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Profiling the US Petroleum Refining Industry

発行 Aruvian's R'search 商品コード 199911
出版日 ページ情報 英文 328 Pages
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米国石油精製業界のプロファイリング Profiling the US Petroleum Refining Industry
出版日: 2013年07月01日 ページ情報: 英文 328 Pages





  • 業界の概要
  • 歴史的な背景と地政学的な影響
  • 米国石油精製業界に影響を及ぼしている主な出来事
  • 原油価格の上昇
  • 米国石油精製業界が直面している課題


  • 米国経済を牽引する石油精製業界
  • 輸入への過剰な依存
  • 製品の大半は燃料
  • 業界の立地面の制約
  • 稼働率の上昇と精製施設の減少
  • 精製施設の能力を高める高度な技術
  • 長期的には技術重視の傾向



  • 生産工程と製品利用の影響
  • 環境対策の全般的な改善
  • 業界に影響を及ぼしている環境規制の枠組み
  • 大気中に排出される物質の主な原因
    • 設備からの漏洩
    • 加工工程での排気
    • 貯蔵タンクからの排出
    • 排水
  • 米国大気浄化法の多大な影響
  • National Ambient Air Quality Standardsの影響
  • 廃液の規制
  • 石油精製施設のリサイクル工程
  • 環境面のコストと規制改訂の影響
  • 世界的な気候変動の課題への対応と全般的な排出物の削減


  • 業界の概要
    • 原油から製品への転換
    • 各種精製工程
    • 水素管理の改善と全般的な生産の拡大
    • 石油精製の副産物:石油化学原料
  • エネルギー消費の概要
  • 環境に排出される物質の概要


  • 原油と留分の分離
  • 脱塩の重要性
  • 大気蒸留の役割
  • 真空蒸留の役割
  • 新技術の登場
  • 蒸留工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • イントロダクションと概要
  • 触媒分解
  • 触媒水素化分解
  • 熱分解と石炭乾留
  • 遅延石炭乾留
  • 流動コーキング
  • ビスブレーキング
  • 分解および石炭乾留工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • イントロダクションと概要
  • 接触改質時のマルチリアクターベッドの使用
  • 技術面の改善の影響
  • 接触改質工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • イントロダクションと概要
  • 硫酸ベースのアルキル化工程
  • フッ化水素酸ベースのアルキル化工程
  • 新技術の影響
  • アルキル化工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • イントロダクションと概要
  • 新技術の影響
  • 水素化処理工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • イントロダクションと概要
  • 異性化
  • イソブチレンの役割
  • エタノールの役割
  • 高まるエタノール需要への対応
  • 添加および調合工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • イントロダクションと概要
  • 溶媒抽出
  • 溶剤脱ろう
  • 脱歴
  • 水素化分解の役割
  • 新技術の影響
  • 潤滑油製造工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • 硫黄の管理
  • 化学処理
  • 排水処理
  • 加熱装置の役割
  • 付随工程で消費されるエネルギー
  • 環境に排出される物質
  • 廃液の問題


  • 市場の概要
  • 業界の構造
  • 石油精製能力
  • 各種製品
    • ガソリン
    • 留出燃料
    • ジェット燃料
    • 他の精製石油製品
  • 各種市場
  • 輸出入のシナリオ
  • 規制の枠組み
  • 市場の雰囲気
  • 石油精製製品の見通し
  • 市場の予測







Petroleum refining has evolved continuously in response to changing consumer demand for better and different products. The original requirement was to produce kerosene as a cheaper and better source of light than whale oil. The development of the internal combustion engine led to the production of gasoline and diesel fuels. The evolution of the airplane created a need first for high-octane aviation gasoline and then for jet fuel, a sophisticated form of the original product, kerosene. Present-day refineries produce a variety of products including many required as feedstock for the petrochemical industry.

The US refining and marketing industry has been characterized by unusually low product margins, low profitability, selective retrenchment, and substantial restructuring throughout the decade of the 1990's. Costs involved in complying with environmental laws have grown substantially during the period and have also affected the profitability of the domestic industry. Profitability from the refining operations of domestic petroleum companies has varied widely, even before the 1990's. Consequently, refiners' abilities to recoup their investment have been impaired.

Starting in the late 1970's and continuing to the present, the US refining majors have invested heavily in their refineries in order to utilize heavier, more sulfurous crude oils as inputs. Over the same period, the US majors have invested in upgrading their refineries to produce greater proportions of lighter, higher valued products, particularly motor gasoline. The actual returns to these investments depend not only on the levels of input and product prices, but also can be strongly affected by the differences in prices of light and heavy petroleum products and high and low quality crude oils.

