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市場調査レポート

自動車排ガス規制:技術と動向

Automotive emissions control: technologies and trends

発行 Autelligence 商品コード 329744
出版日 ページ情報 英文 204 Pages
納期: 即日から翌営業日
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自動車排ガス規制:技術と動向 Automotive emissions control: technologies and trends
出版日: 2015年04月30日 ページ情報: 英文 204 Pages
概要

当レポートでは、自動車の排ガス規制と現在の排ガスに関連した取り組みを促進する要因、ならびに新技術・既存技術の実行を妨げる要因について調査しており、市場の予測、技術開発動向、および主要企業のプロファイルなどをまとめ、お届けいたします。

第1章 イントロダクション

第2章 市場成長促進因子

  • 健康問題
    • ディーゼル排気
    • ガソリン廃棄
    • 排ガス基準
    • 温室効果ガス
  • 排ガス規制の基準
    • 現在までの進展
    • 米国
    • カリフォルニア州
    • EU
    • 日本
    • 韓国
    • 中国
    • その他の諸国
  • 燃費およびCO2排ガス規制
    • 米国
    • 欧州
    • 日本
    • 中国
    • 韓国
    • その他の諸国
  • エネルギー安全保障
  • 奨励金・税金
    • 北米
    • 欧州
    • 日本
    • 中国
    • 韓国
    • 消費者の嗜好

第3章 市場課題

  • 差を縮める
    • RDE (Real Driving Emissions:実走行条件時の排出ガス計測)
    • 世界的な試験方法の一致
  • 燃料品質
    • 硫黄
    • 芳香族・ベンゼン
    • オレフィン
    • 酸素
    • 蒸気圧
  • コスト
    • 排ガス削減技術
    • 燃料品質
    • 貴金属
    • SCR向け尿素

第4章 市場ダイナミクス・予測

  • 世界の自動車生産
  • 小型乗用車エンジンの燃料タイプ
  • ターボチャージャー
  • ストップスタート技術
  • 触媒・白金族金属
  • 電動付属品

第5章 技術開発

  • 排気後処理
  • 内燃エンジン効率
  • ドライブトレイン技術
  • 軽量化
  • 抵抗低減・摩擦減少

第6章 企業プロファイル

  • Arcelor Mittal
  • BASF
  • Borgwarner
  • Bosch
  • Continental
  • Corning
  • Delphi
  • Denso
  • Eaton
  • Eberspacher
  • Faurecia
  • Honeywell
  • IAV
  • Johnson Matthey
  • Schaeffler
  • Tenneco
  • Umicore
  • Valeo
  • Visteon
  • ZF Friedrichshafen

図表

目次

Although huge progress has been achieved in the reduction of toxic, 'criterion' emissions from automotive exhausts during the last few decades, regulations continue to be drafted that not only set ever tighter standards, but also include more substances. Emissions from transportation have been associated with a range of health problems that affect a substantial number of people as well as with environmental concerns including the formation of acid rain and ecosystem damage.

Alongside this, the automotive industry is being challenged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, which is directly related to fossil fuel consumption. However, criterion emissions including nitrogen oxides, methane, ozone and even particle matter are also implicated in climate change. Furthermore, because of concerns regarding the environmental and economic consequences that climate change could bring, the US Clean Air Act states that greenhouse gases "endanger public health and public welfare".

As a result, the two categories of automotive emissions - criterion and greenhouse gas - which were previously regarded as two separate fields of concern with two almost completely separate arsenals of technology now overlap to the degree that they comprise one broad technology sector. Furthermore, the laboratory test procedures used to measure criterion emissions and fuel economy are now under the spotlight because they differ in different jurisdictions and because of growing concern that they do not reflect emissions generated in 'real world' driving. Consequently, efforts are now underway to develop a set of harmonised, global test procedures that better approximate actual on-road use.

