURE 23: POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS
        • Mid-Atlantic
        • Oil, Gas, and Coal Basins
        • Inland Urban Areas
        • Coastal Urban Areas
          • Florida
          • California
          • Texas
        • Capacity and Investment Forecast-North America
          • TABLE 34: NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
          • TABLE 35: NORTH AMERICAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS FOR DESALINATION BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • EUROPE
      • Economic Trends
      • Water Needs
        • Spain
          • Outlook
        • Cyprus
          • Outlook
        • U.K.
          • Outlook
      • Capacity and Investment Forecast-Europe
        • TABLE 36: EUROPEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
        • TABLE 37: EUROPEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • MIDDLE EAST
      • Economic Trends
      • Water Needs
        • Algeria
          • Outlook
        • Israel
          • Outlook
        • Jordan
          • Outlook
        • Kuwait
          • Outlook
        • Oman
          • Outlook
        • Saudi Arabia
          • Outlook
        • UAE
          • Outlook
      • Capacity and Investment Forecast-Middle East
        • TABLE 38: MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
        • TABLE 39: MIDDLE EASTERN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • ASIA
      • Economic Trends
        • TABLE 40: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROWTH'S GDP FORECAST FOR SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES, 2014-2016
      • Water Needs
        • Australia
          • Outlook
        • China
          • Outlook
            • TABLE 41: CHINESE SEAWATER DESALINATION CAPACITY GOALS BY REGION, 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
            • TABLE 42: CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS IN CHINA
        • India and Pakistan
          • Outlook
      • Capacity and Investment Forecast-Asia
        • TABLE 43: ASIAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
        • TABLE 44: ASIAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN
      • Economic Trends
      • Water Needs
        • Argentina
        • Chile
          • Outlook
        • Mexico
          • Outlook
      • Capacity and Investment Forecast-Latin America and the Caribbean
        • TABLE 45: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
        • TABLE 46: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AND REST OF WORLD
      • Outlook
      • Capacity and Investment Forecast-Sub-Saharan Africa and Rest of World
        • TABLE 47: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
        • TABLE 48: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
  • GLOBAL FORECASTS
    • GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY ADDITIONS FORECAST
      • Global Desalination Capacity Forecast by Technology
      • Forecast Summary
        • TABLE 49: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
        • FIGURE 24: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
      • Global Desalination Capacity Forecast by Region
        • TABLE 50: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
        • FIGURE 25: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • GLOBAL INVESTMENT FORECAST
      • Global Investment Forecast by Region
        • TABLE 51: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
        • FIGURE 26: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
        • TABLE 52: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
        • FIGURE 27: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • Global Investment Forecast by Technology
        • Reverse Osmosis Technology Market Value
        • Multi-Effect Distillation and Multistage Flash Technology Market Values
        • Market Value of Other Technologies
          • Novel Technologies

CHAPTER 7 - RESEARCH TRENDS AND NATIONAL DESALINATION R&D PROGRAMS

  • ENERGY RECOVERY
    • LARGE-AREA MODULES
    • NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT
  • GLOBAL RESEARCH TRENDS
    • ADSORPTION DESALINATION (AD)
    • MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD)
    • NEW MEMBRANE MATERIALS
      • Nano-Enabled Membranes
        • TABLE 53: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIAL MEMBRANES
      • Carbon Nanotube Membranes
      • Biomimetic Membranes
    • BRINE DISPOSAL
      • Alternative Brine Disposal Methods
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY-DRIVEN DESALINATION
      • FIGURE 28: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR COMPATIBLE DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
      • Solar
        • Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
          • TABLE 54: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
  • NATIONAL R&D PROGRAMS
    • U.S. RESEARCH PRIORITIES
      • Desalination and Water Purification Roadmap
        • TABLE 55: DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS AND RECOMMENDED R&D
      • Current Research Priorities
      • State Initiatives
        • TABLE 56: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY STATE
      • National Priorities
        • TABLE 57: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY NATIONAL ORGANIZATION
    • AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH PRIORITIES
      • FIGURE 29: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION PLANT UNIT COST OF CAPACITY ($/M3/D)
      • TABLE 58: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION R&D PRIORITY THEMES
    • JAPAN (GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER)
      • TABLE 59: GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER R&D ROADMAP, 2013-2021
    • KOREAN NATIONAL R&D PROGRAM
    • SAUDI ARABIA WATER DESALINATION AND REUSE CENTER
    • SOUTH AFRICA NATIONAL WATER RESOURCE STRATEGY