Aruvian Research's report - “Profiling the US Petroleum Refining Industry” - analyzes the US petroleum refining industry starting from the basics. The report starts with a descriptive base analysis of the characteristics of the US petroleum refining industry in terms of economic quantity of demand. The drivers of demand and the traditional resources which are used to fulfill this demand are explained along with the emerging challenge of meeting the global climate change as well emerging demand for petroleum in the world. Add to this rising emission problems plaguing the industry. The report further enables the reader to view the US petroleum refining industry matrix in its present platform and also the inherent consumption patterns which are present in the markets.

A look at the refined petroleum products' industry along with a view on the various processes involved during the entire petroleum refining process, such as distillation, alkylation, hydroprocessing, etc., is described in details in the report. Twenty one leading players of the industry are profiled in-depth in the report, along with brief profiles of some US refineries as well.

Table of Contents

A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction to the US Petroleum Refining Industry

  • B.1. Overview of the Industry
  • B.2. Historical Background & Geopolitical Impacts on the Industry
  • B.3. Listing the Major Events Impacting US Petroleum Refining
  • B.4. Rising Prices of Oil
  • B.5. Challenges Facing US Petroleum Refiners

C. Looking at Industry Trends

  • C.1. Petroleum Refining Industry Driving the US Economy
  • C.2. Over-reliance on Imports
  • C.3. Fuel Products Accounting for Majority of Refined Products
  • C.4. Industry's Location Constraints
  • C.5. Increase in Capacity Utilization & Decrease in Number of Utilities
  • C.6. Hi-end Technology Improving Refinery Performance
  • C.7. Focus on Technology in the Long Run

D. Focusing on Energy Consumption of the Petroleum Refining Industry

  • E. Impact of the Industry on the Environment
  • E.1. Impact of the Manufacturing Process & Usage of Refined Petroleum Products
  • E.2. Overall Improvement in Industry's Environmental Performance
  • E.3. Regulatory Environmental Framework Affecting the Industry
  • E.4. A Look at Primary Air Emission Sources
    • E.4.1. Emissions from Equipment Leaks
    • E.4.2. Emissions during Process Vent
    • E.4.3. Emissions from Storage Tank
    • E.4.4. Wastewater Emissions
  • E.5. Significant Impact of the Clean Air Act
  • E.6. Impact of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
  • E.7. Regulating the Industry's Effluents
  • E.8. A Look at the Recycling Process in Refineries
  • E.9. Impact of Environmental Costs & Regulatory Changes
  • E.10. Meeting the Global Climate Change Challenge & Lowering Overall Emissions

F. Analyzing the Integrated Petroleum Refinery

  • F.1. Industry Overview
    • F.1.2. Conversion of Crude Oil in to Practical Products
    • F.1.3. Understanding the Various Refining Processes
    • F.1.4. Improvements in Hydrogen Management & Overall Expansion in Production
    • F.1.5. Secondary Product of Petroleum Refining: Petrochemical Feedstocks
  • F.2. Overview of Energy Consumption
  • F.3. Overview of Environmental Emissions

G. Analyzing the Distillation Process

  • G.1. Separating the Crude Oil into Boiling Fractions
  • G.2. Importance of Desalting
  • G.3. Role of Atmospheric Distillation
  • G.4. Role of Vacuum Distillation
  • G.5. Emergence of New Technologies in the Process
  • G.6. Energy Consumed during Distillation
  • G.7. Environmental Emissions during Distillation
  • G.8. Issue with Effluents
  • G.9. Conclusion

H. Analyzing the Cracking & Coking Processes

  • H.1. Process Introduction & Overview
  • H.2. Understanding Catalytic Cracking
  • H.3. Understanding Catalytic Hydrocracking
  • H.4. Understanding Thermal Cracking or Coking
  • H.5. Delayed Coking
  • H.6. Fluid Coking
  • H.7. Visbreaking
  • H.8. Energy Consumed during Cracking & Coking
  • H.9. Environmental Emissions during Cracking & Coking
  • H.10. Issue with Effluents
  • H.11. Conclusion

I. Analyzing Catalytic Reforming

  • I.1. Process Introduction & Overview
  • I.2. Usage of Multiple Reactor Beds by Catalytic Reformers
  • I.3. Impact of Improvements in Technology
  • I.4. Energy Consumed during Catalytic Reforming
  • I.5. Environmental Emissions during Catalytic Reforming
  • I.6. Issue with Effluents
  • I.7. Conclusion