Automotive emissions control: technologies and trends examines the regulatory and other drivers of the current efforts to reduce automotive emissions as well as the barriers that exist to the implementation of new and existing technologies. As ever, cost is a central issue with automotive manufacturers concerned about the market effects of passing on costs to consumers while government agencies tend to emphasise the fuel cost savings that consumers will enjoy through using a more fuel-efficient vehicle.

The current and forthcoming regulations in all major jurisdictions are presented in detail and the progress that is being made towards harmonisation and developing 'real driving' test protocols are outlined. The market dynamics of the sector are discussed along with forecasting data presented by several analysts and stakeholders in the sector. Then, drawing on a substantial resource of investigative research and papers from recent conferences on automotive emissions reduction, attention is turned to the many technologies that are employed and those that are being developed to better control and reduce automotive emissions. These fall under the main section headings of:

  • Exhaust after-treatment
  • Powertrain efficiency
  • Weight reduction
  • Drag and friction reduction
  • Other fuel efficiency technologies
  • Reducing internal combustion engine use
  • Alternative fuels

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Market drivers

  • Health concerns
    • Diesel exhaust
    • Gasoline exhaust
    • Criterion emissions
    • Greenhouse gases
  • Criterion emissions regulations
    • Progress to date
    • United States of America
    • California
    • European Union
    • Japan
    • South Korea
    • China
    • Other countries
  • Fuel economy and CO2 emissions regulations
    • United States of America
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • China
    • South Korea
    • Other countries
  • Energy security
  • Incentives and taxes
    • North America
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • China
    • South Korea
    • Consumer preferences

Chapter 3: Market challenges

  • Closing the gaps
    • Real driving emissions
    • Harmonisation of global test procedures
  • Fuel Quality
    • Sulphur
    • Aromatics and benzene
    • Olefins
    • Oxygenates
    • Vapour Pressure
  • Cost
    • Emissions reduction technology
    • Fuel quality
    • Precious metals
    • Urea for SCR

Chapter 4: Market dynamics and forecasts

  • Global vehicle production
  • Light vehicle engine fuel type
  • Turbochargers
  • Stop-start technology
  • Catalysts and platinum group metals
  • Electrically-powered ancillaries

Chapter 5: Technology developments

  • Exhaust after-treatment
    • Catalytic converters
    • Selective catalytic reduction
    • NOx adsorber catalyst
    • Diesel particulate filters
    • Gasoline particulate filter
    • Integrated systems for diesels
    • Exhaust gas recirculation
    • Evaporative emissions
  • Internal combustion engine efficiency
    • Supercharging
    • Variable valve operation
    • Direct fuel injection
    • Cylinder deactivation
    • Combustion cycle technology
    • Efficient ancillaries
    • Thermal management
  • Drivetrain technologies
    • Transmissions
    • Stop-start
    • Hybrid powertrains
  • Weight reduction
    • Steel
    • Aluminium
    • Aluminium versus AHSS
    • Magnesium
    • Plastics
    • Carbon fibre
    • Compacted graphite iron
    • Hybrid construction
  • Drag and friction reduction
    • Aerodynamics
    • Tyres
    • Powertrain friction reduction
    • Other technologies
    • Exhaust heat
    • Lighting
    • Driver aids
    • Alternative fuels
    • Natural gas
    • Liquefied petroleum gas
    • Ethanol
    • Biodiesel
    • Gas-to-liquids diesel
    • Coal-to-liquids
    • Emissions testing technology

Chapter 6: Profiles

  • Arcelor Mittal
  • BASF
  • Borgwarner
  • Bosch
  • Continental
  • Corning
  • Delphi
  • Denso
  • Eaton
  • Eberspacher
  • Faurecia
  • Honeywell
  • IAV
  • Johnson Matthey
  • Schaeffler
  • Tenneco
  • Umicore
  • Valeo
  • Visteon
  • ZF Friedrichshafen