CHAPTER 8 - INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
  • COMPANY PROFILES
    • ABENGOA WATER
    • ACCIONA AGUA/ACCIONA SA
    • ACE WATER TREATMENT CO. LTD.
    • ACWA (ARABIAN COMPANY FOR WATER & POWER DEVELOPMENT) POWER INTERNATIONAL
    • AL KAWTHER INDUSTRIES LTD.
    • ALFA LAVAL
    • ALKEMA SOLUTIONS
    • AQUALIA
    • AQUALYNG
    • AQUATECH INTERNATIONAL CORP.
    • BIWATER PLC
    • CADAGUA
    • CLYDEUNION PUMPS/SPX CORP.
    • CONSOLIDATED WATER CO. LTD.
    • CORODEX INDUSTRIES
    • CSM FILTERS
    • CULLIGAN INTERNATIONAL
    • Italy
    • DANFOSS A/S
    • DEMONT
    • DOOSAN HEAVY INDUSTRIES & CONSTRUCTION
    • DOW CHEMICAL CO.
    • DUCHTING PUMPS
    • EBARA CORP.
    • ENERGY RECOVERY INC.
    • EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES (FORMERLY SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGY)
    • FICHTNER GMBH
    • FISIA ITALIMPIANTI
    • FLOWSERVE
    • FLUID EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT CO. (FEDCO)
    • GENERAL ELECTRIC
    • GRAHAMTEK SYSTEMS
    • GRUNDFOS
    • GS INIMA ENVIRONMENT S.A.
    • H2O INNOVATION
    • HITACHI ZOSEN CORP.
    • HYFLUX LTD.
    • IDE TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
    • ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS
    • INGETEAM (INDAR)
    • KINDASA WATER SERVICES
    • KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS
    • KSB GROUP
    • KULJIAN CORP.
    • KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES
    • LAHMEYER INTERNATIONAL GMBH
    • LG WATER SOLUTIONS
    • MARUBENI CORP.
    • MEMSYS GMBH
    • MET-PRO GLOBAL PUMP SOLUTIONS
    • METITO (OVERSEAS) LTD.
    • MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES
    • NANOASIS
    • NITTO (HYDRANAUTICS)
    • ORGANO CORP.
    • OSMOFLO
    • PENTAIR
    • PORIFERA INC.
    • POSEIDON WATER
    • SACYR GLOBAL
    • SALINE WATER CONVERSION CORPORATION (SWCC)
    • SALT SEPARATION SERVICES LTD.
    • SASAKURA ENGINEERING
    • SEMBCORP UTILITIES PTE LTD.
    • SETE ENERGY SAUDIA FOR INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS LTD. (SETE ENERGY)
    • SEVERN TRENT SERVICES
    • SOGEX OMAN CO. LLC
    • SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT (DEGREMONT)
    • SULZER/SULZER PUMPS
    • SUMITOMO CORP.
    • TEDAGUA/COBRA GROUP (ACS)
    • TORAY INDUSTRIES
    • Toray Membrane USA
    • TORISHIMA PUMP MANUFACTURING CO. LTD.
    • TOYOBO CO. LTD.
    • UEM INC.
    • VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES
    • WETICO
    • XYLEM INC.

CHAPTER 9 - PATENT ANALYSIS

  • PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
    • TABLE 61: PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)
  • PATENTS BY COMPANY
    • TABLE 62: PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER*, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)