J. Analyzing the Process of Alkylation

  • J.1. Process Introduction & Overview
  • J.2. Sulfuric Acid-Based Alkylation Processes
  • J.3. Hydrofluoric Acid-Based Alkylation Process
  • J.4. Impact of New Technologies
  • J.5. Energy Consumed during Alkylation
  • J.6. Environmental Emissions during Alkylation
  • J.7. Issue with Effluents
  • J.8. Conclusion

K. Analyzing the Process of Hydroprocessing

  • K.1. Process Introduction & Overview
  • K.2. Impact of New Technologies
  • K.3. Energy Consumed during Hydroprocessing
  • K.4. Environmental Emissions during Hydroprocessing
  • K.5. Issue with Effluents
  • K.6. Conclusion

L. Analyzing Additives & Blending Components used in the Industry

  • L.1. Process Introduction & Overview
  • L.2. Understanding Isomerization
  • L.3. Role of Isobutylene
  • L.4. Role of Ethanol
  • L.5. Meeting the Rising Demand for Ethanol
  • L.6. Energy Consumed by Additives & Blending
  • L.7. Environmental Emissions by Additives & Blending
  • L.8. Issue with Effluents
  • L.9. Conclusion

M. Analyzing the Process of Lubricating Oil Manufacturing

  • M.1. Process Introduction & Overview
  • M.2. Understanding Solvent Extraction
  • M.3. Understanding Solvent Dewaxing
  • M.4. Understanding Deasphalting
  • M.5. Role of Hydrocracking
  • M.6. Impact of New Technologies
  • M.7. Energy Consumed from Lubricating Oil Manufacturing
  • M.8. Environmental Emissions from Lubricating Oil Manufacturing
  • M.9. Issue with Effluents
  • M.10. Conclusion

N. Analyzing the Auxiliary Processes Involved

  • N.1. Sulfur Management
    • N.1.1. Overview
    • N.1.2. Sour Water Strippers
    • N.1.3. Sulfur Removal
    • N.1.4. Wellman-Lord Oxidation Process
  • N.2. Chemical Treatments
  • N.3. Treating Waste Water
  • N.4. Role of Process Heaters
  • N.5. Energy Consumed by Auxiliary Processes
  • N.6. Environmental Emissions from Auxiliary Processes
  • N.7. Issue with Effluents
  • N.8. Conclusion

O. Analyzing Refined Petroleum Products Sector in US

  • O.1. Sector Overview
  • O.2. Industry Structure
  • O.3. Petroleum Refining Capacity
  • O.4. Product Subdivision
    • O.4.1. Gasoline
    • O.4.2. Distillate Fuel
    • O.4.3. Jet Fuel
    • O.4.4. Other Refined Petroleum Products
  • O.5. Market Subdivisions
    • O.5.1. Industrial Sector
    • O.5.2. Electric Power Sector
    • O.5.3. Transportation Sector
    • O.5.4. Residential & Commercial Sector
  • O.6. Import/Export Scenario
  • O.7. Regulatory Framework
  • O.8. Sector Atmosphere
  • O.9. Forecast for Refined Petroleum Products
  • O.10. Market Forecast

P. Brief Profiles of Some US Refineries

  • P.1. Baton Rouge Refinery
  • P.2. Baytown Refinery
  • P.3. Bayway Refinery
  • P.4. Billings Refinery
  • P.5. Catlettsburg Refinery
  • P.6. Cherry Point Refinery
  • P.7. Delaware City Refinery
  • P.8. HDG International Group Refinery
  • P.9. Perth Amboy Refinery
  • P.10. Pine Bend Refinery
  • P.11. Port Arthur Refinery
  • P.12. Port Reading Refinery
  • P.13. Rodeo San Francisco Refinery
  • P.14. Tacoma Refinery
  • P.15. Texas City Refinery
  • P.16. Wamsutta Oil Refinery
  • P.17. Wood River Refinery

Q. Leading Industry Players

  • Q.1. BP Plc
  • Q.2. Calumet Lubricants
  • Q.3. Chevron Corporation
  • Q.4. Citgo Petroleum Corporation
  • Q.5. ConocoPhillips Company
  • Q.6. Ergon Inc
  • Q.7. ExxonMobil
  • Q.8. Frontier Oil
  • Q.9. Hess Corporation
  • Q.10. Hunt Refining Company
  • Q.11. Husky Energy
  • Q.12. Marathon Petroleum Company LLC
  • Q.13. Motiva Enterprises
  • Q.14. Murphy Oil Corporation
  • Q.15. Paramount Petroleum
  • Q.16. Shell Oil Company
  • Q.17. Sinclair Oil Corporation
  • Q.18. Suncor Energy
  • Q.19. Sunoco Inc
  • Q.20. Tesoro Corporation
  • Q.21. Valero Energy Corporation

R. Appendix

S. Glossary of Terms

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