Table of tables

  • Table 1: US Tier 2 emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, to five years/50,000 miles
  • Table 2: US Tier 3 emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, to 150,000 miles/15 years
  • Table 3: US Tier 2 emissions standards for light-duty vehicles for the full useful life of the vehicle (120,000 miles)
  • Table 4: Tier 2 SFTP emission limits (g/mile)
  • Table 5: California LEV II emissions standards for new light-duty vehicles for five years/50,000 miles (g/mile)
  • Table 6: California LEV II emissions standards for 'full useful life' up to 120,000 miles (g/mile) for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 7: California LEV III emissions standards for 'full useful life' up to 150,000 miles for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 8: EU emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 9: EU emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 10: Japan emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 11: Japan emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 12: South Korea emissions limits for mini and small vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 13: China emission standards for vehicles with positive ignition engines
  • Table 14: China emission standards for vehicles with compression ignition engines
  • Table 15: China implementation dates of emission standards for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 16: Euro 1 to 4 emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 17: Euro 1 to 4 emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 18: US federal fleet-average mpg standards by model year to 2016

Table of figures

  • Figure 1: Shanghai air pollution with record PM level, December 2013
  • Figure 2: Typical composition of diesel particulate matter
  • Figure 3: Typical diesel particle size distribution
  • Figure 4: CO emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 5: CO emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 6: HC+NOx emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 7: HC+NOx emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 8: NOx emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 9: NOx emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 10: PM emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 11: The FTP-75 test cycle
  • Figure 12: The US06 test cycle
  • Figure 13: The SC03 test cycle
  • Figure 14: The California Unified Cycle
  • Figure 15: The ECE15 Driving Cycle
  • Figure 16: The EUDC Driving Cycle
  • Figure 17: The JC08 test cycle
  • Figure 18: Worldwide schedule for implementing light vehicle emissions regulations
  • Figure 19: Changing CO2 emissions standards worldwide to 2025
  • Figure 20: US new passenger car fuel economy, MY2008 to MY2014
  • Figure 21: Discrepancy between real-world CO2 emissions and manufacturer's claims
  • Figure 22: Discrepancy between regulated and real driving NOx emission from diesel cars
  • Figure 23: Stakeholder survey regarding RDE challenges
  • Figure 24: Stakeholder survey regarding most urgent need for PEMS
  • Figure 25: The WLTP driving cycle
  • Figure 26: Comparison of CO2 values measured by the NEDC and WLTP
  • Figure 27: Progressive reductions in sulphur, benzene, aromatics and olefins in gasoline
  • Figure 28: Costs of catalytic converters to meet US and EU regulations
  • Figure 29: DPF cost by engine size
  • Figure 30: NAC cost by engine size
  • Figure 31: SCR system cost by engine size
  • Figure 32: Estimated costs of emission control technologies for a European four-cylinder diesel
  • Figure 33: CO2 reduction and increased powertrain cost for C/D-segment vehicles
  • Figure 34: Platinum supply by region
  • Figure 35: Platinum price (US$) per ounce, 1992 to 2014
  • Figure 36: Palladium price (US$) per ounce, 1992 to 2014
  • Figure 37: Rhodium price (US$) per ounce, 1992 to 2014
  • Figure 38: Palladium and rhodium catalytic converter content costs, 1995 to 2010
  • Figure 39: Global vehicle production forecast, 2005 - 2015
  • Figure 40: Engine mix in Europe, North America and China in 2019
  • Figure 41: Engine mix in the US, 2010 - 2020
  • Figure 42: Global light vehicle turbocharger market, 2014 to 2019
  • Figure 43: Global automotive catalyst demand, 2002 - 2011