CHAPTER 10 - GLOSSARY

  • TABLE 63: GLOSSARY

CHAPTER 11 - ACRONYMS

  • TABLE 64: ACRONYMS

CHAPTER 12 - APPENDIX

  • TABLE 65: PATENT SURVEY, 2013
  • TABLE 66: PATENT SURVEY, 2014
  • TABLE 67: PATENT SURVEY, 2015

LIST OF TABLES

  • SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 1: POPULATION PRESSURES ON THE TOP WATER-SCARCE AREAS OF THE WORLD, 2010-2035
    • TABLE 2: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
    • TABLE 3: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, THROUGH 2050
    • TABLE 4: TOP 25 WATER-STRESSED COUNTRIES, 2020-2040
    • TABLE 5: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
    • TABLE 6: WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L)
    • TABLE 7: SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATER SOURCES, 2014 (PPM)
    • TABLE 8: RELATIVE WATER HARDNESS LEVEL VALUES
    • TABLE 9: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (MILLION M3/D, %)
    • TABLE 10: COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS FOR THERMAL AND MEMBRANE DESALINATION METHODS
    • TABLE 11: AVERAGE COST OF DELIVERED WATER BY SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS AND COUNTRY, 2014 ($/M3)
    • TABLE 12: GLOBAL DESALINATION PLANT INSTALLATIONS: NUMBER AND CAPACITY, 1945-2015 (NUMBER, M3/D)
    • TABLE 13: LARGEST COMMISSIONED DESALINATION PLANTS BY RANK, 2010-2015
    • TABLE 14: GLOBAL SHARE OF INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015 (MILLION M3/D, %)
    • TABLE 15: DISTRIBUTION OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2014
    • TABLE 16: MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES, 2014
    • TABLE 17: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 18: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • TABLE 19: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • TABLE 20: O &M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • TABLE 21: VARIATION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY AND FEEDWATER SALINITY (MG/L, KWH/M3, %)
    • TABLE 22: CARBON EMISSIONS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES (KG CO2/M3)
    • TABLE 23: GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, PRE-1985-2014
    • TABLE 24: GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS, 1996-2014
    • TABLE 25: COST ALLOCATIONS OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER BY TECHNOLOGY, HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D PLANTS
    • TABLE 26: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP-DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
    • TABLE 27: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
    • TABLE 28: TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY, 2014 (MILLION M3/D)
    • TABLE 29: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
    • TABLE 30: FRESHWATER WITHDRAWAL OF TOP 10 STATES USING SALINE WATER SOURCES, 2010 (%)
    • TABLE 31: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
    • TABLE 32: INSTALLED U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %)
    • TABLE 33: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
    • TABLE 34: NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 35: NORTH AMERICAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS FOR DESALINATION BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 36: EUROPEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 37: EUROPEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 38: MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 39: MIDDLE EASTERN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 40: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROWTH'S GDP FORECAST FOR SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES, 2014-2016
    • TABLE 41: CHINESE SEAWATER DESALINATION CAPACITY GOALS BY REGION, 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 42: CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS IN CHINA
    • TABLE 43: ASIAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 44: ASIAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 45: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 46: LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 47: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 48: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 49: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 50: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • TABLE 51: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 52: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 53: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIAL MEMBRANES
    • TABLE 54: RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER ($/M3)
    • TABLE 55: DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS AND RECOMMENDED R&D
    • TABLE 56: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY STATE
    • TABLE 57: DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY NATIONAL ORGANIZATION
    • TABLE 58: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION R&D PRIORITY THEMES
    • TABLE 59: GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER R&D ROADMAP, 2013-2021
    • TABLE 61: PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)
    • TABLE 62: PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER*, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %)
    • TABLE 63: GLOSSARY
    • TABLE 64: ACRONYMS
    • TABLE 65: PATENT SURVEY, 2013
    • TABLE 66: PATENT SURVEY, 2014
    • TABLE 67: PATENT SURVEY, 2015

LIST OF FIGURES

  • SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 1: GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%)
    • FIGURE 2: GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, 2005-2050 (MILLIONS, BILLION M3/YEAR)
    • FIGURE 3: WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND MUNICIPAL NEEDS BY REGION AND SECTOR, 2015 (%)
    • FIGURE 4: GLOBAL GAP BETWEEN EXISTING WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, 2030 (BILLION M3)
    • FIGURE 5: WATER STRESS AREAS BY COUNTRY, 2040 (%)
    • FIGURE 6: GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
    • FIGURE 7: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014 (%)
    • FIGURE 8: TYPES OF ESTABLISHED DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
    • FIGURE 9: GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES ($/M3)
    • FIGURE 10: HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY, ($ MILLIONS, M3/D)
    • FIGURE 11: HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 12: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 13: O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 14: EFFECT OF ENERGY PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D RO DESALINATION PLANT ($/MMBTU, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 15: EFFECT OF OIL PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANT ($/BARREL OIL, $/M3)
    • FIGURE 16: GLOBAL MULTISTAGE FLASH DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012 ($/M3)
    • FIGURE 17: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR BRACKISH AND SEAWATER RO DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
    • FIGURE 18: COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR MED AND MSF THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS (%)
    • FIGURE 19: GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%)
    • FIGURE 20: WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (%)
    • FIGURE 21: U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%)
    • FIGURE 22: U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%)
    • FIGURE 23: POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS
    • FIGURE 24: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • FIGURE 25: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D)
    • FIGURE 26: GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 27: GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 28: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR COMPATIBLE DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
    • FIGURE 29: AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION PLANT UNIT COST OF CAPACITY ($/M3/D)
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