  • Figure 44: The forecast shift towards electrically-powered ancillaries
  • Figure 45: Catalytic converter
  • Figure 46: Stability of surface area by vanadia content and aging
  • Figure 47: Low temperature activity by vanadia content and aging
  • Figure 48: N2O emissions by vanadia content and aging
  • Figure 49: Volatile vanadia by content and temperature
  • Figure 50: Twist urea mixer
  • Figure 51: Reductant uniformity with different spray nozzles, low load & medium load
  • Figure 52: Amminex ASDS versus AdBlue SCR on a city bus
  • Figure 53: Volkswagen retrofit DPF for Golf V
  • Figure 54: PM and PN emissions by gasoline engine technology
  • Figure 55: PH emissions comparison: PFI, GDI & GDI+GPF over the US FTP-75 test cycle
  • Figure 56: GPF efficiency by particle size and test phase over the FTP test cycle
  • Figure 57: Impact of washcoat loading on back pressure with a TWC and TWFTM
  • Figure 58: Cumulative PN emissions across the NEDC
  • Figure 59: Emissions measured using both Johnson Matthey TWFTM versions
  • Figure 60: PN emissions with baseline TWC and TWC+GPF/TWC over the NEDC
  • Figure 61: PN emissions with baseline TWC, bare GPF and coated GPF
  • Figure 62: PN emissions with metallic foam and metallic fibre substrates over the NEDC
  • Figure 63: Exhaust system combinations
  • Figure 64: Component layout with an integrated SCR-DPF
  • Figure 65: Integrated systems for Euro 6 and US Tier 2 Bin 5 light diesels
  • Figure 66: Bosch concept integrated systems for SULEV light diesels
  • Figure 67: Example temperature profile of Concept 1 over the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 68: Final emissions results for Concept 1 of the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 69: Example temperature profile of Concept 2 over the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 70: Concept 2 NOx emissions over the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 71: Final emissions results for Concept 2 of the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 72: NGK DOC+SCR-on-DPF system
  • Figure 73: General Motors 1.0L, three-cylinder Ecotec engine
  • Figure 74: Continental aluminium turbocharger
  • Figure 75: Controlled Power Technologies' electric supercharger
  • Figure 76: Honda i-VTEC system
  • Figure 77: BMW Valvetronic system
  • Figure 78: Fiat MultiAir variable valve actuation system
  • Figure 79: The results of applying calibration measures to a GDI concept
  • Figure 80: Four-cylinder engine with dedicated EGR cylinder
  • Figure 81: Emissions comparison of RCCI with a conventional diesel engine
  • Figure 82: HC emissions from conventional diesel, diesel PCCI and RCCI
  • Figure 83: Federal-Mogul ACIS
  • Figure 84: Continental electro-hydraulic power steering system
  • Figure 85: ZF Servolectric electric power steering system
  • Figure 86: Powertrain technologies and CO2 emissions reduction potential over the NEDC
  • Figure 87: Automatic transmission fuel economy gains since five-speed units
  • Figure 88: Efficiency of automatics (AT), DCTs and CVTs, present and past
  • Figure 89: Continental ISG
  • Figure 90: Volvo flywheel hybrid drivetrain
  • Figure 91: Peugeot air car chassis
  • Figure 92: Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid
  • Figure 93: Weight reduction of Volkswagen 1.4 TSI engine, 2008 - 2012
  • Figure 94: Aluminium Range Rover body
  • Figure 95: Life-cycle GHG emissions for baseline, AHSS (1) and aluminium (2) cases
  • Figure 96: Life cycle CO2 emissions (Kg x 1,000)
  • Figure 97: Thermoplastic polypropylene resin lift-gate on 2014 Nissan Rogue
  • Figure 98: Polycarbonate roof on a Smart ForTwo
  • Figure 99: Friction improvement in gasoline and diesel engines, 1990 to 2013
  • Figure 100: Specific power of gasoline and diesel engines, 1990 to 2013
  • Figure 101: Friction distribution in a 1.8L, turbocharged, spark-ignition engine
  • Figure 102: Total CAE-modelled friction reduction potential
  • Figure 103: Well-to-wheels CO2 emissions by fuel and propulsion type, US light vehicle
  • Figure 104: Carbon emissions relative to conventional gasoline
  • Figure 105: US requirements for biofuels, 2006 - 2022
  • Figure 106: Horiba MEXA 7000 Series 3
  • Figure 107: AVL M.O.V.E. System Control
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